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a certain class of collectors. On older coins
blunders are more frequent, and are not
generally of much importance or interest.
The two blundered coins in my possession




(which are illustrated here) seem, however,
to be of some little interest.

The older of these two coins is an ordinary
penny of Edward I. or Edward II., and the
legend on the obverse reads quite correctly :
" edw r. angl dns hyb " (Edwardus Rex
Anglie Dominus Hybernie). The legend on
the reverse is, however, curiously blundered,
and reads, "civi | tas | tas I lon," instead

Of " CIVI | TAS | LON | DON."

I shall be glad to know whether other
pennies struck from this blundered die have
been noted.




The second coin is a milled sixpence of
Charles I., with the Briot mint-mark of an
anchor. In this case, too, the legend on the
obverse is correct ; but in that on the reverse
the "r" of "christo" is left out, making
the legend read, "chisto avspice regno."
I shall also be glad to learn whether other
examples of this blundered sixpence are
known.




R. HARRY HEMS, of Exeter,

BM3M writes to us as follows :
M&M Referring to Mr. F. J. Snell's
article in the number for March,
1894, and note in January's issue of this year
relative to the above, it may be pleasant to
add that, in the Illustrated London News for
January n, 1851, there is an illustration en-
titled Firing at the Apple-tree, in Devon-
shire. The picture, of which a reduced
copy is given here, presents, as will be seen,
a frosty, moonlight night, with a brilliantly lit
old farmhouse in the background. In the
fore are leafless fruit-trees, and three men
firing guns at them, whilst the jovial farmer
and another man drink success to the year's
crop from glasses evidently filled from a jug of
cider, which the latter also holds a-high. A
crowd of peasants men, women and chil-
dren are gathered around, and the following
description is appended :

"Amongst the scenes of jocund hospitality
in this holiday season, that are handed down
to us, is one which not only presents an
enlivening picture, but offers proof of the
superstition that still prevails in the Western
counties. On Twelfth Eve, in Devonshire,
it is customary for the farmer to leave his
warm fireside, accompanied by a band of
rustics, with guns, blunderbusses, etc., pre-
senting an appearance which at other times
would be somewhat alarming. Thus armed,
the band proceed to an adjoining orchard,
where is selected one of the most fruitful and
aged of the apple trees, grouping round which
they stand and offer up their invocations in
the following quaint doggrel rhyme :

Here's to thee,

Old apple-tree !
Whence thou mayst bud,
And whence thou mayst blow,
And whence thou mayst bear

Apples enow :

Hats full,

Caps full,
Bushels, bushels, sacks full,
And my pockets full, too !

Huzza ! huzza !

The cider-jug is then passed around, and,
with many a hearty shout, the party fire off
their guns, charged with powder only, amidst



78



WASSAILING THE APPLE-TREES.



the branches, sometimes frightening the owl
from its midnight haunt. With confident
hopes they return to the farmhouse and are
refused admittance, in spite of all weather,



man who gained admittance receiving the
honour of ' king for the evening,' and till a
late hour he reigns, amidst laughter, fun and
jollity. The origin of this custom is not




FIRING AT 'HIE AFTLE-TREE, IN DEVONSHIRE.



till some lucky wight guesses aright the pecu- known, but it is supposed to be one of great

liar roast the maidens are preparing for their antiquity.

comfort. This done, all enter, and soon " The illustration is from a sketch by Mr.

right merrily the jovial glass goes round, that Colebrooke Stockdale."



Jtattan IBptoaps :

NOTES ON THE HISTORY OF
RAPALLO.

By the Rev. P. H. Ditchfiei.d, M.A, F.S.A.



jHIS ancient Italian town, too little
visited by Englishmen, possesses
many features of unique interest.
Its quiet, quaint streets, its
picturesque arcades and towers, render
Rapallo an extremely attractive place ; and
the annals of its history rival in interest the




more stirring chronicles of Genoa and Pisa.
During several centuries it was a town of
great importance. For many years this
Queen of the Tigulian Sea reigned as a
mighty republic, armed large warships and
galleys, and her aid was courted by other
powerful Italian States. She lent her aid to
the great Republic of Genoa, especially in
the never-ending wars against the Pisani.
She fought against the Romans, Venetians,
Florentines, Saracens, the Modenesi, and many
others all of whom felt the strong hand of the
Rapallo Republic. As one wanders through
its quiet streets, or along the beautiful shore



ITALIAN B YWA VS.



