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daye of Decembre

per breve de privato sigillo.

Verselyn's grant was opposed by the retail
glass-sellers of London, who represented that
it would be " the overthrow of 50 households
using only the trade of selling glass, besides
the hindrance of the Merchant Adventurers
bringing glasses into the realm from beyond
the Seas, the loss of H. M.'s Customs and
the consuming of four hundred thousand
billets every year in burning the same in one
glasshouse" (Lansd. MSS. 48, Art. 78).
Their objections were partly met by the
clauses regulating the prices of the glass and
securing to them the right of buying glasses
direct from the patentee ; but the prohibi-
tion of foreign glass remained intact both in



this and the numerous re-issues of the patent,
which will be recorded in their due order.

The glasshouse at Crutched Friars was
burnt to the ground, together with an
immense quantity of wood, in the September
of 1575 (Stow's Ann, p. 680.) The works,
however, appear to have been rebuilt, for in
1589 (if the pencil date in the petition of
Scott and Myller is to be relied on) the
glasshouse was still in existence on the same
site. Burn's statement, which places these
works at Greenwich, is clearly untrustworthy.
A Greenwich glasshouse is referred to by
Mansel in 1639, and again in 1641-42; but it
was not until Evelyn's time that a subsequent
immigration of Italian glassworkers gave the
place a reputation for the production of the
finer qualities of glass.

At what date the headquarters of the
Italian industry were removed from the
Crutched Friars to Winchester House, Broad
Street, where, as is well known, Howell acted
for some time as manager, is uncertain. In
16 18, Howell writes: "Had I continued
steward of the glasshouse in Broad Street,
where Capt. Francis had succeeded me, I
should in a short time have melted away to
nothing, finding myself too green for such a
charge." From 1618-21 Howell was acting
as foreign agent for Mansel, sending him
supplies of barilla, and recruiting the small
band of Italian workmen in London from
the glassworkers of Middleburgh and Venice.
As late as 1641 Winchester House was the
chief depot where the better sort of glass
was procurable. Cf. Letter of Cavendish to
John Pell, in Halliwell's Collection of Letters,
p. 73 ; but in 165 7, Howell, in his Londinopolis,
speaks of the works as no longer in existence,
from which it may be concluded that with
the termination of the monopoly by the Long
Parliament the industry temporarily came to
an end.

In 1874 the Rev. S. M. Mayhew exhibited
before the Archaeological Association some
fragments of glass, which were discovered in
excavating part of Broad Street (Pinner's
Hall) for a new railway hotel. The frag-
ments included part of a tall wine-glass on
an ornamental foot, a square scent-bottle, a
ribbed fountain inkstand, a handle of
opalized glass, a stem of white filigree, two
bottles of a light green tint, and a large



72



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



octagonal bottle in imitation of red Egyptian
jasper.

In 1592 Verselyn was succeeeded by Sir
Jerome Bowes, in whose favour new letters
patent were issued on February 5 of the
same year.

The following article will bring the history
of glass-making down to the date of the
introduction of coal as fuel in the industry.
This step, which effected a complete revolu-
tion in the practice of the art, paved the way
to the invention of flint glass, the discussion
of which will form the final article of this
series.



jFutther JBotes on a^anr
jTolklore.

Chapter II. Hagioi.ogical and Mytho-
Historical Legends.

By A. W. Moore, M.A.

Author of Surnames and Place-Namcs of the Isle of Man ;
Diocesan History o/Sodor and Man ; Folklore of the Isle
0/ Man, etc.

E begin this chapter by giving a
literal translation of the original
Manx of the "Traditionary Ballad,"
already referred to,* concerning the
conversion of the Manx. Some additional
information is appended about the connec-
tion of St. Patrick with the Isle of Man ;
also earlier and more correct versions of the
"Conversion of St. Maughold," of "St.
Maughold and Gilcolum," and the " Miracle
of St. Mary," than have already been given in
the "Folklore of the Isle of Man."t The
other tales which follow, except a new version
of the story of " Ivar and Matilda," are
additions.

Then came Patrick in their midst ;
He was a saint full of virtue ;
He sent Mannanan on the wave,
Away with all his bad servants.
And of all those that were evil,
To them he showed but little grace ;
Those that were of the conjurer's race
He destroyed and put to death.
He blessed the land from end to end,
And ne'er left a poor person there,
That was bigger than a child, who
Refused to be a Christian.

See p. 41. t At pp. 21-6.




