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is one of the largest and finest ever discovered
more than 19 inches long, and the blade
is perforated with a lunate opening on each
side the mid-rib. It is figured in Evans'
Bronze Implements, p. 335. The smaller
spear-head is of the very ordinary leaf shaped
variety ; it is about 8 inches long. The
socketed axes fall into two ranks, two
smaller, 2 J inches long, and three larger,
3^ inches long. They are of the common
type with a loop, and three vertical ridges
on each face. A very remarkable variety
of the same type came from Winwick, in
the neighbourhood of Warrington. It is
figured and described in the Archceological
Association's Journal, and in Evans' Bronze
Implements, p. 123, 124. The three ribs are
connected by parallel diagonal ridges, and
apparently this is the only example of the
sort discovered in this country ; but one very
similar to it has been found at Kiev, Russia.
Several flat axes from the district are shown,
a plain one from Risley, another from Grap-
penhall, and a third, slightly decorated, from
Rixton, all being referred to in Bronze
Implements. Three palstaves are also local.



56



NOTES ON ARCHEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS.



They are all without loops. One from Ackers
Common closely resembles Fig. 78, Bronze
Implements, in general shape and decoration ;
another, from Southworth, is similar to Fig. 67
in the same work ; while the third, from
Winwick, is still simpler. The latter was
associated with the remarkable bronze ring
shown in the case with it. This ring is about
\\ inches in diameter, and is figured in the
above book. " The ornament on this ring,
somewhat like the ' broad arrow ' of modern
times, is of much the same character as
the shield like pattern below the stop-ridge of
some palstaves." While the palstave device,
as also that of the frequent three parallel or
diverging ridges on the socketed axes, may
be held to be decorative only, it is impossible
to regard the " broad-arrow " on the ring in
this light. If the maker had only ornamenta-
tion in mind, he would certainly have repeated
it at regular intervals. To my mind, this
ring goes far to prove that this device was
symbolic, and not purely decorative, as is
usually supposed.

In the same glass case are a neat leaf-
shaped spear-head from Bechton, Cheshire ;
sundry Irish specimens ; a fine leaf-shaped
and tanged dagger, with mid rib and lateral
Outings ; and three socketed axes of the
usual form from Winmarleigh, but apparently
not belonging to the hoard above referred to ;
and the dagger already described as being
found, with a stone axe-hammer, in a burial-
urn at Winwick. Another little bronze
object the pin of a fibula like the preceding
object, is interesting on account of its associa-
tion. Perhaps every antiquary would pro-
nounce it Roman, and probably rightly so ;
but it was found in a cinerary urn of most
characteristic British form and decoration.
Little occurrences like this are most valuable
as indicating the overlap of cultures and
periods. The urn, or rather its crumbling
fragments, were unearthed at Kenyon Hall,
near Warrington. Another and almost
perfect vessel a "food-vase" about 4$
inches in diameter came from a stone grave
at Stretton. {Manchester Historical Society,
vol. ii. 3.)

( To be continued. )




n some pieces of 3lrisf)
(Ecclesiastical Plate.

Hy 1). Ai.i.kynr Walter.



HF Science and Art Museum at
Dublin contains a well-known and
unrivalled collection of objects
illustrative of early Irish art, and
of great importance to the student of the
history of the country in former times.
There are also a few pieces of plate belong-
ing to a later period, which are well worthy
of note as affording a comparison with
contemporary work in other countries.
Some are placed in cases containing objects
which belong to the museum itself, others
in the cases appropriated to the " Petrie
Loan Collection," this latter being a loan
from the Royal Irish Academy. It is
purposed to give a few illustrations, and
descriptions of the more noteworthy of the
examples of ancient ecclesiastical plate from
these sources.




DAW



ON SOME PIECES OF IRISH ECCLESIASTICAL PLATE.



57



First, among the pieces belonging to the
museum :

No. r. A chalice and paten wholly gilt.
The chalice has a stem and base of hexagonal
form with a bowl of truncated cone shape.
The knot is of much the usual character in
mediaeval chalices, but the facets are quite
plain. In the central compartment of the
base is an incised crucifix rather rudely
designed, and beneath it, extending round
the sides of the base, is the following inscrip-
tion in capital Roman characters :

QUIA PECCAVIMUS IN VITA NOSTRA QUI

PASSUS ES PRO NOBIS DOMINE MISERERE

NOBIS M + G.

Height, 7 inches ; width of the base,
4^ inches ; of the bowl, 3 inches ; depth




of the bowl, 2 inches. There are no hall-
marks of any description.