79



of its bay, it is almost impossible to realize
the busy scenes and martial spectacles that
once took place there, to see again the old
walls stained with frequent bloodshed, when
Guelph and Ghibelline waged their inter-
necine war, and the harbour was thronged
with the captive galleys of a conquered foe.

Nestling at the foot of the Apennines, and
surrounded by a semicircle of mountains,
protected by strong walls and gates, Rapallo
must have proved a formidable foe. It was
protected also by gallant sailors and citizens,
whose descendants are no degenerate race,
though Italian prosperity has fled from its
shores. Several memorials of the former
greatness and might of this fair town still
remain. It claims to be more ancient even
than its formidable neighbour, Genoa. Its
ancient name was Tigullia, which Pliny men-
tions, who travelled through Liguria, and care-
fully observed its shore. The Gulf of Rapallo
preserved for centuries the ancient name of
the town, as it is called Tigullio. Mythical
derivations are as current in Italy as in
England, and without conjecturing the true
origin of the name, Rapallo, we may at least
venture to doubt that it is derived from the
name of a mythical hero, Re Poolo, or Re
Apollo, who died in a battle fought in the
plain on the west of the town. Pallas
Athene was the presiding goddess, and
Rapallo had a temple dedicated to her
honour, containing her statue. There is an
inscription over the cathedral which narrates
that a temple once stood there dedicated
to Pallas, in the fifty-sixth year of Caesar
Augustus, and that the people were con-
verted to Christianity by St. Gervasius and
St. Protosius, a.d. 68. This inscription was
discovered in 1149 a.d.

In the house of Marchese Jacopo Baratta
there is a very ancient monument in the
atrium, a bas-relief with three figures, with
an inscription in Greek characters to the
memory of Vasellaius and his wife Puro-
pamane. Some of the letters are obliterated,
and the darkness of the atrium makes it
difficult to decipher the inscription with
accuracy. It appears to be as follows :
'manhte kepamo[s] vasellaiou iiupwIIa-
minh . ot h funh.'

The learned Cavedoni pronounces it to be
one of the rarest of the oldest monuments



in Italy. Pope Galasius, when on his way
to consecrate the cathedral church of San
Lorenzo at Genoa, stayed here to consecrate
the new cathedral in 1 118.

Another very ancient memorial spans the
former course of the river Boato, on the
west of the town. An old Roman road
skirts the coast-line, and is carried over the
river by a bridge, which bears the name
Hannibal's Bridge (Ponte di Annibale).
The stream has long since left its ancient
bed, but the bridge remains. It consists of
a solitary arch, and across it Hannibal is said
to have passed on his triumphal march after
the Battle of Trasimene, u.c. 536. We fear
this is a myth, as the course of the conqueror
after that battle was much further eastward.
But it is possible that he may have passed
along this ancient Roman road on his way to
the South. There were several Roman forts
stationed on the surrounding hills, on Poggio
di Borzoli, Monte Grosso, Monte Leto,
Monte Balisto, Monte Dorsena, and Monte
Crovara. Two of these, Monte Leto and
Monte Balista, are mentioned by Livy, where
took place a great battle of the Ligurians
against the Romans in the year of Rome
514, in which was killed the Consul Quintus
Petilius. The Ligurians were of Celtic
origin, and fought fiercely with the Romans,
carrying on a ceaseless war, often defeated in
open fight, but ever escaping to their native
hills and fastnesses, whence they defied the
approach of the legions.

We will now glance at the fortifications of
the town in mediaeval times. It was sur-
rounded by walls, and had five gates, two of
which are still standing. On the west, at the
mouth of the stream Boato, there was the
Porta della Saline, so called from the Salines,
or salt works, which were much used before
Genoa became mistress of Rapallo, and
levied a heavy tax on salt. Here was the
Saline Tower, which was destroyed by a
flood in 1 61 3. On the same rock another
tower was built by Gian Divigo, but this also
shared the fate of its predecessor at the
beginning of the present century. Following
the course of the walls, and passing near the
Ponte di Annibale, we come to the Porte
Occidentale, or Degli Orti, which is still
standing. Another gate was in the gardens
behind the church of SS. Gervasio and Pro-



8o



ITALIAN BYWAYS.



tasio. Behind the hospital stood Porta San
Antonio, and on the east the Porta San
Francisco.