Thus it was that the faith first came
To man, by St. Patrick put in,
And to strengthen Christ within us,
And within our children also.
Patrick then blessed St. German,
And left him the bishop in it,
To strengthen the faith more and more,
And little chapels he made there.
In every treen-land made he one
For these folk to come in to pray ;
St. German's church he also made,
That to this day sits in the Peel.
Before German finished his work
God sent for him, and then he died ;
Ye know from this swift messenger,
None will escape by any means.
He died, and he lies where the bank
Was very soon to be laid low ;
A cross of stone is at his feet,
In his own church yet in the Peel.
Then came in Maughold from the west,
And he came on shore at the Head,
And built a church and yard around,
At the place he would fain abide.
The chapels St. German ordered
For the people to come to prayers ;
Maughold joined some of them in one,
And thus made proper parishes.
Maughold died, and he lies also
In his own church, too, at the Head ;
The next bishop that came after,
As far as I know, was Lonnan.
Connaghan the next then came in,
And then arrived Marown the third ;
These three are laid in Kirk Marown,
And there they always will remain.
Now let us pass these saintly men,
And to God s Son commit their souls ;
We need not praise these Churchmen more,
Till they're before the King of kings.
In this way, then, they passed their time,
There was no man would anger them ;
But getting a pardon from Rome.*
Translation by W. J. Cain and A. W. Moore.

St. Patricks Connection with the Isle of Man.

Of this Jocelin, a monk of Furness, wrote
in the twelfth century :

" Many places exist in Britain to this day
which bear testimony to his miracles, and
are imbued with his sanctity. He collected
many learned and religious men and brought
them with him, thirty of whom he afterwards
raised to the episcopal office. Returning to
Ireland, he touched at the Islands of the
Sea, one of which, Eubonia that is, Man
at that time subject to Britain, by his

* Train, History of the Isle of Man, vol. i.,
pp. 51-2.



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



73



miracles and preaching converted to Christ.
Among the miracles which he wrought, the
most famous was as follows : a certain evil-
doer, named Melinus, like Simon the
magician, asserting himself to be God,
attempted a diabolical flight in the air, but
by his prayers fell headlong from his lofty
flight, was dashed to pieces, and thus perished.
St. Patrick placed as bishop over the new
Church of this nation, one of his disciples,
a wise and holy man named Germanus, who
placed his episcopal seat in a certain pro-
montory, which to this day is called St.
Patrick's Island, because he had remained
there for some time."*

St. Patrick's Arrival in Man.

The following tradition with reference to
the manner of St. Patrick's arrival in the
island is extant at the present day. It is
given in the words of Mr. William Cashen,
of Peel :

"When first he came to the Isle of Man,
he came across on horseback. The island
was under a dense mist, and all the powers
of darkness were arrayed against him, and,
being hard pressed by a sea-monster of great
size that was following to devour him, he put
the horse up the steepest place in Peel Hill,
and where the horse stood still on the top
on firm ground, a beautiful spring of pure
water sprang out of the ground, whereby the
saint and the horse were both refreshed.
The well is called the Holy Well unto this
day. And looking down the cliff he saw the
monster that had followed him. The saint
cursed the monster, and there and then he
was turned into a solid rock. The monster
can be seen there now with his great big fin
upon his back, a warning to all evil-doers
that they shall not prevail against the good.
Before St. Patrick landed he heard the shrill
shout of the curlew and the bleating of a
goat whose kid had fallen down the rocks,
and he blessed them both. No man was
ever to find the curlew's nest, nor to see the
goat bring forth its young. The print of the
horse's feet is in the cliff, they say, still, and
can be seen by anyone venturesome enough
to go there to see it. The Holy Well is

* Oliver's Monumenta, vol. i. Manx Soc, vol. iv.,
pp. 15,16.
VOL. XXXI.



said to be the first well, or water, where the
first Christian was baptized in the island, and
was for ages resorted to as a healing well,
and latterly it was called the Silver Well on
account of the small silver coins that were
left there by persons seeking to be cured of
some disease."

" The Conversion of St. A/aug/10/d."

