Philip P. (Philip Pearsall) Carpenter.

The mollusks of western North America online

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130. Columbella venusta, Rve. [Mazatlan, E. Philippi.'] = C. taniata, Phil, [in
Zeit. f. Mai. 1846], not Ad. ajpd Rve., [Voy. Samar. 1850 ; therefore Phil,
has precedence. ?= Anachis Gaskoinei, Maz. Cat. no. 652. The Sanaa-
rang shell is probably a Nitidella.^

Columbella sulcosa^ Sby. " Annaa and Ld. Hood's Islands *. Cuming.
Columbella Gouldii, Agass., MS. in Mus. Cum., Nov. 1858. [_ = Amycla Goul-
diana, Agass., Atlantic ; non Nitidella Gouldii, Cpr.]

142. Columbella uncinata, Sby. Is. Muerte, Bay Guayaquil. [Acapulco, Jewett.~\

105. Columbella Calif ornica, Rve. April 1859. California. [No authority.
Like Anachis lirataJ]

176. Columbella rorida, Rve. Lord Hood's Island*, Cuming. [Transparent,
glossy, with necklace of opake white dots.]

Genus Meta [ = Conella, Swains, eliminated by Rve. from Columbella; but Anachis,
Strombina, Ami/da (pars), and Nitidella, which do not even belong to
the same family, if the opercula are to be trusted, are left in the old place.
Of the six species, the author only knew the locality for one], M. Lupontice,
Kien. Ichaboe, South Africa; [but that of] M. ovuloides, " C. B. Ad.,
MS." [is shown by his published works to be Jamaica; and the following
are from the West Coast].

3. Meta ccdonulli, Rve. [La Paz, Mus. Smiths. ; C. S. Lucas, Xantus ; Panama,


4. Meta coniformis, Sby. [? Panama, Jeicett.~\

24. Zidphinus luridus, Nutt., MS. in Mus. Cum. California. [Is not known from

tho American coast; comp. Sandwich Islands.]

25. Ziziphinus eximius, Rve., P. Z. S. 1842. Panama, sandy mud, 10 fms.

[=T.versicolor, Mke., 1850, = Z. Calif ornicus, A. Ad., 1851. Scarcely
differs from " Javanicus, Lam.," in Mus. Cum. The form was dredged by
Mr. A. Adam? in the eastern seas.]

Cl. Zhiphimis Antonii, Koch, in Phil. Abbild. pi. 1. f. 4. Australia. [Scarcely
differs from the shouldered var. of Calliostoma lima (Phil.) 0. B. Ad!,
which is called eximiu , Rve., in Brit. Mus. Col.]

23. Trochus Japonicus, Dkr., [represents Pomaulax undostts on the east side].

24. Trochus digitatus, Desh. Distinct from unguis, with base like yibbei osus.

Central America. [Mr. Reeve's distinct shell is perhaps not that of D^sh. ,
and not from the West Coast.]

26. Trochus tmdosus, Wood. = T. gigas, Anton. California f.

* Vide Report, 1856, p. 168, note .

t Mr. "Reeve states that, although this* species is most \\Vpgillerosus, "Messrs. Grar and
A.dams contrive to place them in dilicreut genera." \\ i* still uiore rema-rkable that wii le


5C8 REPORT 18C3.

39. Irochvs auripiymentum, Jonas. Panama. [Probably not from W. America.]
17. Phasianella pe'rforata, Phil. Mazatlaii, Panama+7%. compta, Old.* Rather
out of place f > has neither form nor texture of Phasianella. [The aberrant
form is due to the figured specimen being quite young; the adults in
Brit. Mus. Col. prove the texture, colouring, and operc. to be normal.]
Genus Simpulopsis. This group, intermediate between Vitrina and Succinea, ia
stated to be peculiar to Brazil and Mexico, where Vitrina is not known.