The present bay affords little shelter for
ships. Where did the fleet of galleys rest
when they were not fighting the Pisani or the
Venetians ? There is, indeed, the Porti-
ciuolo, or little harbour, near the villa of
that name, built by the Marchese de Serra,
now the property of Henry Bubb, Esq. ; but
this harbour is so small that it could never
have held more than one or two galleys.
We have seen that the course of the river
Boato has changed. In ancient times the
port of I-angano extended as far as Hanni-
bal's Bridge, and afforded a good harbour,
and under this bridge ships used to pass to
the I^ake Catalano, now drained and dry,
almost as far as the monastery of Valle
Christi. Thus the fleet of the gallant little
republic found every accommodation in its
harbour against Mediterranean storms.
There was also a strong fortress with four
towers on the little hill Amandolesi, which
was destroyed by Rotari, King of Longo-
bardi, in the seventh century.

The people did not rely only on the
strength of their own walls. When the
Saracens plundered the coasts and their
own vessels and gallant sons were fighting
elsewhere, the inhabitants could retire to
their hill fortresses, which were fourteen in
number, and escape from the plunderers.
Their army was not drawn entirely from the
town only, as their republic extended over a
large area, to the Podesteria of Beragno on
the west, and Sestri on the east, and to the
confines of Piacentino, Parmigiano, and
Bobliense in the north.

But the brave little republic was not
always successful ; it had very strong and
determined foes to encounter. In 1 170 the
Pisani avenged themselves for many injuries
by plundering and well-nigh destroying the
town, carrying away many women as
prisoners. At Mebria the warriors of
Rapallo fought bravely together with the
Genoese. The standard of the two griffins
often waved proudly by the side of that of
the sister republic, and so gratified was the
latter for the assistance rendered, that the
griffins were incorporated by the Genoese
in their arms. Not long after this a strange



event happened. In 1229 the Genoese
conquered the people of Rapallo ; but this
defeat is not so recorded in the annals of
the town. Rapallo states that it was not
conquered, but contends that it voluntar'ly
submitted to the growing power of its sister
or rival.

Hard times were in store for the town.
The French attacked it in 1494, and captured
Rapallo in spite of a gallant resistance,
and massacred the inhabitants. With con-
summate brutality they even slaughtered
fifty poor invalids who were confined in the
hospital. But in the following year the
Genoese avenged the defeat. Under the
leadership of Spinola, surnamed II Moro, they
defeated the French both by land and sea,
and burnt their ships, which were driven into
the port of Langano, nigh Hannibal's Bridge.
Previous to the assault of the French,
Rapallo was often troubled by pirates,
Saracens, and other marauders. In 1349
a great pirate, named Draguet, attacked
the town on the night of July 6, burnt many
of the buildings, and carried away one
hundred prisoners.

Besides these troubles from without, there
were internal conflicts also, families divided
against families, some taking part with the
Guelphs, and others with the Ghibelline
faction, fighting night after night in the
narrow streets, and staining the walls of the
Church of San Stefano with blood. The
strongly-barred windows of the ground floor
rooms of the palaces and houses testify to
the danger of the times when each house
was a fortress and killing and fighting were
the order of each day. Such internal strife
could only have one effect the weakening
of the town and the republic or countship,
which thus fell an easy victim to the French-
men or the pirates. A mediaeval fortress still
stands on a rock jutting out into the sea,
which recalls the troublous times of the
pirates. It is called the Tower of the
Saracens. It first appears in history in the
year 1209, when it is called the Castrum de
Venaggi, as it was probably built to defend
the neighbouring quarter of the town called
by that name. It is now used as a prison
and coastguard station,

The two principal families who fought so
fiercely in the Guelph and Ghibelline quarrels



ITALIAN B YIVA VS.



were those of the Delia Torre and the
Marchioni; one fought for the Spinola and
the other for the Doria faction. Thus the
disputes and quarrels of the powerful Genoese
families were reproduced with all their bitter-
ness in Rapallo. The combatants were dis-
tinguished by their badges, "white" and
" black." As time went on, the families and
parties changed, but the fighting continued.
In the seventeenth century the " greens " and
the " blues " fought with accustomed ferocity.
The former were the partisans of the chief
Genoese families, the Spinolas, Durazzo,
Lomelini, Fieschi, Gentile, Pasque,
Giustiniani, and Franzoni ; and the latter,
the blens de del, were the Turchini. Nothing
could stay the fierce quarrels which ensued.
The Archbishop tried in vain to reconcile
their differences. At length, after many years
of fighting, a monk, Carlo Vincenzo, contrived
to accomplish the task, and acted the part of
peacemaker. On the Festa del Rosario a
statue of the Virgin, draped in green and
blue, was carried in procession through the
town, and the rival factions laid down their
arms and swore eternal friendship, while the
bells rung joyously and cannons roared a
welcome to the unaccustomed blessings of
peace.

