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UC-NRLF



QC
875*

PfAB




C 3






DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

WEATHER BUREAU,
MANILA CENTRAL OBSERVATORY



MIRADOR OBSERVATORY

BAGUIO, BENGUET



A NEW METEOROLOGICAL-GEODYNAMIC STATION
OF THE WEATHER BUREAU



BY



REV. JOSE ALGUE, S. J.

DIRECTOR OF THE WEATHER BUREAU



8%17



MANILA

BUREAU OF PRINTING
1909



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

WEATHER BUREAU
MANILA CENTRAL OBSERVATORY




BAGUIO, BENGUET



A NEW METEOROLOGICAL-GEODYNAMIC STATION
OF THE WEATHER BUREAU



BY



REV. JOSE ALGUE, S. J.

DIRECTOR OF THE WEATHER BUREAU



MANILA
BUREAU OF PRINTING

1909

89617



MIRADOR OBSERVATORY, BAGUIO, BENGUET.

A NKW METEOROLOOICAI^GEODYNAMIC STATION OF
THE WEATHER BUREAU.



I. LOCATION OF THE STATION.

1 Site. Tlie property on which the new station has been established lies within the town
site of Baguio Benguet, close to the western boundary thereof, and comprises an isolated hill, "Mi-
rador" (Mount Lookout), so called on account of the magnificent view which may be enjoyed from
its summit This hill terminates the famous Baguio plateau on the western side. Its top is
level nearly elliptical, surface, the major axis of which lies NW-SE and measures 132 meters (433
feet)', while the minor axis is only 52 meters (171 feet). The mean level of this miniature plateau
is 1,511.75 meters (4,969.9 feet) above mean sea level.

' Plate I gives an idea of Mount Mirador and the building on its summit as seen from the east.
The upper view was taken from a point west of, and below the provincial building ("tribunal"),
the lower with a telephoto lens, near the Constabulary School.

As the mean elevation of the Baguio plateau is 1,444.8 meters (4,740 feet), Mirador rises more
than 66 meters (216.5 feet) above the latter and is very conspicuous from every part of the valley.
The road to San Fernando, Union, passes at a short distance to the north of Mirador, skirting the
limestone hills at an average level of 1,453.9 meters (4,770 feet) above the sea. Toward west a
valley the bottom of whose upper end lies about 152.4 meters (500 feet) below the top of Mount
Mirador stretches from the foot of this hill as far as the coast. Hence the China Sea can be seen
on clear 'days from the top of Mirador to a distance of 119 kilometers (74 miles) ; that is to say, 77
kilometers (58 miles) beyond the mouth of the Aringay Eiver, which is the nearest point of the
coast of Union Province. In this direction the view is limited only by the horizon on the China
Sea- the Gulf of Lingayen, the Bolinao Peninsula, and the China Sea beyond are easily made out,
as are also many miles of the coast lines of Pangasinan to the north and of Union to the south. The
two views on Plate II, taken from different points of the summit of Mount Mirador with lenses
dillVrent focal lengths, show the view as it appears under favorable circumstances.

Toward SSW, at a distance of 7.24 kilometers (4.5 miles), stands out prominently Mount Santo
Tomas with its three peaks, the highest of which reaches 2,232.6 meters (7,425 feet) above sea level
The relative positions of Mounts Santo Tomas and Mirador are seen on Plate III, the upper view of
which is taken through the pine trees on the limestone hills to the NW of Mirador, while the lower
is taken from a point approximately NNE thereof. In both pictures the higest peak of -Santo
is marked by a small cross.

2. Building. In the center of the elliptical plateau forming the .summit of Mount Mn
rises a substantial stone building, 56 meters (183.6 feet) long in the direction of the major axis of
the plateau and 14 meters (35 feet) wide in its central part. The latter is in reality flanke
lour towers, two at each end, but as each pair of these has a continuous roof, they appear as twc
cross-wings of 20 meters (65.6 feet) length and 6 meters (19.7 feet) width, giving to the whol
structure the form of the letter "I." These towers have a height of 10.7 meters (35 feet) fron:
the ground to the ridge of the roof, while the height of the main building, measured in the same
\vav, is 9.1 meters (30 feet).