In the Monograph of Terebratulidce, which is prepared with unusual care,
and the general introduction to which is well worth attentive perusal by all
students, occur the following species which bear upon the West Coast fauna
or synonymy :

2. Terebratula (Waldheimia) dilatata, Lam., = 71 Gaudichaudi, Blainv. "Str.
Magellan," teste Gray, in Brit. Mus. Cat., without authority. [The E. E.
specimens varied considerably in outline ; and according to Darwin, and
what we know of the variations of fossil species, it is quite possible to
believe that this and the next species had a common origin. The great
development of this most interesting form, in the cold regions of South
America is extraordinary.]

i 3. Terebratula ( Waldheimia) ytobosa (Val.), Lam., from type. = T. Calif ornica,
Koch. "California, Coquimbo. Californian form well known; small
specimen in Mus. Taylor, marked <de Coquimbo.'" [There appears no
authority for the general belief that this fine species is Californian. It was
taken in abundance by the naturalists of the U. S. E. E. at Orange Bay,
Magellan. The Californian shell, which is probably the original Cali-
fornica, Koch, (not of authors) is a distinct species/teste Eve. from Dr.
Cooper's specimens.]

7. Terebratula (Terebratulina) radiata, Eve., Mus. Cum. ? Straits of Corea,
Belcher. [Very like the adult of T. caurina, Gld.]

11. Terebratula uva, Brod. Bay of Tehuantepec, Guatemala; 10-12 fms. sandy
mud, on dead bivalve, Capt. Dare. Mus. Cum. and De Burgh. [The
analogue of T. vitrea, Med.]

16. Terebratula (Terebratulina) Japonica, Shy., = T. angttsta, Ad. and Eve. Corea,
Japan. "Eepresents T. caput-serpentis, and probably the same."

23. Terebratula physema, Val., MS. (unique), Coquimbo. Gaudichaud, 1833.

May be a colossal, broadly inflated var. of c/lobosa.

G. Orbicula Cumingii, Brod. [Besides information in Eep. pp. 183, 244, is given]
Is. Cana, Guatemala ; sometimes 6-18 fms., Cumin f/. 0. sir it/at a, Brod ,
is a less-worn state of this species. [The type-specimens of l)iscina stri-
gata in Brit. Mus., on Pecten ventricosus, appear very distinct, and are
unusually shelly for the genus.]

excluding Ziziphinus (= Calliostoma), Mr. Reeve " contrives to place " in Trochns animals
shown bv the opercula to belong to different subfamilies, as though we knew no more titan
in Lamarck's days ; his motley group containing Imperator ( = Stella, H. and A. Ad.)-f-
Lithopoma -f- Guildfordia-}- Chrysostoma -f- Bolma -f- Modelia -\- Polydonta -\- Tectus-\-
Pomaulax-\-A.stralium-^-Pachypo'ma-\- Uvanilla. Also in a family the genera and species
of which are mainly recognized by the base and mouth, most of the shells are only figured
on the back. Very often the characters of the aperture are not even stated. Remarkable
liberties are, moreover, sometimes taken with geographical facts, to the great astonishment
of Americans, who expect even their schoolboys to avoid such statements as at sp. 57, Tr.
diminutives, Rve., " Oahu Islands ; " and at sp. 1, Lingula ovalis, Rve., " from W. II.
Pease, Esq., residing at Honolulu, one of the Sandwich Islands."

* P. compta is a distinct Californian species ; its Pvarieties pass into puUa. If Mr.
Keeve can be followed in uniting topulla, pulchella, Reel. \^affin\s-\-tessellaia-\-pulclieUa
-\-concinna, C. B. Ad. ; + tenuis, Phil. -,+ inter media, Scacchi -,-+-Capensis, Dkr. ;+elon-
gata, Krauss, Gould's species should join this goodly company, rather than perforata.
The same standard of union followed among the large shells would greatly lessen the size
of this costly work.

f So is fhasianella rulra, Pease MS., sp. 18, which belongs to Alcyra, A. Ad. j allied
to tiiw/ielus,



authority, must, I think, be a mistake." [The genus has not been found
on the CaHfornian coast by any American collector.]