Im spite of the storms and tempests which
have destroyed many noble families, the
Spinolas still remain. In 1700 Marchese
Spinola built a sumptuous palace at Rapallo,
which is now the Hotel de l'Europe. It was
erected on the site of the cemetery of an
ancient hospice, called the Hospice of St.
Christopher, of the existence of which in
1 240 we have documentary evidence. Hither
flocked the pilgrims on their way to Rome,
journeying along the old, narrow, ill-paved
Roman road, across the Bridge of Hannibal,
and then, having stayed a night at the hospice,
they pursued their long journey to Rome.
In the neighbourhood of Rapallo we find
many objects of antiquarian and historical
interest. There are the remains of the
Gothic convent of Valle Christi, founded in
1204. It was a Cistercian monastery, and
was suppressed in 1502 by the decree of the
Pope. The church was destroyed in the time
of Napoleon. The tower is still preserved,
but time has dealt severely with the ruins,
which now serve the purpuse of farm buildings.

VOL. XXXI.



Then, after a severe climb, we reach the
summit of Mont Allegro, where there is a
hospice for pilgrims, and a wonderful picture
by a Greek artist, of the Virgin, which was
conveyed by some miraculous means to this
fair sanctuary.

Little has been written of the history of
Rapallo, or of the countless other places on
this beautiful and interesting coast. The
castle of Portifino, the shrine of St. Erasmus,
built by the sailors of Sta. Margherita, the
ancient convent of Cervara, founded by
Guido Scetten, Archbishop of Genoa in 1325
these and many other places would well
repay the study of the antiquary. Then there
are the industries. The lacemakers of
Rapallo were renowned as early as 1225.
The workers of " Pizzi " and the " Merletti "
wondrous gold and silver lace for the adorn-
ment of beds were almost as renowned as
the sturdy sailors of Rapallo, who searched
for coral, and explored the coasts of Sardinia
and North Africa. In the fifteenth and six-
teenth century Rapallo had an enormous lace
trade, which brought prosperity to the town,
in spite of internecine conflicts and faction
fights. Italian unity has not yet restored
prosperity to this old-world place; but its
people seem to enjoy that quiet happiness
which is characteristic of their race. If any
wandering antiquary should stray thither, and
endeavour to investigate the history of its
palaces, forts, religious houses, and other
objects of interest, he will not be disappointed
in filling up the sketch which we have given
of old Rapallo.



OBast ftwton C&urcf), Jftotfolk.

By J. Lewis Andre, F.S.A.



HIS church is conspicuously placed
on slightly-rising ground, and apart
from the few dwellings of which
the village of East Ruston is at
present composed. The dedication is to
St. Mary, who appears to have also had a
separate chapel in the churchyard, but which
is now destroyed. The fabric formerly com-
prised a lofty west tower, a nave and aisles

M




82



EAST KUSTON CHURCH, NORFOLK.



of five bays, a south porch, chancel, and a
north vestry, which last and the north aisle
have perished. Although the structure, as a
whole, is not remarkable, there are one or
two details which are interesting and un-
usual. In the first place, the 3rd P. tower,
which has no outer doorway, but a small
west window only, has beneath the window
the blocked-up niche here shown, and of
which the filling-in is composed of bricks
and flints, the former by their size, 9 inches







S found line

NICHE UNDER WEST WINDOW.

by 2, showing that the mutilation is of some-
what ancient date, and probably took place
in the sixteenth century. There is no ap-
pearance of the opening having been a
window, and it in all likelihood held an
image, as a similar feature in the neigh-
bouring church at Ludham has a moulded
string or base mould instead of the bevelled
sill here shown. The Ludham example is
1 1 inches in depth to the present backing ;
it has a plainly trefoiled arch, without a
label, and is 1 foot 9 inches wide, whilst at
Ruston the opening had a clear width of
15 inches only. A road runs immediately



in front of the tower at East Ruston, so that
the niche and its statuette would be con-
spicuously visible to every passer-by.

