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and willing to write the history of the parishes within
their deaneries, as is the Rural Dean of Bicester. This
portion of Mr. Blomfield's history follows on the same
lines as those which have preceded it, and it includes
the history of the four parishes of Ardley, Bucknell,
Caversfield, and Stoke Lyne. The work is well and
carefully done, and, when the whole is completed, will
form a valuable addition to existing topographical his-
tories. In praising Mr. Blomfield's work, it is not
necessary always to agree with his conjectures, nor is
he on all points an infallible guide. For example, his
derivations of the different place-names are often
nothing but happy guesses, and in some instances
guesses which are anything but happy, and certainly
wrong ones. Then again, in speaking of a low side-
window at Ardley Church, not merely are we told
without a word as to other opinions about these
windows that it is a leper window, but a disquisition
on the wide prevalence of leprosy in England in the
Middle Ages follows.

Then, in regard to pre-Conquest churches (or, as
Mr. Blomfield prefers to call them, "Saxon"), he
appears to think that they were all built of wood,
which gave way to stone buildings under the Nor-
mans. This idea has led Mr. Blomfield to miss, what
we feel pretty sure is the fact, that the church at
Caversfield is still, in the main, a pre-Conquest build-
ing. It has all the appearance, in the picture given of
it, of being of pre-Conquest date, and we have very
little doubt that, were the masonry critically examined,
it would be found that the walls themselves are not
Norman, but are what Mr. Blomfield calls "Saxon."
The "restoration" of that church in 1873 seems to
have been most mischievously destructive, and we
cannot join Mr. Blomfield in his commendation of it.
When we mention that, according to the author, this
miscalled "restoration" comprised no less than
eleven main departments, which he numbers consecu-
tively viz., (1) the rebuilding of the upper portion of
the tower, the " restoration " (whatever that means)
of the tower windows, and reopening the eastern
arch ; (2) recasting the old bells ; (3) rebuilding the
north and south aisles ; (4) the addition of the inevit-
able " organ chamber " as well as of a vestry ; (5) the
"restoration" of walls, roof, arch, and windows of
the chancel ; (6) the insertion of a reredos composed
of Minton's tiles ; (7) the removal of the north porch



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



95



to its present position ; (8) the "restoration" of the
font, and the addition to it of new steps and a cover ;

(9) the reseating of the whole area of the church ;

(10) the introduction of a new pulpit and furniture of
every kind ; and, to wind up with, (11) "a heating
apparatus" little seems to have been left of the
original edifice at all. To speak as Mr. Blomfield
does of all this mischief, as being the work of the
patron, " who was happily moved to undertake the
thorough restoration of the fabric," is a little too
trying to the patience of antiquaries. We feel, too, that
the author has missed a good opportunity of saying a
few telling words on the difference between leaving a
church in a slovenly and irreverent condition on the
one hand, and destroying its antiquity, history, and
interest at one fell blow, on the other, by over-" re-
storation." Mr. Blomfield must, we feel sure, con-
template what has been done at Caversfield with a
full share of regret, and it is a pity that, from what
we suppose was a wish not to appear uncivil to his
neighbours, he has spoken so erroneously concerning
a bad business. It is too late, no doubt, to save the
mischief done twenty years ago at Caversfield, but a
few criticisms kindly expressed might save some
other building from a similar disaster.

We have ventured to criticise the points which we
have mentioned, for there is so much to commend in
the book generally, that we have felt more at liberty
to say plainly that in some points it has its defects.
As a whole, however, it is to be highly commended as
a careful and scholarly work. We only wish we had
more of such country parsons as Mr. Blomfield, and
that more interest were taken in parochial history
by the clergy than is the case.

* * *

A Philological Essay concerning the Pygmies

of the Ancients. By Edward Tyson, M.D.,

F.R.S. (a.d., 1699). Reprinted 1894, with an

introduction by Bertram C. A. Windle, M.D.,

etc. London : D. Null.

The author of this essay, a London physician of

the seventeenth century, has devoted much time and

trouble to the amassing of referenres which, in his

opinion, all tend to prove that the " pygmies" of the

early writers were " not men, as formerly pretended,"

bqt merely apes or monkeys. That he has not

succeeded in establishing his thesis in its entirety

will be recognised by all who read his quaint yet

interesting essay, though it may be questioned

whether he has wholly failed. However, those who

have a leaning towards the more speculative side of

antiquarian as al^o of ethnological study, will find

fool for reflection in many of his statements. To the

antiquary who declines to consider anything that is

not visible and tangible, this and all such questions

will be of no importance.