8 Venus* grata, Shy., + tricolor, Sby. Gulf of Mexico, Mus. Cum. [= Tapes
grata. Say, Panama. The locality-labels have probably been misplaced.
These specimens are undoubtedly from the West Coast, nor has any
authority appeared for the species in the Atlantic. The Gulf of Mexican
" analogue " is T. granulata. The forms are intermediate between Chione
and Tapes.']

9. Venus multicostata, Sby. Bay of Panama, in coarse sand at low water, Cuming.
" Probably = V.Listeri, var., with ribs more tumidly thickened androunded."
[The West Coast shells are distinguished by the very slight crenulation
of the ribs at the sides.]

19. Venus asperrima, Sby. Guacomayo, Centr. Am., sandy mud, 13 fms., Coming.
"A form of pectorina ; shell of lighter substance, broader and more de-
pressed ; sculpture more elevately and definitely latticed." [This is the
shell named by Mr. Ciiming V. cardioides, Lam., and should take that
name, as prior to Sby.'s, if really distinct from pectorina. Also from
Panama. Mus. Smiths.]

22. Venus discors, Sby., jun. St. Elena and Guacomayo, Centr. Am., sandy mud,
6-9 fms., Owning. u Concentric decussating ridges cease abruptly at the
posterior third." [Character very variable, even in the type-specimens j
= T. grata, Say, var.]

25. Venus pectorina, Lam., p. 344,4- V. cardioides, Lam. Centr. Am., Mus. Cum.

[Probably Atlantic ; much heavier and stumpy ; sculpture coarser ; teeth
more like casina, whereas cardioides, no. 19, has a long anterior tooth
like sugillata f.]

26. Venus cingulata, Lam.,=/>M^'mna, Brod. W. Columbia, Cuming. [= V.

Pinacatcnsis, Sloat, MS. in Mus. Smiths. Guaymas. The peculiar
smoothing-off of the central sculpture in the adult may be varietal. It
is improbable that Lam. was acquainted with the species.]

83. Venus cremdata, Chem.,=crenata, Grnel. W. I. = V. eximia, Phil., 4- V. cre-
nifera, Sby., 4- V. Portesiana, D'Orb. [Not to be confounded with the
V. crenifera, Maz. Cat. : has a small Cyprinoid lateral tooth, but no
radiating ribs near hmule, nor long anterior tooth t.]

35. Venus Calif ornicmis, Brod.,= V. leucodon, Sby. Guaymas, Gulf Cal., sandy
mud, low water, [teste] Cuming. Mus. Cum. [= V. crassa, Sloat, MS. in
Mus. Smiths. Not V. Califormana, Conr.,= V. simillima, Sby. This
species, with V. neglect a, compta, &c., having the mantle-bend nearly
obsolete, approach Anomalocardia subimbricata, and with that species
form a natural group, differing from the typical Venus as Lioconcha does
from Callista:= V. succincta, Val.]

41. Venus Kennerkyi, Cpr., MS. J in Mus. Cum. Hob. ? [Puget Sound,

43. Venus sugillata, Rve. California, Mus, Cum. Characterized by the shining
purple umbos, finely latticed sculpture, dark-stained lunule and liga-
mentary area. [ = " V. crenifera, Sby., teste Rve.," Maz. Cat. no. 105,
in all essential characteis. Differs in the long anterior tooth being still

* Through the kindness of Mr. Reeve, with a view to the completion of this Eeport,
I was enabled to compare the figured specimens in this genus with the text, and with
the shells of the Smithsonian collection, before they were distributed. The bracketed notes
in the text are based on this examination. They are given with unusual detail, because
of the unique opportunity of throwing some light on a confessedly difficult family.

t The characters of the teetli and pallial line frequently afford satisfactory diagnostic
marks between critical species, which are often orerlooked by monographers.