The construction was begun in November, 1907, and was sufficiently advanced in the beginning
of January, 1909, to allow of the installation of some instruments. At present (September, 1
the work is finished. A wagon road has been constructed from the San Fernando Road to the to]



of the hill. The building serves a twofold purpose : as a sanatorium for the Mission of the Jesuits
in the Philippines, and to house a branch station of Manila Observatory for meteorological and
geodynamic observations. A fair idea of the institution may be gathered from Plates IV to VI.
The approximate position of Mirador Observatory is :

4>=16 25' N; A=120 36' E; h=1511.75 meters.

In the catalogue of all the meteorological stations in the world, published by the Smithsonian
Institution in its "Meteorological Tables" (1907), we find only the following stations with elevations
greater than that of Mirador Observatory:



Country.


Station.


Height.


Latitude.


NORTH AMERICA.

Canada. -


Sulphur Mountain


in.
2,281


O I

51 10 N


United States . _


Pike's Peak . . _


4,308


38 50 N




Santa Fe . .


2, 138


35 41 N




Chevene


1,855


41 8 N




Lander ._.._. ...


1,637


42 50 N




Denver


1,612


39 45 N


Mexico. _.


Zacatecas


2, 443


22 47 N




Tacubaya ...


2, 323


19 24 N




Mexico


2,277


19 26 N




Puebla


2, 169


19 2 N




Guanajato .


2,024


21 ON




San Luis Potosi


1,890


22 5 N




Leon.. _ ._ _ .. . ...


1,798


21 7 N




Saltillo ._ .. .


1, 645


25 25 N


SOUTH AMERICA.

Peru . _ .


El Misti


4,785


16 16 S




Arequipa


2,457


16 22 S


Bolivia


Potosi


4 050


19 38 S


Ecuador. _______


Quito


2,846


14 S


Colombia- . .


Bogota


2,615


4 35 S


EUROPE.

Austria. _ .


Sonnblick


3 106


47 3 N




Obir '( Hannwarte)


2,140


46 30 N




Obir (Berghaus


2,044


46 30 N




Schmittenhohe _ .


1,966


47 20 N


Bavaria _ ...


Wendelstein


1,727


47 42 N


Switzerland


Santis


2 500


47 15 N




St. Bernhard . _ ...


2,478


45 52 N




Pilatus-Kulm


2,067


46 59 N




Sils-Maria _


1,809


46 26 N


France _ .


Mont Blanc (Grand Mulets)


4 359


45 ? N




Mont Blanc (Les Bosses)


3,021


45 ? N


Prussia ... .


Schneekoppe


1,603


50 44 N


Russia .


Gudaur ...


2,204


42 28 N




Kars .


1,747


40 37 N


ASIA.

India .


Leh-Kashmir . . _. .-


3,506


34 17 X




Kodaikanal . .


2,343


10 14 N




Darjeeline _


2,248


27 3 N




Simla . _ . . _


2,202


31 6 N




Murree - _


1,930


33 54 N




Ranikhet


1,850


29 38 N




Wellington. _ . __ _. _


1,800


11 22 N




Quetta .. ..


1,677


30 11 N


Ceylon _


Newera Eliya.


1,902


6 46 N











Fourteen of these stations are within the tropics. East of India, or east of the meridian 82
\], Mirador would be by far the highest meteorological station, were it not for the fact that a few
months ago the Japanese Government established one on Mount Fuji. The exact elevation of this
station could not be ascertained, but to judge from the uncorrected barometer readings, it would



appear to be approximately 3,550 meters (11,647 feet), which would place it 228 meters (748 feet)
below the summit of the snow-capped volcano. Tsukuba, formerly the highest station in Japan,
has an altitude of only 870 meters (2,854 feet) ; and the highest station in Australia, Alice Springs,
South Australia, of 587 meters (1,926 feet).