While travelling into Ulydia, we are told
St. Patrick found one Magiul, a heathen,
also called Machaldus. He was eminent in
wickedness, and notorious for his cruelty.
As like always accords with like, he gathered
to him no small company, well practised in
theft, in rapine, and in blood. It happened
on a time that the blessed Patrick was
journeying with his people through that
place where lurked this band of evil-doers,
waiting for any traveller on whom they
might rush forth either to destroy or to
despoil him. Beholding the saint, they
thought at first to slay him as the seducer
of their souls and the destroyer of their
gods ; but, suddenly, their purpose being
changed by the Divine will, they thought it
a shame to shed the blood of a peaceful,
weak, and an unarmed old man. Counsel-
ling one another to prove, or rather to mock,
the power of Christ, and the holiness of
Patrick, they placed one of their companions,
named Garban, on a couch, and though he
was in perfect health they feigned him to be
dead, thinking thus to impose on the Irish
Apostle. They covered their accomplice
with a cloak, and, offering prayers intended
to deceive, they besought the man of God
that he would provide the funeral rites, or,
as he was wont, restore to life the dead man.
But, through revelation of the Holy Spirit,
he understood what they had done, and
pronounced that these scorners had de-
ceivingly, yet not falsely, declared their
companion to be truly dead. Therefore,
disregarding their entreaties, he prayed to
God for the souls of the deriders, and then
went on his way. The saint had not
journeyed far when they uncovered the
cloak from their companion, and lo ! they
found him not a pretended corpse, but really
dead.

Affrighted at this fearful event, and dread-
ing lest the same fate should happen to

L



74



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



themselves, they followed Patrick, and fell
at his feet. Acknowledging their offence,
through their contrition, they obtained
pardon. Then they all believed in the
Lord ; and in His name were they baptized.
Afterwards did the saint, at their humble
entreaty, revive the dead man, and re-
generating him in the holy font of baptism,
Patrick associated him to the faith in Christ.
Machaldus, their chief, falling at St. Patrick's
feet, confessed his sins, and entreated, with
many tears, that a life of penitence should be
imposed upon him, whereby he might ob-
tain the life of eternity. The saint, inspired
by heaven, enjoined that the penitent should
renounce his native soil, and give all his
substance to the poor. Afterwards, he
clothed Machaldus, it is stated, in a vile
and rough garment, and chained him down
with chains of iron, casting the key which
secured them into the ocean. Likewise,
St. Patrick commanded him to enter alone,
and without oars, into a boat made only of
hides. The Irish Apostle further enjoined,
that on whatsoever country Machaldus
should land, under the guidance of the
Lord, there should he serve the Church of
Christ, even to the end of his days. Truly
repenting, Machaldus did as his great pastor
had enjoined ; for, bound with iron chains,
and bearing on his head the tonsure, as
token of penitence, he entered alone into
that boat. Under the protection of Cod,
committing himself to his mercy and to the
waves, Machaldus was borne by them on-
wards to the island of Eubonia.*

We also append a literal translation from
the Tripartite Life of the first part of the
foregoing story :

" There was a certain wicked man in the
country of Uladh, i.e., Magh-Inis, at that
time ; an impious man, and a son of death,
i.e., MacCuill, who was plundering and kill-
ing the people. On one occasion Patrick
and his companions passed by him on a
certain day, and he desired to kill Patrick.
This is what he said to his followers :
1 Behold the Tailcem and false prophet
who is deceiving everyone ! let us arise and
make an attack upon him, to see if perhaps

* From the Lives of t lie Irish Saints, by O'llanlon,
part 49. PP- 480-481. (This account is mainly taken
from Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga.)



his Cod will assist him.' This is what they
planned afterwards : to bring one of their
people on a bier as if dead, to be
resuscitated by Patrick, and they threw a
cover over his body and over his face.
'Cure,' said they to Patrick, 'our com-
panion for us and beseech your God to
awake him from death.' ' My Debroth,' said
Patrick, ' I would not wonder if he were
dead.' Garban was the man's name, and
it is of him Patrick said, ' The covering of
Garban shall be the covering of a dead
body ; but I will tell you more, it is Garban
who will be under it.' His friends removed
the covering from his face, so that they
found it so. They all became silent," etc.*

Modern tradition makes St. Maughold
arrive in the island in the same way as
St. Patrick.

St. Maughold and Gikolum.

"At the same time, in 1158, whilst
Somerled yet lay in the port of Man, called
Ramsey, it was reported to the army that
the church of St. Maughold was full of
riches ; for this place was a safe refuge
against all dangers, for all who fled to it,
on account of the reverence paid to its holy
confessor St. Maughold.