$ The descriptions of Dr. Kennerley's shells had long been written, and would have
been published but for the American war. The localities of all the West Coast shells sent
from the Smiths. CoL to Mr. Cuming were dulj marked in the accompanying catalogues,


G70 REPORT 1863.

longer, and in the purple colour. This, however, in the figured speci-
men, has been brought-out by the free use of acid, and the markings have
been considerably obliterated by the " beautifying " process.]
44, Venus similUma, Sby. San Diego, CaL "Resembles V. compta in detail of
sculpture " [but perfectly distinct, belonging to the amutlnma group.
It shows the evil of the very brief diagnoses of the earlier conchologists
that so discriminating an author as Mr. Conrad should have taken this
shell for the V. CaUforniensii, Brod. ; and, quoting it (lapsu) as V. Cali-

forniana, redescribed the true V. Californiensis as V. Nuttallii. It is

'known by the great closeness of the fine sharp ribs.]

46. Venus crenulata, no. 33, very distinct var. Gulf Cal. ; more globose, interior

purple rose. [This was sent as " Cape St. Lucas, Xantus" It appears
truly distinct from the "W. I. crenulata, and to be the normal form
of which pulicaria, no. 26, is an extreme var. Inside, and outside in
the adolescent state, they agree exactly ; differing outside, in the adult,
in snioothed-ofr'ribs and more distinct V -markings. Mr. Reeve, however,
still thinks it more like crenifera. It may stand as " ? var. Klacina"~\

47. Venus ffibbosula, Desh., MS. in Mus. Cum. Hob. ? [Guaymas : = V. Cortezi,

Sloat. This is the more rounded and porcellanous form of V.Jktctifraga,
= V. Nwttalli of Brit. Assoc. Report, and Nuttallian paper in P. Z. S.
1856, p. 21 ; but not the true V. Nwttalli, Conr., v. infra, no. 49. Interior
margin very finely erenated on both sides of the hinge.]

43. Venus compta, Brod. Bay of Sechura, Peru, coarse sand and mud, 7 fms.,
C timing. [This rare species seems to represent V. Californiensis in the
South American fauna. It is well distinguished by its shouldered form,
produced ventrally, and by the Circoid pallia! line, far removed from the-
margin. Guacomayo, Mus. Smiths.]

49. Venus Nifttalli, Conr. * California. [Named from type, teste Conr. ip., v.
antea, p. 520. This is the dull northern form of V. sitccincta, a.* f ffncti-
frayu is of yibbosttla, the species appearing nearly in the same parallels in
the Gulf and on the Pacific coast, but not found in the Liverpool Reigeu
Co 1 .; nor at Cape St. I.ucas. In all essential characters, Nuttalli( though
pointed) an 1 Cafiforniensis (though rounded) appear the same; but Mr.
Reeve s'ill thinks otherwise. The figured specimen has been altered with
acid. The F. excacata is not noticed by Mr. R.j

51. Venus mundulus, Rve. Hetb. ? [This shell was obtained by Dr. Stimpson
in the N. P. Expl.Exp., and bears the Smiths. Cat. number " 1845. San
Francisco, very common at low water," = Tapes dirersa, Sby. Jan. This
is the highly painted, finely sculptured state of T. stamiwu, Com*, (not
' T. straminea, Conr." Sby.,= T. grata < var.) The abnormally ridged form
is V. ruderata, Desh. Conch. Ic. sp. 130. By its large pallia! siuus and
bifid teeth it is a true Tapes.']

62. Venus intersecta, Sby. Puerto Puero [PPortrerol, Centr. Am., Owning*
[The shell is exactly identical with no. 19, asj.erriinacardioidbs; but the
ngure might mislead, the colour-lines appearing as rib-*.]

64. Venus siibrostrata, Lam.* vi. p. 343, = V. neylecta, [Gray": Sl>v. Unit. MftznUan
and West Indies. " Lam. having cited a figure of th China species, V. La-
marcJiii, the species was lost sight of till Sby. renamed it." [T he La nun ck-
ian species was probably West Indian. V. negtecUi closely resembles
the young of V. Californiensis, but has the ligamental area smooth only
on one valve, instead of both.]