The date of this beautiful chalice is
probably early in the seventeenth century,
perhaps circa 1620.

The paten belonging to the chalice is a
perfectly plain disc, 4 inches in diameter.

No. 2. A tall silver chalice with an
octagonaj base and stem, and having a
large, plain, bulbous knot. The upper part
of the bowl is lipped. In the central panel
of the base is incised a nondescript fleur de
lys, and on the two adjoiningp anels on either
side, is a cherub's head. Beneath the base,
in rude Roman characters is the inscrip-
tion :

F.E.N. PARISH PRIEST OF K & K ANO. DOM.
1718.

The form of this chalice is not ungraceful,
and the stem and base show an approxima-
tion to the type of an earlier date.

Height, q| inches ; diameter of the base,




VOL. XXXI.



5



COLCHESTER AND CAMULODUNUM.



4 J inches ; of the bowl, 3$ inches ; depth
of the bowl, 3 \ inches.

There is only a maker's mark, c. c, on
the side of the bowl.

No. 3. A communion cup with paten
cover of silver. The deep and very square-
shaped bowl is supported by a short stem,
and has the usual band of incised ornament
round it. At the bottom of the bowl, and
also at the top and bottom of the stem, are
mouldings ornamented with a device, having
something of the character of lines of ermine-
spots. There is also a hatched ornament
on the middle of the stem. The paten-
cover is quite plain.

Height, d\ inches ; diameter of the base,
3 inches ; of the bowl, 3^ inches ; depth
of the bowl, 3 inches.

There is a single maker's mark near the
rim of the bowl, the letters n and s inter-
laced, and contained in a cusped shield.




Colcbester ant) Camulotiunum.

By F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A



N a paper read before the London
Society of Antiquaries last month,
Mr. F. G. Beaumont, F.S.A, re-
vived Gale's idea that the site of
the British and Roman Camulodunum was to
be found, not at Colchester, as has usually
been supposed, but at Great Chesterford,
near Saffron Walden, in the extreme north-
western corner of Essex. In the debate
which followed the paper, I ventured to
express very definite dissent from Mr.
Beaumont's theory, and it has been sug-
gested that I should put on paper the main
reasons which induce me to still consider
Colchester to be the site of Camulodunum.

The evidence on the subject is circumstan-
tial. We know certain facts about Colchester
and certain facts about Camulodunum, and
these facts agree in such a manner as to leave
no doubt about the conclusion. First, as to
Camulodunum, we know that it was situated
in the territory of the Trinovantes, who in-
habited the country north of the Thames
estuary ; that it was the capital of Cunobelin,



and we may fairly infer from a passage in
Pliny (N. H. y ii. 187) that it was on or near the
coast. We know further that it was chosen
soon after the invasion of Claudius for the
site of a colony of veterans and of a temple
of the Emperor the usual sign of a provincial
capital. It was burnt in the rising of Boudicca
(Boadicea), but was in existence and flourish-
ing in the second century, as the Antonine
Itinerary, the Ravenna Geographer, and two
inscriptions clearly, though indirectly, testify
{Corpus, iii. 11233; xiv. 3955). At the end
of the third century it may have been a mint
of Carausius and Diocletian. We know also
from the Antonine Itinerary that it was on a
main road from London, which divided on
reaching it into two roads, one continuing
north to Venta Icenorum, the other north-
west to Chesterton, near Peterborough, and
so to Lincoln. According to the Itinerary
its distance from London was 52 miles,
though the Itinerary is unfortunately in-
consistent with itself as to the lengths of the
stages which made up this mileage.

Secondly, as to Colchester. The place is
on the Colne water in Essex, not far from its
mouth. It contains most extensive Roman
remains, city walls, dwelling-houses, possibly
a forum, and other traces of permanent occu-
pation by Romans on a large scale. The
coins found in the graves suggest that it was
occupied very early in the course of the
Claudian conquest, and the inscriptions show
that veterans, i.e., retired soldiers, were among
its inhabitants. The area of the Roman
town is nearly no acres ; outside are Roman
roads leading in various directions, ceme-
teries, and various traces of suburban life.
Of burning and destruction there is no de-
finite trace, but the south wall is built over
the ruins of a Roman house, and the coins of
Claudius and Nero are comparatively rare.
The various remains testify in various ways
to the existence of the place in the second,
third and fourth centuries. The place is
connected with London by a road which
has all the appearances of being Roman, and
which is 52 miles in length from the London
G.P.O. (Gary, p. 446). Coins of Cunobelin,
it should be added, have been found there in
greater profusion than anywhere else.