Professor Windle, who introduces this treatise to
the modern reader, displays much learning and
acumen in the course of his prefatory remarks. It
strikes one as curious, however, that one who dis-
believes so completely in the theory advanced by
Tyson should have, in these latter days, drawn
attention to a work which, in his opinion, was not
worth reprinting. One naturally looks for a certain
amount of sympathy between author and editor, but
Dr. Windle has not a good word to say in this



respect for the seventeenth-century theorist, whose
shade must shudder to find himself thus "unequally
yoked with an unbeliever." But, apart from this
incongruity, Dr. Windle's essay deserves full con-
sideration for its own sake, although it is hardly
within the province of the Antiquary to refer in
detail to the questions therein discussed. It is
enough to say that, rejecing with contempt Dr.
Tyson's " ape or monkey " theory, his editor identifies
" the Pygmies of the Ancients " with races of dwarf?
known, or, in some instances, reasonably supposed,
to have existed. And, further, a very large part of
his introduction deals with traditional beliefs relating
to dwarfs and fairies, some of which beliefs he
assumes to have been the outcome of the existence of
such actual races, while others are due to a variety of
causes. Professor Windle's knowledge of his sub-
ject is very extensive ; but, in noticing Professor
Kollmann's recent discovery of dwarf skeletons in
Switzerland, it would have been of advantage had he
also referred to Professor Sergi's theory, which was
sibmi.ted to the Reale Accidentia Medica di Roma
in 1892-93. From a close study of various skeletons
in Russia, and of existing people of small size, chiefly
microcephalous, Professor Sergi has drawn the de-
duction that at some early date South-Eastern and
Southern Europe received an immigration of dwarfs
from Africa, whose blood even yet asserts itself in
existing individuals. It may be added that Dr.
Windle's reference to a pygmy race in Brazil has
quite recently received confirmation from the ex-
haustive list of Amazonian tribes, compiled by Mr.
Clements Markham (Jour. Anthrop. Inst., February,
1895), where there is mention of the dwarf tribe of
the Guayazis, and also of the Cauanas, "a race of
dwarfs on the River Jurua, only four or five spans
high."



%bott jftotes anD
Corre0ponoence.



In the Nineteenth Century for January, 1895, there
is an article entitled " The Paintings at Pompeii " by
Mr. H. A. Kennedy. Will you allow me a few lines
to cast a little further light on the subject which this
gentleman has very ably handled ? I regret to say
that during my long and thorough acquaintance with
Pompei, I have come to the conclusion that it is not
only the 'Arries of Naples who spoil the frescoes with
their autographs, but it is the English, American,
and German tourists who on free days collect quanti-
ties of mosaic, and break off pieces of fresco, and this
not from places where such can be spared, but from
walls and floors that are merely falling into decay,
and need care rather than spoliation. At the table-
d'hote in the Hotel Suisse, and also at the Hotel del
Sole, I have frequently heard one tourist ask another
how much mosaic he had managed to tear up. I
have also seen the copyist of the pictures a common
fellow employed to make tracings and therein fill up
the colouring of the largest frescoes for the Naples



9 6



SHORT NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.



Museum scrape off with a knife small pieces of
loose fresco paint in the House of the Wounded
Adonis, utterly indifferent to the result. The walls
in Pompei used to be waxed, and this is the cause of
the fine gloss on many of those seen by Mr. H.
A. Kennedy ; but owing to lack of funds and their
misappropriation by certain officials, this had to be
given up ; but I trust to see it soon commenced once
more, as this waxing process is the only means of
preserving the surface and the colour from the effects
of damp and heat.