69. Venus Stutchliwui (Gray), Wood, Sindwich Is. Comes very near to the
Californian V. callosa, [Sby., non] Conr., of wh'ch specimens have been
found also at the Sandwich Is. \_V. Stittcltbun/i is the New Zealand
species, which may easily be confounded with the Califomian. Although
both may be obtained at the Sandwich Is., there is no evidence that either

* In critical species, when it is impossible to be positive which of two or more was
intended by an old author, it appears best to retain the name of the first discriminator.
The old name belongs to the general form : the discriminator ought to retain it for ft
part j but if that has not been done, it avoids confusion to drop it.



lives there. The shell here figured is beaked like Nuttatti, no. 49 ; lu-
nule very faint ; concentric ridges very faint, but sharp ; radiating ribs
verv coarse. Inside deeply stained ; margin not ere lated on the sharp
anterior edge, though faintly on the lunule ; hinge-teeth stumpy.]

CO. Venus musearia, Rve. Hob. ? [Has the aspect of a West Coast species,
between cardioides and fine var. of staminea ; sinus large ; teeth strong,
not biiid ; lunule with radiating ribs.]

C8. Venus undtitella, Sby. Gulf Calif. [Not a satisfactory species, the type
havin<r the aspect of a poor specimen altered for cabinet. The " sculpture
much changing in its development towards the margin " is an accident
often seen in the cancellated species. Similar specimens of V. nenlecta,
no. 54, collected at Cape St. Lucas b^y Mr. Xantus, agree with urulatetta
in all respects, except that this is violet within, neylccta being white.
Ligament-area (as in neglecta) smooth in one valve only.]

77. Venus Adamsii, Rve. Japan. [Closely related to Tapes laciniata, San Diego,
in size, aspect, hinge, &c. Differs in mantle-bend being not so long or
pointed, and the radiating sculpture much finer := V. rigida, Gld., MS., in
Stimpson's list; non Gld. in l Otia.']

80. Venus omatissima, Brod. Panama, sandy mud, 10 fms., Cuming. Still unique.
[Like V. ffnidia, jun., but radiating ribs coarser and more distant ; con-
centric frills not palmated ; lunule pale, laminated.]

87. Venus callosa [Sby., non] Conr. Sandwich 4 Is. and Calif. [Vide note to no.
59. This is the V. Nicttattii of the Brit. Assoc. Report. Those who regard
it as distinct from. fluctifraga, of which gibbosula, no. 47, is the extreme
form, may retain the name callosa of Sby., but not of Conr. Conrad's
species = C. nobilis, Rve. ; differing from the true Oa&iste, as Mercenaria
does from Venus, in having the ligament-plate rugose.] = V.fluctifraga,
Sby., teste Rve. in errata.

105. Venus biUneata, Rve. Gulf Calif. Partakes of the characters of compta
and subimbricata: all three may indeed be different states of one and the
same species. [The shell figured at 1056 has all the peculiar features of
compta, which are clearly marked within; only the concentric waves are
closer than usual. The shell figured at 105a appears to be the true wt-
datella, only in fine condition, the type being rubbed. It has exactly the
same internal characters, including colour; only the colour-lines outside
are arranged in rays instead of V s - Mr- Reeve, however, retains his differ-
ent opinion.]

116. Venus Ct/pria, Sby., P. Z. S. 1852. Is. Plata, West Columbia. [From sani3
district, teste Schott in Mus. Smiths.] Has all the appearance of being
an attenuately produced form of the West Indian V. papliia [which is
also from Cape Verd Is., teste Macgillivray in Brit. Mus.].

11. Dione* maculata, List. West Indies ; Brazil; Pacific Ocean. Widely distri-
buted in both hemispheres. [No authority for the Old World ; the Pacific
shells are Callista chioncsa, var.]