II. SUMMARY REPORT ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.

At the request of the United States Philippine Commission a meteorological station was
established at Baguio as early as August, 1900, which, shortly after the creation of the Weather
Bureau in May, 1901, was incorporated into this Bureau as one of its 8 first-class stations, and ^
equipped with better and more numerous instruments, Inl903 economic reasons made its reduction
to third class necessary, and as such it existed until July 1, 1909, when the new observatory was

inaugurated.

The data gathered during the period September 1, 1900, to August 31, 1901, have been
published during March, 1902, in a pamphlet entitled "The Climate of Baguio, Benguet" (76
pages and 34 plates), which forms Part I of the Annual Report of the Director of the Weather
Bureau for 1901-2. Covering only one year, this report could give only a very imperfect idea of
the average climatic conditions of the Baguio plateau. Further data have since then been published
in the Monthly Bulletin and Annual Reports of the Weather Bureau, from which a sufficiently
accurate knowledge may be had of the climate of the "Simla of the Philippines."

The following summary of all available observations may be interesting. It confirms the idea
that Baguio is eminently fit to become' the health resort of the Philippines and possibly of the entire
tropical regions of the Far East. Only those elements will be considered which constitute climate
properly so called, to wit, temperature, humidity, cloudiness, and rainfall.

i. TEMPERATURE, 1900-1908.

The following table gives the various temperature means for every month of the year, as
deduced from eight years' observations; likewise the highest and lowest temperatures recorded during
each month within the period under consideration, together with the year in which they were recorded :



Month.


Mean maximum.


Mean minimum.


Monthly mean.


Absolute maximum.


Absolute minimum.


C.


ojr.


C.


F.


C.


F.


C.


F.


Year.


C.


F.


Year.


January


23.7

24.1

25.4
25.3
25.5

24.9
24.4
24.2
24.1
24.7
24.6
24.1


74.7

75.3

77.7
77.5
77.9
76.9
75.9
75.6
75.4
76.5
76.3
75.3


8.6
7.6

9.7
11.4
12.5
14.1

13.4
12. 9
13.7
13.6
10.0
10.3


47.4
45.6

49.5
52.6
54.5
57.4

56.2
55. 2
56.7
54.2
50.0
50.5


18.9
16.5

18.0
19.1
19.1

19.1
18.7
18.3
18.6
18.6
17.9
17.8


62.4
61.7

64.4
66.3
66.4

66.3
65.6
65.0
65.4
65.4
64.3
64.1


25.0

27.0

27.2
29.3

28.0
26.4
26.5
26.2
25.5
26.0
26.0
25.2


77.0
80.6

81.0

84.7
82.4
79.5
79.7
79.2
77.9
78.8
78.8
77.4


1906
1906

1906
1902
1902
1902
1902
1902
1908
1906
1907
1906


3.0

6.0

8.2
9.0
11.0
13.0
12.1
10.0
12.0
10.2
6.5
8.6


37.4

42.8

46.8
48.2
51.8
55.4
53.8
50.0
53.6
50.4
43.7
47.5


1907
(1902
11906
1907
1902
1907
1902
. 1906
1902
1902
1906
1905
1904


February


March _..__.


April


Alav


June - -


July.


August


September


October . - -


November
December



NOTE. The extreme values are printed in heavier type.

The values of the preceding table represent the temperatures at an average height of 2.4 meters
(8 feet) above ground. Near the ground or on grass the temperature falls decidedly lower, the
difference amounting sometimes to more than 3 C., as was the case on March 19, 1908, when
grass-temperature fell 3.6 C. (6.5 F.) below the minimum recorded in the thermometer shelter.

It must be remarked that the observations from which the values given in the foregoing table
have been deduced were not made in one and the same place. From 1900 to 1908 the station had



G

to be transferred repeatedly and has occupied three different points, whose heights above sea level
varied between 1,44-5 and 1,470 meters. The values given correspond to a mean elevation of 1,457
meters (4,780 feet).

The peculiar configuration of the Bagnio plateau is largely responsible for the fact that inversions
of temperature are frequently met with for small differences in elevation. This fact has been
demonstrated by simultaneous observations in different localities made during 1908 and part of 1909.
As an illustration, we publish the minimum temperatures recorded at various heights in Baguio
during March, 1908, together with the corresponding values for Manila.