It will be seen that what we know of Col-
chester and what we know of Camulodunum



COLCHESTER AND CAMULODUNUM.



59



agree admirably. The case for identification
is strengthened by the fact that there is no
competing site. Camden suggested Maldon,
at the mouth of the Blackwater river, but his
suggestion was based solely on etymology,
as his suggestions too often were. Mr. Beau-
mont suggests Great Chesterford, where con-
siderable Roman remains have been found.
But these do not agree with our knowledge of
Camulodunum. Ancient Chesterford was a
comparatively small place, perhaps one-fifth
the size of Colchester, and the remains found
in or near it are not in the least sufficient to
identify it with a colonia. It must be remem-
bered that a " colony " was a definite form
of city, having a legal existence and con-
stitution, and necessarily possessing a large
share of Roman civilization. Chesterford is
Romano-British more than Roman ; it con-
tains no trace of veterans, or of the other
requirements of Camulodunum. It is not
even situated on a Roman main road, for the
Icknield street, though very possibly used in
Roman times, has no right to this appellation.
It remains to notice a further difficulty
which has been raised with respect to the
identification of Colchester and Camulodu-
num. This difficulty is that the " stations "
mentioned in the Itinerary between Lon-
dinium and Camulodunum have not been
satisfactorily found along the road from Lon-
don to Colchester. This, however, is a very
small matter. Anyone who has watched the
recent examination of the Limes in Germany
will be able to quote a good many cases of
forts which had wholly vanished from the
face of the earth and were only discovered
by accident or by conjectural excavations.
These forts are much larger than many of
the "stations" on Itinerary roads, and yet
they have lain hid and unknown till quite
recently. It is surely conceivable that the
missing " stations " in Essex may be similarly
waiting the discoverer. It is, in any case,
dangerous to overthrow the identification of
an important place, because some lesser place
is not suited. It has been done constantly
by English antiquaries, who have not feared
to contradict even the direct testimony of
inscriptions because the mileage of the Anto-
nine Itinerary is irreconcilable. This Itinerary,
however, is an unsatisfactory document. The
manuscripts of it have not been yet thoroughly



sifted or appreciated, and it doubtless con-
tained many errors in its original and correct
form. The calculation of mileage was not
easy to the ancients, and even modern esti-
mates are sometimes startlingly discrepant.
If we want to use the Itinerary in our study
of Roman Britain, we must use it in a wholly
different manner to that which has been cus-
tomary.



Publications anD proceeDings of
Penological Societies.



PROCEEDINGS.
No. 2 of Vol. XV. of the second series of the Proceed-
ings OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES FOR LONDON
has been issued to the fellows. It covers the period
from April 5 to June 21 of last year, and it includes a
statement of the accounts of the society for the year
ending December 31, 1893. The total income of the
society for theyear was .3,127 7s. 4d., of this a,\
17s. 7d. was brought forward from the previous year,
and at the end of the year j8 17s. 8d. was carried
forward to the accounts of the following year (1894).
At the beginning of 1893 it would seem that there
were 349 fellows who subscribed at the higher rate of
3 3s., against 198 who continued their subscriptions
at the lower rate of 2 2s. A sum of close on j 1,300
had been spent on the publications of the society,
about 170 on the library, of which ,78 18s. 8d. was
for books purchased, and 37 5s. for subscriptions to
societies, etc. The part also includes the account of
the annual meeting, with the president's address, from
which it appears that during the year from St. George's
Day, 1893, to St. George's Day, 1894, the society lost
27 ordinary fellows and elected 43, making a clear
addition to the number of 16 fellows. Of the antiqui-
ties illustrated and described, there is a fine spear-head
of yellow bronze, over 9 inches in length, which was
found at Haxey, in Lincolnshire ; some Anglo-Saxon
antiquities found at Dover ; a Roman pig of lead
found in Derbyshire ; a Celtic brooch found at Dat-
chet about twenty years ago, of which a coloured plate
is given ; some very fine and remarkable Norman
capitals in the British Museum, from Lewes Priory,
which are described by Mr. J. Romilly Allen ; and a
very notable palimpsest brass at Denham, Bucks ; be-
sides other smaller objects exhibited at the meetings
of the society. In addition to these illustrations other
objects exhibited before the society are described, and
the part, as a whole, is a very good one, recording as
it does the steady work of the society and its fellows.