15. Dione nobilis, Rve., 1849. Cal. [=C. callosa, Conr., 1837. The original
name, from type, had been communicated to Mr. R., but is not quoted.

20. Dione semilamellosa J [,(j(^\\A.., C.lupanaria, Less. Centr. Am. [ = lupinaria,

Maz. Cat, no. 95. Vide Deless. Rec. Coq. pi. 19. f. 2 : " China Seas," no

21. Dione breviyrinata, Ttve., = brevispina, Sby. [Gulf of ] California. [Scarcely

differs from C. rosea, jun.]

22. Diane multispinosa, Sby. Peru. Concentric ridges thinly laminated ; spinrs

slender and numerous. [An extreme form of the Pacific C. Dione (tes;e

Hani.) ; distinct from semilamellosaJ]
23. Dione Veneris, D'Arg. Conch, pi. 21. f. l,= V. Dione, Ln. West Ind.


* The figured types of this genus had been accidentally mislaid ; and might alter the
judgments given in the text.

t " For obvious reasons, I think it best to abandon the foul name given to this lovely
species by Lesson," Rve. (Vide Maz. Cat. p. 70, note.) ? We old not the same reasons
lead to the alteration of meretrix, impudica, &c.


572 REPORT 18G3.

Centr. Am. [The Pacific shells should rank with species 22, if sup-
posed distinct. The fig. is 24, not 23.]

24. Dione exspinata, Rve. Centr. Am. Distinct, if the others are ; like semila-

mettosa, without spines. [Appears to be C. rosea,jvm. The fig. is 23,
not 24.]

25. I Dione circinata, Born. Mazatlan, Mus. Cum. [without authority.] = F.

28 ; a, b. \ rubra, Gmel.,+ F. Guincensis, Gmel.,-f (7. alternata, Brod. [f. 28 repre-
sents alternatci", the other figures appear to be from West Indian spe-
cimens, though that ancient locality is not mentioned. Several of the
reputed West Coast shells are, however, of the typical form and colour.]

83. Dime unicolor, Sby., = Chione badia, Gray,= Cyth. liffiila, Anton. \V. Columbia.
38. Dione prora, Conr. " Cape St. Lucas, Xantus, California ; Carpenter."

[A very distinct form among the thin inflated species j only yet found at

the Sandwich Is., v. no. 45.]

45. "(Miis. Smithsonian Institute of N. America.) This shell, from Cape St.

Lucas, Xantus, California, proves to be the Dione prora ( Cytherea prora,
Conr.) of our preceding plate." [Mr. Sowerby's figure well represents
the unique specimen from Cape St. Lucas, which was taken alive by Mr.
Xantus. The quotations in Couch. Ic. would lead to the inference that
" Xantus " was regarded as that part of " California " in which Cape St.
Lucas is situated. Both the external and internal characters require
that a separate name be given to the shell, which stands as Callista pol-
licaris, Annals Nat. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 312.]

46. Cytherea consanguinea, C. B. Ad. Mus. Cum. Apparently a small spe-

cimen of a variety of C. Iceta. [Panama. Differs from C. Iceta in inter-
nal characters.]

62. Dione pannosa, Sby., = Cytherea lutea, Koch, + Callista puella, Cpr. Chili,
Peru, Mazatlan. [No authority for Mazatlan. The name pnetta given
to the Cape St. Lucas specimens was intended as varietal ; although
Mr. C uming regards the Peruvian and Peninsular forms as distinct. It
is not known along the Central American coast.]

25. Circe nummulina, Lam. " Central America." [Probably not from the
American seas. Admiral Sir E. Belcher is, however, confident that he
dredged many well-known E. Indian forms in deep water, off San Bias.]

27. Cytherea. In this genus are grouped the Trigonce j besides the typical species,

= Meretrix, Gray.

