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the water. Possibly, however, the waves had
destroyed it, as there were heaps of stones
lying about.

There was a narrow entrance, 4 feet wide
and 32 feet long, through this wall, and two

of the wall a passage, 5 feet wide, consisting
partly of steps, partly of level spaces. The
wall was circular, and enclosed an area open
to the sky of some 25 feet in diameter ; but
this we had to guess at, as the ground inside
was much deeper than the outside, and we
were not ambitious to break a limb. There
were three openings in the wall, which
evidently had served for windows, one on the
inside, nearly over the entrance to the keep,
looking into what we may call the courtyard,
and two on the outside overlooking the water,
one directly opposite to the entrance in the
first-named outer wall, though on the further
side of the keep ; the other, at right angles
to it.

It was remarkable that the entrance to the


stone chambers attached to it on the inside.
The wall itself was 16 feet thick, and each
chamber 8 feet wide. The height of the
passage was about 4 feet. Two upright
stone posts, on either side of the passage,
and 12 feet distant from the outside, marked
the site of a sort of primitive portcullis. The
chambers were doubtless continuous over the
passage, as no entry into those on the right
hand was observable in the wall, whereas an
inner one on the left had some steps leading
to it. Between the outer wall and the wall
of the keep there was a space of 30 feet.

We now mounted this inner wall, which
was from 8 feet to 9 feet high, and found it
to be 15 feet in width, having in the thickness

keep was not opposite to the entrance in the
outer wall, but at some fifty degrees to the
left, that is to say, supposing the outer
entrance to have faced west, the entrance to
the inner wall faced north-west. This latter
entrance consisted of a narrow passage, about
4 feet square, along which we had to creep.
At a distance of 6 feet there were two upright
stone posts on either side, similar to those in
the outer entrance, into which a stone slab
might have been dropped, so as to afford an
effectual barrier. One of the level spaces
above mentioned was close to the end of the
passage. It had probably formed a sort of
guardroom, though of small dimensions.
Indeed, none of the chambers could have



1/ X Walla and
Chambers pcirfly


A btone jambs 'oi doorway m outer wail

8 Chambers

C fhrrance m inner wall

Opening 'or window 'o inside

E Openmgi for windows fo xirside

F Chambers on wall

been more than 5 feet wide, nor did they being simply laid one upon another, though
exceed this in height. No mortar was very evenly, and showing few interstices,
apparent anywhere, the stones of the walls The original height of the burgh can only



be conjectured from that still standing on
Mousa, or Moss ey, as it is called in Kgil's
Saga. That, according to Murray, is 42 feet
high. The following is Worsaae's description
of it :*

"Another ancient Celtic tower, which
tradition decidedly states to have been occu
pied by Norwegians, and which, on that
account, has a particular interest for a Scan-
dinavian, lies on the little island of Mousa
(the ancient Mosey), close to the sound that
se|xrates the island from the south-eastern
coast of Mainland. The tower is, fortunately,
the best preserved one of the kind in the
british Islands. It rises to the height of

centric stone walls, the innermost of which
encloses an open space of ahout 20 feet
wide. The two concentric walls are each
5 feet thick, and stand at a distance of 5 feet
from each other. The small space between
them formed the habitable part of the tower.
From the open yard we ascend a stone stair-
case, and, before we reach the top, seven
divisions, or stories, are passed, separated by
large flagstones, which form a ceiling for one
story and a floor for the next. In the dif-
ferent compartments, which quite encircle
the tower, are small square openings, or air-
holes, one above the other, and looking out
into the inner yard."


lietween forty and fifty feet, like an immense
and perfectly round stone pillar, but bulging
out towards the middle. Its appearance
from without is quite plain, and no other
opening can be perceived in the wall than the
entrance-door, which even originally was so
low that it was necessary to creep through it.
To attack the tower, even when the door stood
open, was not easy, and the bulging of the
wall in the middle rendered the scaling of it
almost impossible. The entire tower is al>out
50 feet in diameter, and consists of two con-

* Worsaae, Danes and Norwegians.