I cannot agree with Mr. Kennedy altogether ; he
has quite overlooked the examples of the third style of
wall-painting, which are the most delicate of all.
The best example alas ! much faded of the " can-
delabrum " variety is in a room in the Casa del
Centenario, that has a solarium on its threshold, and
is next but one to the locked-up room in that house ;
the finest example of the " Egyptian " variety is in the
house of "Cecilius Jucundus" in the tablinum ; and
others are in the Casa del Orfeo, and in the house in
Regione IX., Isola 5, number 18. Mr. Kennedy's
criticism of what Neapolitan taste values is very
true ; the authorities prefer all that is large and
brilliant, not always that which is in good taste.
One word I would like to add about the house of
"Siricus": he says "the painted architectural in-
tervals . . . stand upon basal panels composed of a
harmony in yellows, rich, pale, and reddish. They
contain landscape subjects, touched in with the most
airy lightness and delicately framed." Had Mr.
Kennedy seen these some years earlier, or studied
specially the contents of these and similar little
square or round pictures for some years, he would
have seen that they were sketches of houses and farm-
house scenes from which much can be gathered of
the general form of old Pompeian dwellings both in
and without the town. Those in the house of Siricus
are about a foot square and are much obliterated ;
there were six of them. For similar small pictures of
houses, see Gell's Pompeiana, and the French Vues
ties Ruines de Pompei, p. 132. I regret to differ
also with regard to the woman in the picture of the
"Drunken Hercules" in this exedra ; instead of
Dejanira, she appears more likely to have been in-
tended for Omphale, the Queen of Lydia, for love of
whom Hercules surrendered his lion's skin and club ;
Bacchus, with fauns and bacchants, is represented in
the upper portion of the picture laughing at the
evident result of his wine, the moral being that
Strength becomes Folly and Weakness with over-
indulgence. Had the female figure been Dejanira,
the wife of Hercules, there had been no reason to
represent him as drunk (see " Notes on a Few
Houses " in our Facts about Pompei). I must differ
also from Mr. Kennedy in that all artists and students
of importance whom I have ever met at Pompei,
have always known the room in the Casa della
Regina Margherita ; moreover, Baedeker (and
I have no doubt also Murray) does mention it, so
does Rolfe's Pompeii. A figure in the picture of
Narcissus in this room used to have a club under its
arm ; it has become obliterated, but it has made me
consider that the painting combined the story of
Narcissus and his reflection with that of Hylas (the
attendant of Hercules) and the jealous nymphs.



But I can fully endorse the remark that the autho-
rities seem to think that further excavation is more
popular than immediate preservation ; or even than
the completion of the excavation of the five-storied
houses in Regione VIII. ; and in the meantime they
are wasting time and money to please an unappre-
ciative Neapolitan population, little thinking that
Englishmen, whether simple tourists or students of
archeology like myself, can appreciate what is truly
interesting, and already find Pompei quite sufficient
to study. I have preferred the form " Pompei " to
any other, as it is used universally in France and
Italy, and by distinguished writers in Germany (e.g.,
Richter, Antike Steinmctzzeichen). The Oscan of it
might have been Pumpaia, there being the adjectival
form Pumpaiiana. The Greek was rio/*7m'a, and
an adjectival form llouirala ; and the Latin Pompeii,
though I believe that the word Pompei has been
found in the place itself. " Pompei " when found
in the classics (Cicero, Sat. ii. 3) is, however, a geni-
tive.

H. P. Fitz-Gerai.d Marriott.

Hotel Lorelei, Sorrento, Italy.



I am collecting some information with regard to
Old English customs which still exist amongst us, and
I shall be very grateful for the kind assistance of the
readers of the Antiquary. Will they kindly inform
me whether any such customs still remain in their
neighbourhood or county ? The changed conditions
of rural life have obliterated many old customs, and
it is important to collect information concerning those
that Time has spared. It is not many years ago that
" Lifting " at Easter, " Wassailing " the orchards at
the New Year ; " Mothering" on Mid-Lent Sunday ;
giving " Pace Eggs " at Easter, etc., were commonly
practised. I shall be greatly obliged if any reader
of the Antiquary will give me an account of any
such customs. Information with regard to the
present observance of " Mumming," May-day fes-
tivals, Easter and Christmas customs, " Beating the
Bounds," wakes, fairs, rush-bearing, etc., will also be
gratefully accepted.

P. H. Ditchfield.

Barkham Rectory, Wokingham, January, 1895.



Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly
obliged to publishers if they will always state the price
of books sent for review.

To intending CONTRIBUTORS. Unsolicited MSS.
will always receive careful attention, but the Editor
cannot return them if not accepted unless a fully
stamped and directed envelope is enclosed. To this
rule no exception will be made.

It would be well if those proposing to submit A/SS.
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and
manner of treatment.

Letters containing queries can only be inserted in the
" Antiquary " if of general interest, or on some new
subject. The Editor cannot undertake to reply pri-
vately, or through the " Antiquary," to questions of
the ordinary nature that sometimes reach him. No
attention is paid to anonymous communications or
would-be contributions.