3. Cytherea crassatelloides, Conr. "Bay of California." [Not known geogra-
phically. The shell is not found in the Gulf, beinf a most characteristic
Californian species. San Francisco, S. Diego, c.J

27. Cytherea radiata, Sby., -f C. gracihor, Sby.,= F. Salangensis, D'0rb.= T. By-
ronensis, Gray. Salango and Xipixapi, 9 fms. sandy mud, Owning.

45. Cytherea nitidula, Lam. Mediterranean. [The figures and descriptions of
Sby. and Rve. well represent specimens from Cape St. Lucas, Xattlus.
Perhaps not identical with Lam.'s species.]

9. Tapes grata, Desh. Philippines. [May stand as T. Deshayesii, if it be con-
ceded that Say's F. grata ranks best with Tapes."]

7. Solarium granulatum, Lam. Mexico.

8. Solarium verrucosum, Phil. W. Indies. ? = S.. gramdatnm, var.

13. Solarium placentula, [Rve. = placentale,'] Hds. Bay Magdalena, 7 fms., BeMier.

19. Solarium quadriceps, Hds. Panama. Y oung state of same type as sp. 7 and 8,
" from same locality (Pan., Mex., W. I.)," but grows much larger. [The
Texan shells in Mus. Smiths, are as large as those from Cape St. Lucas :
the variations on each coast are coordinate.]

63. Kiener. The following species may be added to the list quoted from
" Coquilles Vivantes," in Rep. pp. 293, 294 :

Page. PL Fig.
15. I jY > Conus regius, Chem.,= C. princeps, Ln., W. Mexico.

212f 1 100 11* \ Conus Lar y miert i> Kien - Mexico, [Coast not stated.]



Page. PL Fig.

21o. 98. 2. Conus Philippii, Kien. Mexico. [Coast not seated.]

65. 27. 3. Pleurotoma triticea, Kien. Indian Ocean. [Probably Cithara
stromboides, Val. ; Cape St. Lucas.]

45. - 9. 2. Columbetta suturalis, Gray (Griff, pi. 41. f. 2)=C. costata, Duel.

Mon. pi. 12. f. 1, 2. Pacific, Coasts of Peru \_ = Anachis Jiuc-
tuata, oby.].

46. 16. 4. Columbetta bicolor, Kien. jHii&. ? [=-4. rugosaJ]

64, 65. (German Authors.} Pfeiffer. Everything relating to the land-
shells of North America will be found so thoroughly collated in the works
of Mr. Binney (v. infra), that it is only judged needful to present here the
most important references to the writings of the great authority on the
Pulmonata. The student must necessarily consult the ' Symbolae ad Histo-
riam Heliceorum, Cassel, 1841 ' et seq., which contains the following ori-
ginal authorities :

1846. p. 89. Achatina California, Pfr. Monterey, Cal.

91. Achatina (Glandina) turris, Pfr. Ifab. ? [Genus altered to Oleacina,
Mon. Hel. iv. p. 640. Maz. Cat. 231.]

In the same author's great work, ' Monographia Heliceorum Viventium/
Lipsiae, 1847-8, occur


Vol. I. 1847. 324. Helix Sagraiana, D'Orb. Cuba, California. [Sowerby's
error, copied by succeeding writers. The species is ex-
clusively Cuban.]

338. Helix J/d Us, Gray. Oregon. = H. Nuttattiana, Lea.

339. Helix Califo niensis, Lea. California. + H. Nicldiniana,

Lea. [Quoted as a distinct species in Vol. IV. p. 269.]
(Vol. 3. 229. = //. arboretorwn, Val.)

341. Helix I'ownsendiana, Lea. California.
(Vol. 3. 229. =H. pedestris, Gld.,+nwto, Gld.)

428. Helix Orenonensis, Lea. Oregon.
(Vol. 4. 227. =H. Dupetithouarsii, teste Pfr.)
Vol.11. 1848. 101. Bulimus Mexicanus, Lam. Tabasco, Mexico. = H. (Cochlo-

Online LibraryPhilip P. (Philip Pearsall) CarpenterThe mollusks of western North America → online text (page 9 of 45)