In the. following table, the letters heading the various pairs of columns under "Baguio" serve
to indicate the locations of the thermometers : T, the top of Mount Mirador ; M, a place on the slope
of the mountain, about midway up; F, the foot of the mountain; F', the same place, but the
thermometer near the ground and exposed to the sky; S, a sink-hole north of Mirador, in which
the thermometer was exposed like the preceding.



Day.


Manila.


Bagnio.


Observatory.

Altitude, 3.04 me-
ters (10 feet).


T

Altitude, 1,511.8
meters (4,960
feet).


M

Altitude, 1,497.1
meters (4,915
feet).


F

Altitude, 1,455.4
meters (4,775
feet).


F'

Altitude, 1,452.8
meters (4,766
feet).


s

Altitude, 1,431.6
meters (4,697
feet).


C.


op.


C.


F.


C.


op


C.


F.


C.


o F .


C.


OF.


1


19.3
20.4
19.5
19.4
19.5
18.2
20.1
23.4
22.8
22.0
20.9
21.2
21.9
20.3
20.7
18.1
17.3
18.9
18.4
18.4
19.5
22.0
20.8
19.9
22.4
18.5
21.0
21.9
23.3
22.5
20.5


66.7
68.7
67.1
66.9
67.1
64.8
68.2
74.1
73.0
71.6
69.6
70.2
71.4
68.5
69.3
64.6
3.1
66.0
65.1
65.1
67.1
71.6
69.4
67.8
72.3
65.3
69.8
71.4
73.9
71.6
68.9


12.7
15.0
14.7
13.0
12.6
13.1
13.6
12.0
12.1
11.2
12.3
12.1
11.9
12.2
12.5
12.8
13.4
14.8
11.0
15.2
14.2
15.6
15.6
13.0
13.9
16.0
15.9
17.3
17.0
13.0
18./>


54.9
59.0
58.5
55.4
54. 7
55.6
56.5
53.6
53.8
52.2
54.1
53.8
53.4
54.0
54.5
55.0
56.1
58.6
51.8
59.4
57.6
60.1
60.1
55.4
57.0
60.8
60.6
63.1
62.6
55.4
04.4


12.1
11.8
11. I
10.6
11.6
11.9
9.9
10.8
10.6
9.9
11.1
11.1
11.0
11.4
11.7
10.6
9.9
9.4
8.f
9.8
10.9
11.6
12.2
11.6
13.8
12.1
10.4
12.4
13.6
11.6
12.9


53.8
53.2
52.0
51. 1
52. 9
53.4
49.8
51.4
51.1
49.8
52.0
52.0
51.8
52.5
53.1
51.1
49.8
48.9
48.0
49.6
51.6
52.9
54.0
52.9
5.8
53.8
50.7
54.3
56.5
52.9
55.2


13.0
10.5
13.2
11.2
11.8
13.7
11.7
12.8
12.7
11.5
11.7
13.1
12.2
12.7
13.0
12.0
11.5
10.4
!>.U
10.7
11.7
11.6
14.1
12.2
13.5
14.0
11.6
12.8
15.3
HJ.O
14.1


55. 4
50. 9
55.8
52.2
53.2
56.7
53. 1
55.0
54.9
52.7
53.1
55.6
54.0
54.9
55.4
53.6
52.7
50.7
48. (J
51.3
53.1
52.9
57.4
54.
56.3
57.2
52.9
55.0
59.5
O.S
57.4


11.6
9.9
9.9
9.6
9.6
13.0
10.7
9.9
9.9
8.9
9.9
11.2
10.7
10.7
11.2
9.6
8.4
7.2
5.6
8.2
10.1
10.4
13.4
11.1
10.3
10.4
9.1
11.6
11.4
14.0
12.5