This description of the burgh at Mousa
tallies with the account above given of the
one which we examined near Lerwick, and
shows that the two were constructed on the
same principle by the same people. A slight
difference, however, is observable in the fact
that the one at Mousa has no external aper-
ture except the entrance gate, whereas the
one we are describing has two outside open-
ings towards the water, one on the north,
4 feet, the other to the east, 8 feet or 9 feet
from the ground, and possibly may have had
more. On the other hand, these may have
been later insertions.



A further and more important difference
consists in the absence of any encircling wall
at Mousa at least, we are told of none ;
and this is so prominent a feature at Lerwick
that, had one existed at Mousa, it could
hardly have been passed over.

There is yet another peculiar feature to be
mentioned. On examining the ground be-
tween the outer wall and the wall of the
burgh, a distance of 30 feet, we found in
many places a number of stone walls, 3 feet to
4 feet high, forming very narrow passages and
small chambers ; in two instances, a narrow
passage, 2 feet wide, terminated in three
wider openings or chambers, like the leaf of
a trefoil. It seemed as if a population of
some kind had lived outside the burgh, but
within the encircling outer wall, and the
dwellings may be called subterranean, as they
were partly earthed over.

As I have not had an opportunity of con-
sulting any writers on this subject, with the
exception of Worsaae, I am not aware what
opinions are held as to the antiquity of these
remarkable burghs, or by what race they are
supposed to have been built. " Pictish " is
the word commonly associated with them ;
if so, they may date back to a.d. 300.
Worsaae calls them "Celtic," but I should
not be surprised to find that they were older
than either, and that the race which built
them, presumably a diminutive one, was the

P.S. Since writing the above I find that
Sir Walter Scott alludes to this very burgh,
near Lerwick, in his notes to " Ivanhoe." It
appears that the lake is connected with the
sea at high water, when the tower is com-
pletely surrounded, and even the causeway
submerged, so that we must have approached
it at low water, and were too intent on the
ruins to notice all the surroundings. My
notebook has the mysterious word "Clicka-
min "* written in it, and I think this must be
the name of the place or the tower. My
friend, Mr. W. H. C. Crump, of London,
kindly assisted me in taking the measure-

* Chickhemin Loch.- -Ed.

apona, anglesea.

By the Late Mr. IT. II. Lines.
(Continued ixom p. 74.)

HE most singular feature connected
with the group of ancient sepulchres
on the peak of Bodafon consists of
two or three successive ranges of
rock-hewn enclosures leading up the side of
the mountain till they approach and touch the
great 7 feet carnedd on its south-east side.
These enclosures extend for 100 feet below
the carnedd, at least I traced them so far; but
1 believe they are carried to a greater distance,
only want of time prevented my ascertaining
that for a certainty. This series of rough
terraces was a great surprise to me, as I had
not before heard of such an arrangement.
Commencing at 100 feet below the carnedd,
we enter a roughly-shaped portal or entrance
between two natural outcrops opening into a
roughly-shaped semicircular area, where three
ridges of the rock in situ rise one above the
other, the second ridge being 2 feet above
that which is below it. Passing these, we
enter a pear-shaped enclosure 30 feet by 20
feet, its upper end abutting close upon the
largest carnedd. The rocks forming this
semicircular end stand 4 feet high above the
enclosure, which has been worked into its
required form by a considerable amount of
labour. Across the centre of the enclosure
is a demarcation of stones level with the
turf, giving a space of 1 1 feet diameter, with
a gap in the rock next to the carnedd for
access to it. This 1 1 feet space is no doubt
the sacred adytum in which some religious
rites or offerings were made to the spirits of
the dead. I am led to this surmise by the
evidence of labour bestowed for 100 feet
down the side of the mountain upon the
rocks in situ, the hewing out of successive
terraces, terminating in an oval excavation
close to the principal tomb. The natural
geological formation gave the leading forms,
which have been hacked and hewed for the
purpose required by human labour. The
rocks retain their rough splintery surfaces,
and appear to have been wrought into shape
by reducing their vertical ends to a more
uniform condition. Whether this has been
effected by the aid of stone celts used as



chisels or with metal tools is uncertain, but
the greater probability is that stone imple-
ments were used for the purpose, as, if
metal had been used more workmanlike
surfaces would have been produced, though
the rock is a compact, impure schist. The
whole thing appears at first by a casual
glance to be nothing more than the usual
rough condition of a natural rock surface,
but a slight observation soon detects some
characteristics in which human brains and
hands have been at work. As far as I am
aware, no attempt has been made to ascer-
tain the kind of work which may be done
with stone celts. That they were the prede-
cessors of the axe, the chisel, and the spade,
we are pretty certain, and they may have
been in use long after the adoption of bronze
or iron, even by the same people using both,
notwithstanding the Danish classification,
which is now considered by many archaeolo-
gists as empirical.