^ $

Tart 4 of Vol. IV. of the fifth series of the journal of
the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ikei.and
has been issued. It contains a second paper by the
Rev. G. R. Buick, LL.D., on the " Crannog at Moy-
larg," of which two plates and four full-page illus-



6o



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



trations are given ; Mr. T. J. Westropp writes on
"Churches with Round Towers in Northern Clare."
This is the third pai>er on this subject, and Dromcliff,
Rath-Blamaig, and Kilnoboy are dealt with. The
paper itself is followed by an appendix on the crosiers of
"Rath and Dysert,'' two early staves of admirable work-
manship, which are described and illustrated. Mr. W.
Knowles writes a capital paper on "Irish Flint Saws,"
two plates of which are given. The first part of a
long and elaborate paper on the " Origin of Prehistoric
Ornament in Ireland," by Mr. George Coffey, follows,
and in turn is succeeded by one on a " Very Notable
Funeral Custom " which still obtains in parts of county
Wexford, by Miss Margaret Stokes. The illustration
(opposite p. 3S0) of the tree with the crosses stuck
into the upper branches is very striking, and is sure to
attract attention to the description Miss Stokes gives
of this very queer piece of Irish folk-lore. In " Mis-
cellanea " Mr. James (}. Barry draws attention to an
act of bigotry and vandalism on the part of the civic
authorities of the city of Limerick in the demolition
of the old house known as " Ircton's Castle," which
is little to their credit. Another note relates to an
ancient bone comb found at Kilmessan, co. Meath, of
which an illustration is given. At the end of the
ordinary part comes an account of the joint meeting
of this and the Cambrian Society in North Wales.
This, too, is fully illustrated. We are surprised, how-
ever, to see the suggestion that the Clynnog Mazer
Bowl was originally a chalice : such an idea might
pass muster a century ago, but ought not to have found
a place in the pages of a journal of an archreological
society of repute at the present day. Surely, too, the
stone with the carved effigy on it, illustrated on p.
420, is a Roman stone, and not a medieval monu-
mental slab at all. The whole number is copiously
illustrated and is full of interest.

^> <* +$

Tart 3 of Vol. II. of the new series of the Transac-
tions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society
has been issued. It contains two papers by that
veteran archaeologist Monsignor Eyre, the Roman
Catholic Archbishop of the city, one on the " Ancient
Seal of the Burgh of Rutherglen," the other on the
" Two Western Towers of Glasgow Cathedral," which
were most wantonly destroyed in a "restoration"
which was partially carried out some sixty years ago.
The Archbishop gives a list of engravings which show
the towers ; this list, however, might be considerably
amplified. An account of John Snell, of Upton, the
founder of the Snell Exhibitions for Glasgow students
at Oxford, follows. It is written by Mr. George W.
Campliell. The most important paper of all is, per-
haps, that by Dr. A. S. Murray, on the " Mausoleum
of Halicarnassus," which is, moreover, well illus-
trated, one of the pictures being a photograph of Pro-
fessor Cockerell's beautiful restoration in water colours
of the mausoleum. " Recent Excavations in the Cau-
casus," by the Hon. John Abercromby, also takes the
reader far afield from Glasgow. Dr. James Macdonald
contributes a note on the so-called Roman bridge
near Bothwell. The " Papingo," as he spells it, is
dealt with by the Rev. W. L. Ker. It will be news
to some persons that the Kilwinning Popinjay died a
lingering death in 1870, and that a sport or game once



so universal in Scotland is now altogether a thing of
the past. People on the look-out for some healthy
form of outdoor amusement might do worse than
revive this time-honoured Scotch sport. " Repent-
ence Tower," in Annandale, forms the subject of an
interesting paper by Mr. George Neilson. Professor
Fergusson gives as a " First Supplement " an account
of some biographical histories of inventions and books
of secrets, additional to those cited in his original
paper on the subject.

*>$ *>$ *>g

At the meeting of the Society of Antiquaries on
Thursday, January 10, the following gentlemen were
elected fellows of the society : Lieut. -Col. Edward
Mathey, Beauchamp Lodge, Warwick Crescent, W. ;
Major Frederick Wm Town Attree, R.E., Woolston,
Southampton ; Mr John Bilson, Hessle, Hull ; Mr.
Harding Francis Giffard, 20, Holland Street, W. ;
the Rev. Frederick Henry Arnold, M.A., LL.D.,
Hermitage, Emsworth ; Mr. Alfred Hermitage Be-
thune-Baker, 12, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. ;
The Rev. Edward Greatorex, M.A., Croxdale Rectory,
Durham ; the Rev. John Kestell Floyer, B.A., Down-
ton Vicarage, Salisbury ; Surgeon-Captain William
Wilfrid Webb, M.B., Royal Victoria Hospital, Net-
ley ; Mr. Edward Laws, J. P., Tenby, South Wales;
and Mr. John Edward Smith, 15, Bessborough Street,
Westminster.