" One of the principal chiefs, called
Gilcolum, drew the attention of Somerled
to these treasures, and maintained that it
would be no violation of the asylum of St.
Maughold to drive off, for the supply of the
army, the cattle that were grazing outside
the precincts of the cemetery. But Somerled
demurred, affirming that he could in nowise
allow the asylum to be violated. Gilcolum
continued to urge with great earnestness his
proposal, begging that he and his followers
might be allowed to go there, and offering to
take the responsibility upon himself. Upon
this Somerled reluctantly gave his consent,
saying : ' Let the affair be between yourself
and St. Maughold ; I and my army will be
guiltless, nor do we wish to have any share
in your spoil.' Gilcolum, overjoyed, returned
to his followers, and calling together his
three sons and all his dependents, ordered
all to prepare during the night, so as to be
ready to rush suddenly at break of day upon

* Egerton's Translation, p. 479.



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



75



the church of St. Maughold, which was
distant two miles. A rumour, in the mean-
time, reached the church that the enemy was
coming, and so alarmed by it were all, that
many fled from the church, and concealed
themselves in the recesses of the rocks, and
in the caverns, whilst the remaining crowd,
with loud and continued cries, implored the
mercy of God, through the intercession of
St. Maughold. The weaker sex, with dis-
hevelled hair and mournful accents, wan-
dered around the walls of the church, loudly
crying : ' Where art thou now, O Maughold !
where are thy miracles which till now thou
hast worked in this place ? Will'st thou now
quit it on account of our sins, and abandon
thy people in this their distress ? If not for
our sake, at least for the honour of thy name,
help us now.' Moved, as we believe, by
these and similar supplications, and com-
passionating their affliction, St. Maughold
delivered them from the imminent danger,
and condemned their enemy to a terrible
death. For when the aforesaid Gilcolum
had fallen asleep in his tent, St. Maughold
appeared to him clothed in a white garment,
and carrying the pastoral staff in his hand,
and standing before his bed, addressed him
in the following words : ' What is there
between thee and me, Gilcolum ? In what
have I injured thee or thine, that thou art
now about to plunder my place ?' To this
appeal Gilcolum replied : ' Who art thou ?'
The saint answered : ' I am the servant of
Christ, Maughold, whose church thou
seekest to profane, but thou shalt not
succeed.' Having spoken thus, he raised
on high the staff that was in his hand and
drove the point through Gilcolum's heart.
The unfortunate man uttered a fearful shriek
which awoke all who were sleeping in the
surrounding tents. Again the saint trans-
fixed him, again he shrieked. A third
time the saint repeated the blow, a third
time the man shrieked. His sons and
followers, alarmed by the screams, hastened
to him inquiring what had happened.
Scarcely able to move his tongue, he an-
swered with a groan : ' St. Maughold has
been here, and, thrice transfixing me with
his staff, has killed me. But go quickly to
his church and bring the staff with the
priests and clerks, that they may intercede
for me with St. Maughold, that he may per-



chance forgive what I was preparing to do
against him.' Quickly, in execution of his
orders, they begged the clerks to bring the
staff of St. Maughold and come to their
lord, who appeared to be lying in the last
extremity. They narrated also all that had
happened to him. The priests, clerks, and
people hearing this account rejoiced with a
great joy, and sent back with the messengers
some of the clerks, who bore the staff.
When they stood in his presence and saw
him almost expiring, for he had just before
lost the use of his voice, one of the clerks
pronounced the following imprecation :
' May St. Maughold, who has begun thy
punishment, cease not till he has brought
thee to death, that others, seeing and hear-
ing, may learn to show greater reverence to
holy places.'

" Having thus spoken, the clerks returned
home ; and after their departure such a
number of large black flies swarmed about
his face and mouth, that neither he nor his
attendants could keep them away. Thus did
he expire in great torture and agony about
the sixth hour of the day. Upon his death
such a great fear seized upon Somerled and
his army that, as soon as the ships were
floated by the rising tide, the fleet left the
port, and returned home as quickly as
possible."*

" The Miracle of St. Mary?