I think we may assume that the large
7 foot carnedd was the first erection on the
highest peak visible far out at sea, and that
it was in honour of this tomb, or, rather, of
the ashes it contained, symbolizing the de-
parted spirit of some chief of note, that the
singular arrangement of the adjoining adytum
was constructed. The lower terraces of ap-
proach, as well as the other burial-cists, would
come afterwards, a short time intervening.
As the Bodafon cromlech reveals to us one
form of hero, or ancestral worship, these
carneddau exhibit another form. In the
first we find an altar, lustration stone, and
circular adytum, with place of presidency ;
in the other we miss these accessories, except
the adytum. Whatever may have been the
ceremonies of propitiation, no stone remains
to indicate their character. It is maintained
by some archaeologists that interments in
carneddau preceded those which took place
in the more sumptuous cromlech. If this is
correct, we may reasonably place these
carneddau among the most ancient mortuary
remains in Anglesea. The British name of
the mountain is significant, Bodafon, or the
abode at the river ; the river is a mile distant,
and small, as are all the rivers in the island.
The bods probably once covered the craggy
sides of the mountain, an assumption of
which I observed many indications.

Upon another peak of the same mountain,
but a little inferior in height, is a much
larger group of mortuary-cists, forming a
carnedd of 65 feet by 50 feet, and standing
5 feet high, less than half its original height
It has been so much disturbed, and appears
in such confusion, that I could not make out
its definite shape. It has been filled as
closely as possible with small oval and
circular cavities, but no flat stones to give
the square form of burial-cists are observable.
Each cist was constructed with small stones.
My impression was that this was the general
cemetery of the tribe whose abode was upon
the entire mountain. Neither this great
carnedd nor that upon the higher peak bear
evidence of ever having been covered with
earth or vegetation other than moss.

In reference to the word bod, I find a
definition worth notice in Rowlands' Mono,
A/i/i(/ua, written in 1723. Rowlands was a
native of Anglesea, and appears to have
been well acquainted with its antiquities.
He says, speaking of the ancient inhabitants:
"They fixed themselves on the tops of
rising grounds and eminences, where they
built themselves little holds or fences to dwell
in, consisting of clusters of small round and
oval foundations, whose very irregularities
speak for their antiquity ; they are called
Cyttiau-r-gwyddelod (the Irishmen's huts).
The words ' gwydd ' and ' hela ' mean wood-
rangers. Supposing, therefore, these two
British words to be the correct derivation,
they would apply to the aborigines while
they were hunters in the woods. After a
time, when they gave up a vagrant manner
of life, and began to fix and establish their
dwellings in better selected localities, build-
ing them in a more permanent manner,
they called them ' bods,' that is, fixed and
settled in the way of living, as this very
ancient word ' bod ' ever imports. They seem
also to have been the chiefest and principal
mansions of every particular colony, as those
colonies became subdivided into families.
The allotment of land assigned to each bod
would be called ' tref or 'tyr-ef,'that is, such a
one's land, as in Saxon usage would be called
hamlet. So also when these inferior owners
of such allotted land had enclosed a spot of
it for their own defence and residence, that
small enclosure, whether of wood or stone,



they might call 'caer,' as we find some of
these smaller entrenchments are still called,
with the addition of the founder's name, as
Caer Eleni, Caer Eneon, Caer Gethir, Caer
Gwrie, etc." I would remark upon this that
we find the great mansions of many of the
old Welsh families still retain the prefix
" bod."