+Q *$ *$

The annual meeting of the Royal Society of Anti-
quaries of Ireland was held in Dublin on January
8, Mr. Thomas Drew, the president, being in the
chair. Several fellows and members were elected.
The report, which was read by Mr. Burtchaell, de-
plored the loss to the society, by death, of several of
its more active fellows. Among these losses was in-
cluded that of Mr. John L. Robinson, who had under-
taken the supervision of the photographic work of the
society, which is intended to comprise a general pho-
tographic survey and record of the antiquities of Ire-
land. Some alterations in the rules were proposed,
but, in the end, an amendment leaving things much
as they are at present, was carried. A discussion then
followed as to the time and details of the summer
meeting of the society. Apparently the fellows and
members are not subject to one of the more painful of
the infirmities of the human race, for they propose to
take ship at Belfast and sail round the coast to the
Arran Islands and Galway, where the meeting is to be
held. It was eventually decided to leave it with the
council to fix the exact date of the meeting, and to
complete the necessary arrangements. Mr. Drew was
re-elected president, and Lord Walter Fitzgerald,
Colonel P. Vigors, Sir. Seaton F. Milligan, and Dr.
W. Frazer vice-presidents. At the evening meeting,
Mr. Burtchaell, assistant secretary, read a paper by
Professor Rhys, on " An Ogham Hunt in the North
of Ireland." Professor Rhys stated that the Ogham
stones examined were at Belrath Hill, in the public
library of Armagh (where a stone was preserved), and
at Cavancarragh, near Enniskillen. At Castlederg
marking was found on a cromlech, but nothing could
be made of them. The bad state of preservation in
which the Oghams of Ulster had been found rendered
them puzzling and less instructive than was to be de-



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



61



sired. A paper on " Prehistoric Stone Forts of
Northern Clare " was read by Mr. T. J. Westropp,
M.A., and was referred to council for publication.
The Rev. Denis O'Donoghue read some notes on the
antiquities of Church Island, County Kerry. The
island, he said, contained antiquities of the date of 664,
founded by St. Finian of Ivragh, who, according to
tradition, preserved the people from a plague which
raged at the time. The principal edifice on the island
was an oratory built of immense blocks of stone, but,
of course, only a portion of the building remained. It
was one of the earliest specimens of those ancient
oratories, which, some said, were half Pagan and half
Christian. On the east side of the island was the
ruined church of St. Finian, believed to have been
built by St. Malachy about 1130. There was also an
ancient stone house on the island, and in some respects
it resembled King Cormac's Chapel on the Rock of
Cashel. There was much on the island of great archaeo-
logical importance, and he hoped that the society
would send down an artist to take photographs of the
place. He also hoped that at some time or other the
society would hold a summer meeting in the vicinity
of Church Island. Mr. Seaton F. Milligan stated
some matters recorded in a paper which he had in-
tended to read, entitled " Some Further Cases of
Remarkable Longevity," and from which it became
apparent that he is not altogether a disciple of the
late Mr. Thorns. We confess, too, that we do not
quite see what the subject of longevity has to do with
archaeology. A waggish member was wicked enough
to ask Mr. Milligan how he got permission from the
old ladies, whose wonderful ages he had announced,
to mention so delicate a subject to the meeting.
Colonel Vigors recalled the meeting to its more proper
functions by reading a Norman-French inscription on
a tombstone which bore the early date of 1280, and
which had been recently found in a private house in
Kilkenny. He also read another inscription with the
date of 1460, from the west door of Clontusker Abbey,
in County Galway.

+ $ ^

At the December meeting of the Society of Anti-
quaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Mr. J. H.
Rutherford exhibited a jewelled watch, of between
1750 and 1780, of French manufacture, "ChsleRoy
a Paris" on the face. The secretary (Mr. Blair) re-
ported that the two bone harpoons described in the
Proceedings (p. 263), said in a recent letter of Chan-
cellor Ferguson to have been found at Crosby-on-
Eden, are declared by the British Museum authorities
to be examples from Terra del Fuego. How they
were lost and buried at Crosby-on-Eden it is a puzzle
to say. Mr. Blair also announced that several small
objects had been discovered at Chesters, including a
bone comb, the potters' names martim, /vs, /niani,
titvrim, [seJcvnd/, on plain Samian ware, cisi in
relief on embossed Samian ware, seavv,/ ivli and
avavs (letters tied) on Mortaria, and /ndi scratched



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