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



97




The Antiquary.



APRIL, 1895.



Botes of tfte ^ontf).

Eight gentlemen were elected Fellows of
the Society of Antiquaries on March 7.
We are glad to note the absence of
blackballing, all the candidates proposed
having been elected. The following is a
list of their names : Mr. James Curtis,
Raleigh House, Bromley; Mr. Edwin Henty,
Goff's Hill, Crawley, Sussex; Mr. William
Howard Aymer Vallance, M.A., 7, Cam-
bridge Terrace, W. ; the Rev. Carus Vale
Collier, B.A., Faversham ; the Rev. James
Oliver Bevan, M.A., 55, Gunterstone Road,
West Kensington ; Mr. Nathaniel George
Clayton, Chesters, Humshaugh-on-Tyne ;
Mr. William Gowland, 19, Beaumont Cres-
cent, West Kensington ; and General Sir
Henry Augustus Smyth, K.C.M.G., R.A.,
Stone, Aylesbury. At the same meeting
the following were also elected Honorary
Fellows of the society : M. Henri Schuer-
mans, Liege; M. Alexandre Bertrand,
St. Germains ; and M. Emile Cartailhac,
Toulouse.

4? 4p 4p

Arrangements are in progress with regard to
the summer meeting of the Archaeological
Institute, which, as our readers are probably
aware, is to be held this year at Scarborough.
His Grace the Archbishop of York (Dr.
Maclagan) has accepted the post of presi-
dent of the meeting. The date fixed is
from Tuesday, July 16, to Tuesday, July 23,
both inclusive. We have no doubt that the
members of the Institute will receive a cordial
welcome from Yorkshire antiquaries, and
vol. xxxi.



that a profitable meeting will be the result-
There is much of archaeological interest in
and around Scarborough, while there is no
doubt that its character as a very charming
seaside resort, will materially assist in swelling
the numbers of those who will attend, what is
likely to be an exceedingly popular meeting
of the Institute. We hope, however, that
those who may be induced to join in it from
the lighter side of its character will take care
not to reduce it to the level of a mere picnic,
with a little archaeology thrown in. This is a
danger to which all the summer meetings of
archaeological societies are exposed.

| 4 $

One face, at least, which has hitherto been
very familiar at the annual meetings of the
Institute will be missing. We refer to that
of the Precentor of Lincoln, whose death
from an attack of influenza is deeply mourned
by a large number of antiquaries. Never
was a kindlier or more courteous friend,
or one more ready to help another if he
could. His many valuable contributions to
the study of ecclesiastical archaeology are
widely known, while the pleasantly-written
articles which he contributed to the popular
journals and magazines of the day, were
marked by that accuracy which always
betokens the work of a careful and scholarly
antiquary. As a clergyman, Precentor
Venables's sympathy with the revived
earnestness in the Church of England did
not blind him to the mischief wrought by
the ecclesiastical "restorer," and this led
him to join the Society for the Protection of
Ancient Buildings, at its foundation a few
years ago. He remained, we believe, a
member of the society to the day of his
death. Mrs. Venables died from the same
complaint a day or two after her husband,
and both husband and wife were buried
together, in the cloister garth of Lincoln
Minster, amid every sign of a widespread
feeling of sorrow.

4p 4p 4p

Another well known antiquary, who was at
one time an active member of the Institute,
has also died of influenza in the person of
Sir John Maclean, whose work on the
topography of a portion of North Cornwall
will long remain as a testimony to his
reputation as a thorough and painstaking

O



9



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



antiquary. Sir John Maclean was widely
known in connection with the formation of
the Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, of
which he subsequently became president.
At the inaugural meeting, which was held in
Bristol in 1876, Sir John Maclean, who had
recently come to live at Bicknor Court,
expressed gratification that his first public
act in the county was to assist in the forma-
tion of the society. He afterwards edited
for the society the Berkeley manuscripts,
which were written by Mr. John Smyth, of
Nibley, and dedicated to Lord Fitzhardinge.
Another of his well-known works was Afemoirs
of the Family of Foyntz. He was at one
period a member of the Council of the
Society of Antiquaries of London. Sir John
Maclean's last appearance at a public meet-
ing was in the spring of last year, when he
read a paper before the members of the
Clifton Antiquarian Club. Almost from the
commencement of the Gloucestershire society
Sir John edited the publication of the yearly
transactions, and took the keenest interest
in its affairs.