In the absence of any reliable accounts
relative to these remains on the Bodafon,
we may conclude that whoever was en-
tombed and worshipped on the high peak
must have been a character of some renown
in his time a king or great chief of
Gwynedd and also that he left behind
him successors who have been placed in
subordinate tombs around him, a succession
probably of two generations. These would
excavate the places for religious ceremonial
and ancestral invocations down the sloping
sides of the mountain.

(To be continued.)

Publications ann proceedings of
archaeological Societies.

The Glastonbury Arch.eological Society has
issued, in pamphlet form, with a plentiful supply of
admirable illustrations, an account of the British lake
village discovered near Glastonbury. The pamphlet,
which is published by Messrs. Barnicott and Pearce,
of Taunton, for is., contains letters and papers by
Dr. Munro, Professor Boyd - Dawkins, Mr. A. J.
Evans, and Mr. Bulleid, the original discoverer of
the lake village. We are in no sense using the lan-
guage of exaggeration when we say that few better
accounts, briefly told, of an archaeological discovery
of the highest interest, have ever been issued. A
person who previously possessed no knowledge at all
respecting a lake village, would speedily gather from
this capital pamphlet, full information as to the
character and date of the Glastonbury lake village,
its inhabitants, and their dwellings, besides learning
incidentally a great deal on the subject of lake
dwellings in general. We have very great confidence
in commending the pamphlet to the notice of our
readers as a brief, but lucid and intelligent account of
one of the most important of recent antiquarian dis-
coveries made in this country.

At a meeting of the British Archaeological Asso-
ciation on January 17, the chairman, Mr. C. II.
Compton, vice president, announced that the Council

had unanimously elected Mr. George Patrick to the
office of honorary secretary in succession to Mr. E. P.
Loftus-Brock. F.S.A., who recently succeeded Mr.
Allan Wyon, F.S.A., in the treasurership of the asso-
ciation. The Rev. G. B. Lewis, M.A., exhibited
some photographs in further illustration of the very
singular double font at Great Toller Church, Dorset,
described by him in the current number of the
Journal. An interesting discussion ensued as to the
probable date of the more ancient portion of the font,
and the possibility of its having been a Roman altar
converted into a font in early Christian days. Mr.
Brock, however, pointed out that the font was of
early Norman date, the upper part, of octagonal form,
being of the Perpendicular period. Mr. Lewis also
exhibited a photograph of a Norman font discovered
some years ago in a pond at Whaddon, in Wiltshire,
which, on being taken up, was used as the basin of
an ornamental fountain in a garden, from which dese-
cration it was rescued by Mr. Lewis, and through his
instrumentality was placed in Hilperton Church by
the present rector. Mr. Oliver exhibited the upper
part of an oak bench-end of the Perpendicular period,
with the tale of the fox and goose carved on it. A
description of some recent discoveries on the site of
the White Lion Inn at Bristol, by Dr. Fryer, was
read. Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., hon. sec,
next read a paper on " The Importance of Preserving
Welsh Manuscripts." This evoked considerable dis-
cussion, and several useful suggestions were made by
the chairman and others, as to the methods which
should be adopted to procure the preservation and
careful cataloguing of these documents.

#$ +

At the annual meeting of the Yorkshire Archaeo-
logical Society, which was held in Leeds on
January 31, the members of the Council submitted
their thirtieth report, in which they congratulated the
society on a record of good work accomplished during
the past year. We very greatly regret, however, to
see that a serious mistake is contemplated in the pub-
lication piecemeal in the Journal of the society of the
new edition of the Domesday Book for Yorkshire.
This ought, undoubtedly, to form an independent
volume by itself, and as the society possesses an ex-
cellent "Record Series" department, we cannot imagine
what sinister influence has induced the Council to
contemplate such an unfortunate blunder as that
which is proposed. We hope that even yet it may
not be too late to correct what will be a very serious
catastrophe if carried out.

In view of the proposed visit of the Royal Archreo-
logical Institute to Scarborough in the summer of the
present year, the Council has accepted an invitation
to combine with the Institute for the purposes of the
meeting, the details of which are being arranged at
the present time.