52.9
49.8
49.8
49.3
49.3
55.4
51.3
49.8
49.8
48.0
49.8
52.2
51.3
51.3
52.2
49.3
47.1
45.0
42.1
46.8
50.2
50.7
56.1
52.0
50.5
50.7
48.4
52.9
52.5
58.8
54.5


4.6
2.0

2.0
4.4
5.8
2.9
1.4
2.4
1.4
1.9
4.4
7.9
7.9
7.7
7.6
4.4
2.6
0.2
3.1)
1.3
4.4
6.4
8.4
3.7
5.5
4.0
1.9
5.7
9.9
12. 4
9.7


40.3
35.6
35.6
39.9
42.4
37.2
34.5
36.3
34.5
35.4
39.9
46.2
46.2
45. 9
45.7
39.9
36.7
32.4
25.0
34.3
39.9
43.5
47.1
38.7
41.8
39.2
35.4
42. 3
49.8

54.:t

49.5


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


11 ._ ..


12


13


14


15


16


17 .


18


19 ... .____


20 _.


21


22 ...


23


24


25


26 .


27


28


29


30


31


Means


20.4


68. 7


13.8


56.8


11.2


52.2


12.4


54.3


10.4


50.7


4.5


40.1



It will be noticed that the differences between the minimum temperatures of Manila and Baguio
are frequently smaller than between those of the summit of Mirador and the sink-hole north of the
hill, as, for instance, on the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 7th, 16th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 23d, 24th,
26th, 27th, 28th, 29th, 31st; that is, on twenty days out of thirty-one. The difference between
tuo mean temperatures of Manila (h=3.04 meters, 10 feet) and Baguio (h= 1,451 meters, 4,780
feet) is 9.97 C. (18 F.), or nearly 1 C. for every 146 meters (1 F. for every 264 feet).

A comparison of the mean and extreme temperatures of Baguio and Simla, the famous health
resort of British India, will prove interesting. The values for Simla have been taken from the



Monthly Weather Eeview of India, the mean values representing the average oC several years while
t" exlnl r t l ase of the period 1901 to 1908. Since a very large percentage of our readers is
p sb y less familiar with" temperatures expressed in the centigrade scale than wi h the system
d by the United States and British meteorological services, we give the table m both the centigrade



by

and Fahrenheit scales.

The elevation of Simla is 2,202 meters (7,224 feet), its latitude 31



6' 1ST and its longitude



12' E.



'\ctLlUH UJ. kJiiiJ.^" i \ ' -. ,

As Simla is not within the tropics, its annual range of temperature must be greater



than that of Baguio.



MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE AT BAGUIO AND SIMLA.
A. CKNTIGRAI>E.



-


Mean
maximum.


Mean
minimum.


Monthly mean.


Absolute maximum.


Absolute minimum.


C.


AC.


C.


AC.


C.


A C. C.


Year.


AC.


G.


Year.


AC.


/Baguio-


23.7-2

10.39

24. 06

11.39
25. 39
13. 56
25. 28
18.39
25.50
22. 83
24.94
2 -'..">>
i 24. 39
; 20.67
24. 22
19.50
24.11
18.94
2i.7'2
16.89
24.61
13.44
. 24. 06
. 9.07


13.33

12. 67

11.83
6.89
2. 67
2. 44
3.72
4.72
5.17
7.83
11.17
14.39


8.56
4.44

7.5<i

4.67
9.72
7.78
11. 11
11. 22
12.50
14.78
14.11
15. 33
13.44
15.01
12. 89
15. 28
13.72
13. 56
12.33
10.56
10.00
7.22
10. 28
3.04


4. 12
2.89

1.94
0.22
-2. 28
1.22
2. 17
i 2. 39
0.16
1.77
2.78
6.34


16.89
5.89

16.50

5.00

19. 06
10.28
19.06
12. 67
10.11
18.88
19. 06
19. SO
18.67
18.28
18.33
17.44
18.56
16. '28
18.56
13.78
17.94

11. li

17.83
6.78


11.00
11.50

8.78
6. 39
0.38
0.83
0.39
0.89
2.28
4.78
6.83
11.05


25.00
16.00

27.00

18. 06
27. 22
20.33
20. '2S
23. 67
28.00
27.56
26. 39
28. 72
26. 50
20.11
26. 22
21. 89
25.50
21.89
26.00
21.39
26. 00
18.56
25. 2'2
16. 61