The rood screen remains, and shows that
the loft above it was carried on vaulting j
and there is this peculiarity in the construc-
tion of the screen that east of the doorway
through it are two long narrow panels placed
at right angles to the enclosure, and having
standards terminated by lions passant gules,
crined or. The tracery of the screen has
perished, but shows indications of its having
been in two planes. The lower panels are
painted with the Four Evangelists on the
north side, and the Four Doctors on the
south, the figures being fairly perfect, and of
late fifteenth-century execution. The Evan-
gel ists are accompanied by their usual emblems,
with the exception of Jit. Matthew, who ap-
pears as his own emblem in propria persona,
instead of being, as is almost invariably the
case, attended by the figure of an angel.
Here the Apostle is seen with the wings and
the cross-crowned head-dress of an angelic
being, and he wears a mantle with an ermine
cape, the usual token of high rank in the
wearer; but the ermine is most probably in
this instance an indication either of priestly
eminence, or that St. Matthew was a rich
man, unlike the other Evangelists and
Apostles. He is habited in a golden alb,
as are also the three other Evangelists ; his
mantle is white, shaded with blue, and lined
with red ; his wings are of green inside, and
of gold outside ; his nimbus is green, and
the background to the figure is red, with
golden flowers.

Such treatment of the effigy of St. Matthew
is unusual in England, and I am unaware
of any similar example of a series of the
Evangelists in which one alone forms his
recognised emblem. Figures of men bear-
ing the heads of the evangelistic animals
are met with in some instances abroad,
especially in early Christian mosaics. They
so occur in a painting by Era Angelico da
Fiesole, and in one by Barnabas de Modena,
in which St. Matthew is seen as a bearded
angel. The effect produced by these half-
bestial, half-human effigies is at once repulsive
and ludicrous, and the designer of the Ruston
series is to be praised for the manner in
which he has avoided this result by making



EAST RUSTON CHURCH, NORFOLK.



33



only one of his saints to form his own
emblem. In some foreign examples, all the
Four Evangelists are winged, as may be seen
in one mentioned by Mrs. Jameson in her
Sacred and Legendary Art, vol. i., p. 139.

The font here has also had the emblems
of the Evangelists on four of the eight panels




KATc/WP^
ONE OK THR EVANGELISTS, ON SCREEN.

of the bowl ; the others bore human faces,
one of which was that of our Lord within a
rayed glory; the base-mould is formed of
eight sprawling dragons. Unfortunately, the
whole of this once fine font has been
wretchedly recut in memory of a deceased
churchwarden, as a sinning brass plate fixed
to the stem informs us.

Perhaps it is worth noting that the foot-
pace of the south aisle altar remains intact,
and also that the inner door of the porch



has moulded fillets, and retains its strap-
hinges, which possess the peculiarity that
they pass over, and not under, the fillets as
usual, and follow the shape of the mould-
ings.

In the centre of the north and south walls
of the chancel, and at about 1 5 feet from the
floor, are two corbel heads, which perhaps
supported the beam from which the light
before the high altar was suspended.

The matrice of a brass remains in the
aisle, and has had a canopied figure with a
border having evangelistic symbols at the
corners, and also there is a slab with the
outlines of a cross fleury. Finally, an armorial
ledger is in memory of a Mrs. "Anna
Dunhami Bird," ob. April 2, 1680, aet. 27.
Arms, two bars within a bordure.




n a Pictisft TBurgb near
Lertoick.

By the Rev. E. Maui.e Cole, M.A., F.G.S.

HAVING a few hours to spend at
Lerwick, the capital of Shetland,
on my return from Norway the
summer before last, I made in-
quiries in the town whether there was any
old Pictish burgh within reasonable distance
which I could visit in the time. Murray's
Guide mentioned none, and Mousa, of
course, was too far off; still, there might be
a chance. For some time I met with no
success no one could answer my question.
At last, however, I came across an intelligent
bookseller, who said that he thought I should
find what I was in search of about a mile or
so from Lerwick, though there was not much
of it left, and he kindly gave me directions as
to the route. A party of some twelve or
fifteen ladies and gentlemen, who were my
companions on board ship, the City of Rich-
mond, having volunteered to join me in the
exploration, away we started, and in less than
half an hour reached a spot at the head of a
voe which we had no difficulty in recognising
as the site of an ancient burgh.

The remains stood on a low elevation,



8 4



ON A r/CTISH BURGH NEAR LERWICK.



about a hundred yards from the shore, which
was once probably an island, as the water
touched it on three sides, whilst on the re-
maining side an elevated causeway connected
it with the mainland, though we had no
occasion to make use of it, and, indeed, only
discovered it as we were leaving.

We first encountered an outer surrounding
wall, the remains of which in places 5 feet
high were continuous on the land side, but
seemed to fail on the opposite side, as if that
had l>ecn thought sufficiently protected by



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