" There was a certain aged chief of the
name of Donald, a particular friend of
Harold, son of Olave. To escape the per-
secution of King Harold, son of Godred
Don, he fled with an infant son to the
monastery of St. Mary of Rushen. Harold
followed him to the monastery, and, unable
to use force within the holy precincts, ad-
dressed him with gentle and deceitful speech,
' Why dost thou thus fly from me? I intend
thee no injury,' and promised on oath that
he should be unmolested, and allowed to go
wheresoever he chose in his country. The
man, trusting the oath and honour of the
King, followed him out of the monastery.
After a short interval, the King, led on by
evil thoughts, and forgetful of his oath and
word, ordered the said man to be seized,
bound, and imprisoned in an island in the

* Chronicles of Man, vol. i., Munch's Translation.
Manx Sot., vol. xxii , pp. 71-75-



7&



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



forest of Mirescog, and guarded by numerous
keejxirs. The above-named chief, however,
had great confidence in the Lord. When-
ever it could be done conveniently, he
besought the Lord on his knees to deliver
him from his bonds, through the intercession
of His blessed mother the Virgin Mary, from
whose monastery he had been treacherously
taken. Nor did Divine assistance fail him.
One day, when he was sitting in the house
with only two guards, the rest having gone
out to look after their own affairs, all at once
the chains fell from his foot, and left him
free to escape. Reflecting, however, that he
would have a better chance of success if he
fled in the night, while his guards were asleep,
he endeavoured to replace his foot in the
chain ; this, however, he was not able to
do. Considering, therefore, that what had
happened was the effect of Divine interposi-
tion, he girded himself in his tunic and
cloak, and hastening out from the house, fled
away. One of the guards, who was engaged
in baking, perceiving his attempt, rose and
followed, but had not gone far when, anxious
to arrest the fugitive, he stumbled over a log
and nearly broke his leg, so that, instead of
continuing to run, he had become, through
the power of God, unable to stand. The
prisoner, thus liberated by the Divine favour,
came on the third day to the monastery of
St. Mary of Rushen, thanking the Almighty
and His most compassionate mother for his
freedom. We have written the above as we
had it from his own lips."*

King Orry.

Manx tradition has placed the arrival of a
certain King Orry, Oree, or Goree, at the
beginning of the tenth century, in the words
of the old ballad :

Till there came to them King Goree,
With his strong ships and kingly power,
At the Lhane he came to the shore.
lie was the first that e'er had her,
To be king of the island.
I never heard that he did harm,
Me did not kill any one there.
But I know there came of his race
Full thirteen kings of King Goree. t
(Translation by W. J. Cain and A. W. Moore.)



On his landing it is said he was met by a
deputation of the inhabitants. " One of the
deputation demanded whence he came.
' That is the way to my country,' he replied,
pointing to the galaxy, or milky- way ; and
even at the present time this celestial
phenomenon is known to the natives as
1 Raad mooar ree Goree,' that is, ' The
great road of King Goree.' "*

Note. That the Norse gods rode over the bridge,
bif rattst, or the rainbow, from earth to heaven, a
bridge which the giants could not cross.

Orry cannot be certainly regarded as an
historical personage, and the deeds attributed
to him were much more likely to have been
the work of the Godred, or Goree, who
conquered Man towards the end of the
eleventh century. Sir James Gell, however,
writes :

"It is hardly open to me, or to any
lawyer, to question the existence of King
Orry (the first of the name), since this king
was declared by the Deemsters and Keys in
1422 to have existed."!

There are various local monuments called
after this traditional king, but the names
are probably of recent origin. These
are Cashtal Ree Goree, a name given to
the ruins on The Ard, in the parish of
Maughold ; King Orry's Grave, a cromlech
near Laxey, and possibly Orrisdale, the name
of estates in the parishes of Michael and
Malew. It may be noted as curious that the
Swedes of the present day speak of L Kung
Orre's /id, " In King Orre's time," as a happy
period when a mythical king reigned. J

A traditional Welsh prince is said to have
been slain at the Cloven Stones in an invasion
of the island.^ The Cloven Stones, two in
number, are all that remain of a small stone
circle.

(To be continued.)

* Train, History of the Isle of Man, vol. i., p. 63.
t Abstract of Laws, Manx Soc, vol. xii., p. 11.
X Information from Dr. Sturzen-Becker, of Stock-
holm.

Jenkinson, Isle of Man Guide, p. 100.



* Chronicles of Man, vol. i., Munch 's Translation.
Manx Soc, vol. xxii., pp. 103-105.
t Train, History of the Isle of Man, vol. i., p. 52.



NOTE ON TWO BLUNDERED COINS.



77



mtz on Ctoo iBluntiereu Coins. fltHassatUng; ttie apple-trees.




By T. M. Fallow, M.A., F.S.A.

[OINS with blundered legends are
not uncommon, and in some few
modern coinages in which a blun-
der has escaped detection at first,
the few coins issued before the mistake was
observed, have acquired a fancy value among



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