The report alluded to the additions made to the
library during the year, and the necessity for the
removal of the library itself from Huddersfield to
some more central position in Leeds. We are dis-
posed to believe that York would be a better centre
for the society than even Leeds, owing to the greater
railway facilities existing at York. A removal from
Huddersfield is, however, imperatively necessary if


9 o


the society is to realize its title as the archaeological
society of the county, and not merely that of the West
Riding only.

During 1894 thirty seven new members were
elected, and the total number is now about 640,
which shows a slow though steady increase, but which
is still far short of the proper quota which the great
county of Yorkshire, with its population of nearly
three and a quarter millions, ought to contribute to
its Archaeological Society.

$ *ff


The report as regards the "Record Series" of the
society stated that only one volume was issued in
1894 namely, volume xvi which contained the
Yorkshire portion of the Lay Subsidy collected in
the twenty-fifth year of Edward I. This volume has
l>een edited by Mr. W. Brown, who has another
volume of Yorkshire Lay Sul>sidies in hand for the
society. The report further stated that Mr. Brown is
preparing another volume of Inquisitions for publica-
tion, which will probably form one of the volumes for
the year 1897. The next volume of Lay Subsidies
will, it is hoped, be issued in 1896. The second
volume for 1894, Mr. Baildon's volume of notes re-
ating to Yorkshire monasteries, is nearly ready for
issue. It was hoped that this volume would have
been in the hands of subscribers some months ago,
but unexpected and unavoidable delays have arisen,
for which the indulgence of subscribers is asked. The
volumes for 1895 are new in hand. They will be
(1) a further instalment of the " Index of York Wills,"
which has been prepared by Mr. A. Gibbons, and will
be edited by Dr. Collins ; and (2) a further instalment
of the " Royalist Composition Papers for Yorkshire,"
which will be edited by Mr. J. W. Clay. It is hoped
that both of these volumes will be in the hands of sub-
scribers before the end of the year. The report pro-
ceeded to regret that the York Wills Funo is now
nearly exhausted. After paying for the volume of
index now being prepared by Mr. Gibbons, and for
the alphabetical arrangement of the volumes, the
balance in hand will be very small. Further sub
scriptions, therefore, are needed in order to carry the
index up to the year 1636, as suggested in 1893.

+G +$


Mr. Edmund Wilson, F.S.A., who presided in the
absence of Colonel Brooke (the president of the
society), said it was most satisfactory to know that
the investment fund now amounted to ,1,200, so that
the society was on a sound and solvent basis. The
balance-sheet of the "Record Series" showed that
the special subscription for indexing wills at York was
soon exhausted. He thought everyone would be glad
to see the work was progressing. How much they
owed to Dr. Collins in connection with this work it
would be most difficult to estimate ; but this work
alone had given the society a reputation not only in
England, but in America among people speaking the
same language. In conclusion, the chairman spoke
of the desirability of finding a permanent home for
the society, where the library could be housed, and
for the holding of their meetings. He thought, in
conjunction with other societies, rooms might be found
at a rental that they would not feel burdensome ; and

in addition to the advantages such a place would give
them for the transaction of the society's business, its
existence would be an inducement to their friends to
present the society with gifts illustrating or bearing
upon the antiquities of Yorkshire. There were en-
gravings and maps, and occasionally Roman remains
were being dug up, and such things would come to
them if only those who had them to bestow, knew that
they had a building in which they could be preserved.
Mr. William Brown, in seconding the adoption of
the report, spoke strongly in favour of the society
holding more meetings. He contended that even if
the meetings did not pay expenses, yet the society
would in the end be in pocket by those meetings.
Instead of having 600 members, there was no reason
why they should not have 1,200 members. In answer
to a question, Mr. Tomlinson (one of the hon. secre-
taries) said that the Thoresby Society had not as yet
been approached with regard to joining in the rental
of a home. There was an idea that perhaps that
meeting might give an instruction to approach the
Thoresby and other societies. If three or four other
societies could be induced to join them, it would bring
their share of the rental within their means. The
Chairman said that the Thoresby Society had talked
the matter over, and although he had no formal reso-
lution to propose, he thought himself justified in
saying that they were more than willing to consider
any feasible proposal that might be made to unite
with that and other societies in finding a home. The
resolution was adopted. On the motion of the Chair-

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