$ $ $

Abroad, in France, the figure of a venerable
clergyman, whose tall, spare form, and long
silvery hair, must have been very familiar to
the numbers of English who yearly visit
Amiens Cathedral, has passed away in the
person of the Abbe Henocque, Dean of
Amiens. The late Dean was recognised in
France as a scholarly antiquary, and was an
active member of the Society of Antiquaries
of Picardy. He was also the author of a
well-known history of his native place
St. Riquier. The son of a small farmer,
Jean Baptiste Jules Henocque was born in
181 2. At an early age he manifested signs
of unusual ability, and was eventually sent to
the diocesan college for young ecclesiastics.
He was ordained priest in 1835, ar, d was
almost immediately appointed Superior of
the Petite Seminaire at Amiens, which office
he continued to hold till 1863, when he was
promoted to the deanery of Amiens. There
was something singularly appropriate in the
appointment of a devoted ecclesiastic, who
was also an accomplished antiquary, to the
deanery of such a cathedral church as that of
Amiens. The funeral took place on March 4,
and at its conclusion, according to the



French custom, an e/oge was pronounced
over the coffin by M. Joseph Roux, the
President of the Society of Antiquaries of
Picardy.



Passing from this sorrowful record of losses
through death, we are glad to turn to more
cheerful subjects. Among these we may
include a notice of the intention of the
worshipful Company of the Cordwainers of
London to hold an exhibition, during the
ensuing month of June, at their Hall, in
Cannon Street, of objects connected with
their craft. We have great pleasure in hear-
ing of the proposal, and in asking such
readers of the Antiquary as may have it in
their power to do so, to assist as far as they
can in the success of the exhibition. The
Cordwainers' Company has decided to in-
clude in the exhibition, a loan collection of
antique and historical articles connected
with their Mystery. Such a loan collection
may be easily made of much service to the
student of archaeology, and we cordially
invite all who may be able to do so, to assist
the Cordwainers' Company to the best of
their ability. The loan of articles made of
cuir bouilli, as well as of ancient shoes, boots,
spurs, shoe-buckles, and ancient leatherwork
generally, will be acceptable.

$ $ $

A gentleman, to whom the Carlisle Museum
is indebted for many munificent gifts, recently
purchased and sent to that museum a leaf-
shaped sword-blade, described in a catalogue
as " Roman sword-blade of steel, found at
Alston, in Cumberland," and measuring,
handle included, about 17 inches. It is
spoken of as a Roman spear-head in a little
book recently published about Alston. The
curator of the museum, before exhibiting the
object, took some pains to trace its history.
He found that it had recently changed
hands once or twice, but had long been in
the possession of a gentleman at Alston, and
had always been considered to be Roman.
This gentleman purchased it some years ago
from a hawker, who has now left the country.
The hawker's story was that he had found it
while gathering sticks in the Kirkside Wood,
which is near the great Roman camp of
Whitley Castle, and so a likely place for
antiquities of Roman date to be turned up



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



99



in. The blade, however, is of iron or mild
steel, a metal which speedily decays, except
under special circumstances. The curator
sent the blade to the Society of Antiquaries ;
it was speedily proved to be West African
and modern, there being several like it in the
ethnological collection at the British Museum,
though none so large. A cast of a similar iron
blade, but smaller, is in the Museum of Artil-
lery at Paris, and is engraved in Demmin's
Arms and Armour as Roman, and also in
Burton's Book of the Sivord. The original of
this cast is said to have been found in Germany
it must also be West African. The hawker
probably got the Alston example from some
sailor. Vessels trade between the Cumber-
land ports and West Africa, and their crews
bring home very queer things. Some years
ago some West African knives were found
hidden in the thatch of an old cottage near
Coniston, and were locally considered to be
prehistoric. But, stranger still, about two or
three years ago an unknown lizard was killed
in a brick-field near Carlisle. On being
sent to the Natural History Museum in Crom-
well Road, it was pronounced a rare South
African lizard, of which no specimen, dead
or alive, had ever been known in England.
The beast is supposed to have escaped out of
some travelling show, whose proprietors
probably purchased it in Liverpool.

$ $ $

We have received a circular issued by the
"Tolhouse Trustees," Great Yarmouth, ask-
ing for assistance towards the purchase and



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