1906
1906

1906

1903
1906
1908
1902
1908
1902
1906
1902
1901
1902
1901
1902
1902
1908
1902
1906
1907
1907
1901
1906
1909


9.00
8.94

6.89
5.61
0.44
2. 33
2. 61
4.33
3.16
4.61
7.44
8.61


8.00
-7.67

6.00

7.50
8.22
6.17
9.00
0.94
11.00
6.94
13.00
9.50
12. 11
11. 72
10.17
10.78
12.00
9.44
10. 22
2.89
6.50
0.17
8.61
4.83


1907
1905
/ 1902 '
\ 1906
1905
1907
1907
1902
1905
1907
1908
1902
1907
1906
1907
1902
1903
1902
1901
1906
1904
1905
1906
1905
1903


10. 67
13.50

14.39
9.94
4.06
3.50
0.39
0.61
2.56
7.33
6.33
13.44


[Bagnio.-


lsnnla_-_
jBaguio -


i Bagnio -


/Baguio_-


/Baguio


/Baguio-


(Bagnio..


/Baguio..


iBaguio-


/Baguio_


(Bagnio.





B. FAHRENHEIT.





Mean
maximum.


Mean
minimum.


Monthly
mean.


Absolute maximum.


Absolute minimum.


F. A F.


F.


AF.


F. A F.


F.


Year.


AF.


F.


Year.


AF.


/Baguio


74.7

50.6

75.3

52. 5
77.7
56.4
77.5
65.0
77.!
73.1
76.9
7-2.T)
75. 9
69. '2
75. (i
67.1
75.4
titi. 1
7(i. 5
62.4
76. 3
r >6. 2
7.">. :5
_ 40.4


24.1
22.8

21.3
12. 5

4.8
4.4
6.7
8.5
9.3
14.1
20.1
25. '.>


47.4
40.0

45.6

40.4
49. 5
46.0
52.6
52. '2
51.5
58.6
57.4
59.6
56.2
60.1
55. 2
59.5
56.7
56. 4
54.2
51.0
50.
45.0
50. 5
89.1


7.4
5.2

3.5
0.4
- 4.1
2.2
3.9
- 4.3
0.3
3.2
5.0
11.4


62. 4
42.6

61.7

41.0

66.3
50.5
66.3
54.8
66.4
65.9
66.3
<>7.S
65. 6
64.9
65.0
63. 4
65.4
61.3
65.4
56.8
64.3
52.
64.1
44.2


19.8
20.7

15.8
11.5
0.5
1.5
0.7
1.6
4.1
8.6
12.3
19.9


77
60.8

80.6

64.5
81.0
68.6
84.7
74.6
82.4
81.6
79.5
83.7
79.7
SI. 4
79.2
71.4
77.9
71.4
78.8
70.5
78.8
65. 4
77.4
61.9


1906
1906

1906

1903
1906
1908
1902
1908
1902
1906
1902
1901
1902
1901
1902
1902
1908
1902
1906
1907
1907
1901
1906
1906


16.2
16.1

12.4
10.1
0.8
- 4.2
- 4.7
7.8
6.5
8.3
13.4
15.5


87.4
IS. -2

42.8

18.5
46.8
20.9
48.2
30.3
51.8
44.5
55.4
49.1
53.8
53.1
50.3
51.4
53.6
49.0
50.4
37.2
43.7
32.3
47.5
23.3


1907
1905
1 1902
\ 1906
1905
1907
1907
1902
1905
1907
1908
1902
1907
1906
1907
1902
1903
1902
1901
1906
1904
1905
1906
1905
1903


19.2
24.3

25.9
17.9
7.3
6.3
0.7
- 1.1
4.6
13.2
11.4
24.2


< Baguio


\Simla_
(Baguio


/Baguio_


/Baguio-


/Baguio__


/ Baguio-


fBaguio.


/ Bagiuo.


(Bagnio-


/Baguio-
Novpmber Sc-;,i.,


/Baguio-





The table shows the following facts: (1) The mean minimum temperatures for May, June
July and August are lower in Baguio than in Simla, while those for April and September are
almost equal. (2) The monthly means are nearly the same in Baguio and Simla for the month
May, June, July, August, and September.



2. HUMIDITY, 1900-1908.



Next to temperature, the most important climatic element is the humidity of the air. At
Bagnio the monthy mean of relative humidity follows approximately the distribution of the annual
rainfall, but is rather high throughout the year. December and the months from January to April
are the relatively driest months, May to October are wet, while November is characterized by a
nu-an hygrometric state. Simla, owing to its height and continental position, has a low relative
humidity throughout the year, except during July, August, and September. But even the mean
for the last-named month is lower than for the driest month at Baguio.

MEAN MONTHLY PERCENTAGE OF HUMIDITY AT BAGUIO AND SIMLA.



Town.


Janu-
ary.


Febru-
ary.


March.


April.


May.


June.


July.


August.


Septem-
ber.


October.


Novem-
ber.


Decem-
ber.


Ba^uio


79


79


80


81


86


87


89


91


89


88


83


81


Simla


36


37


44


47


46


63


88


91


78


52


48


45





























3. CLOUDINESS, 1900-1908.

Another climatic factor of considerable influence is cloudiness. The prevalence of clouds at
Baguio as compared with Simla is explained by the fact that the former is largely affected by the
moisture-laden air currents from the China Sea whose water vapors condense readily over the Baguio
plateau, especially during the months of March, April, May, and June, thereby preventing the
temperature from rising higher.

MEAN MONTHLY CLOUDINESS AT BAGUIO AND SIMLA (o-io).



Town.


Janu-
ary.


Febru-
ary.


March.


April.


May.


June.


July.


August.


Septem-
ber.


October.


Novem-
ber.


Decem-
ber.


Baguio


4.3


4. 7


5.0


5.1


6 5


6.9


7 3


7 9


7 1


6 3


5 6


5 3


Simla


2.3


3.2


4.8


4.1


3.8


5.9


8.8


8.9


5 8


1 5


2 3


3 9





























4. RAINFALL, 1900-1908.

The average rainfall of Baguio is heavy during July, August, and September ; moderate during
May, June, and October; moderate to light during April, November, and December; and light
during January, February, and March: the mean annual amount being 3,711.4 millimeters (146.12
inches). Outside of the Archipelago this amount is surpassed only by the rainfall of Cherra
Poonjee, one of the hill stations in India, which situated at an altitude of 1,313.3 meters (4,309
feet) receives an average annual amount of 11,146.5 millimeters (438.85 inqhes), and by that of
some stations in Burma. Within the Philippine Islands there are two stations whose annual rainfall
surpasses that of Baguio, viz. Baler, on the eastern coast of central Luzon, and Capiz, on the
northern coast of Panay Island, both almost at sea level.



Station.


Lilt. N.


Long. E.


Rainfall.


Period
(years).


Millimeters.


Inches.


Baler


o . /

15 40

1 1 35


/

121 34
122 45


3, 822. 9
3, 858. 8


150. 51
151. 92


4
4


Capiz _. _





MEAN MONTHLY RAINFALL AT BAGUIO.



Baguio.


Janu-
ary.


Febru-
ary.


March.


April.


May.


June.


July.

....


August.


Septem-
ber.


October.


Novem-
ber.


Decem-
ber.


Rainfall in millimeters __
Rainy days


28. 45
3


8.13
2


27.43

4


87.88

7


398. 53

18


431.80
21


624. 59
24


990.82
25


543. 82
23


409.96
17


101.09
9


58.93
6






























Plate VII gives a graphic representation of the temperature changes, the relative humidity, and
the cloudiness at Baguio, as deduced from observations covering the period 1900-1908, compared
with the corresponding data for Simla. The absolute maximum and minimum temperatures which
occurred during the same period are likewise entered, beingjnarked by small crosses m the case


1

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