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preservation of the old buildings belonging
to the Grey Friars' Monastery at Great
Yarmouth. The proposal appears to have
originated with a letter, written by Mr.
Seymour Lucas, A.R.A., to the Daily
Graphic, last autumn. A considerable por-
tion of the buildings has passed into the
hands of trustees, who now appeal for help
towards purchasing the rest, as well as for
funds towards the preservation and " restora-
tion " of the whole. We do not quite like the
appearance of the word " restoration " in the
circular. A certain amount of repairing of
the buildings may be necessary to ensure their
preservation, but anything like what is
commonly associated with the expression
" restoration " ought to be sternly deprecated.
We imagine, however, that the word has



slipped into the circular unawares, and is not
in this instance significant of mischief. We
shall, however, be glad to receive a distinct
assurance on this point, before commending
too cordially the proposed scheme. As only
^500 is asked for, it does not look, however,
as if much harm were contemplated in the
way of " restoration."

$ $ $

As Mr. Lucas's letter explains better than
we can what is suggested should be done,
we quote the following extracts from it.
Mr. Lucas says :

" I have just returned from a visit to what
always appeals to me as one of the most
interesting and picturesque of old English
towns. I was delighted to find that, through
the public spirit of Mr. F. Danby Palmer,
and Messrs. Bottle and Olley (the well-
known architects of Yarmouth), a portion of
the old cloisters, formerly belonging to the
Franciscan monastery of that place, have
been purchased with a view to their preser-
vation. There is still a considerable portion
of these cloisters incorporated with other
adjacent buildings of equal interest, but not
yet so certainly secured for the enjoyment
and instruction of posterity ; and it has
occurred to me that, if the matter be made
sufficiently public, means may be found to
purchase this remaining portion. The
cloisters are all that now remain of what
was once a very large Franciscan establish-
ment, and are, of course, of the greatest
interest to students of our ancient history.
But the interest in this case does not entirely
centre in the monastic associations. Shortly
after indeed, I am disposed to think imme-
diately after the dissolution of the monas-
teries, these cloisters were sold and adapted
as dwelling-houses for traders and others
belonging to what we may call the lower
middle class of the period. There are now
existing, incorporated with and attached to
these monastic remains, quite a number of
these sixteenth-century dwellings, which are
themselves of great value to the antiquary,
the historian, and the artist, as illustrating
the domestic life of our Tudor ancestors.
It would, I feel, be a thousand pities if in
any future scheme of restoration these relics,
which many, no doubt, would consider to be
of slight architectural beauty, were swept



IOO



XOTES OF THE MONTH.



away. I suggest that these, though of later
date than the monastery, are almost as
picturesque, and certainly quite as full of
historical interest, as the cloisters themselves,
and possibly rarer. Those who have visited
Nuremberg will remember that the museum
in that town is an adaptation of a portion of
an old monastery. Would it not be possible,
by means of careful and judicious restoration
and appropriate addition, to adapt these old
buildings, themselves relics of an interesting
past, in a similar way as a local museum?
The old Tol-house, which is at present used
for a museum, library, and reading-room, is
admittedly too small for all these purposes.
The old cloisters, together with the attached
Tudor dwellings, would form a most appro-
priate resting place for objects of local anti-
quarian interest, and could, I think, be
purchased and adapted at a comparatively
inconsiderable cost. At any rate, I venture
to make the suggestion in the hope that
some may be induced to consider the matter.
There are not so many of these silent old
witnesses of the past remaining that we can
afford to run the risk of losing any of them.
And this, for the reason I have stated above,
presents us with evidence which is of some-
what exceptional value."

Mr. F. Danby Palmer, Great Yarmouth,
is the honorary secretary of the fund.

4r 4p 4p

With reference to the account of the dis-
covery of the Mithraic Temple at Burham, in
Kent, which we recorded in the Antiquary
for January last, it is only fair to Mr. F. W.
James, the curator of the Museum at Maid-
stone, to say that the work of excavation in
connection with this discovery has been
superintended by that gentleman throughout,
and that it is largely due to his representa-
tions that the whole has been so carefully
preserved. We feel it to be due to Mr.
James to make this acknowledgment, which
by an oversight was unintentionally omitted
in the paragraph which announced the dis-
covery of the temple.



The Mayor of Appleby has found among
the documents of that borough a minute-
book of the Corporation, the existence of
which had been forgotten. It covers the
period between the mayoralties of Thomas



Kwbank in 1614 and Lancelot Machell in
1 660- 1. In describing its contents to the
Appleby Town Council the mayor said it
contained the annual lists of the freeholders
and freemen within the borough, which in-
clude such well-known names as those of
Francis, Earl of Cumberland, Sir Jacob
Bellingham, Thomas Salkeld, Christopher
Crackanthorpe, Sir Richard Sandford, Hugh
Machell, and others. The corporate officers,
or borough masters, which then comprised,
besides the mayor, a coroner, a sergeant-at-
mace, two chamberlains, bailiffs, attorneys,
informers, aletasters, sealers in leather, in-
spectors of houses, appraisers, and clerk, are
annually recorded, and their several oaths of
office are set out in full. The government
of the town appeared then to have been
under the mayor and aldermen, and sixteen
of the freemen as common councilmen, who
are frequently referred to as " The Sixteen."
loiter on there is a record of the civil pleas
in the Borough Court. This court appears
to have exercised an almost unlimited juris-
diction. The great countess was a frequent
suitor. Christopher Dalston, of Acorne
Bank, sued upon one occasion for ,600,
and another plaintiff claimed ^2,000
damages for scandal. In one case a
defendant is described as of the county of
Middlesex, and it would be interesting to
know how long it took the bailiff to serve
the court process upon that defendant. At
the end of the book there are numerous
entries relating to the sale of horses, in
which the names and residences of the
buyers and sellers were usually set out. The
book is, unfortunately, in a most dilapidated
condition, and the mayor suggested that it
should be repaired by an expert, and that
perhaps some antiquarian society would
undertake the task of having the book
printed, the Corporation themselves having
no funds available for the purpose.
<k $? $?

A discovery which it is thought possible may
lead to others of considerable interest has
just been made at Tadcaster. A workman,
while engaged in getting sand from the river
Wharfe, dug up a large ancient jug made of
rough unglazed earthenware. It is supposed
to be Roman, and is in a perfect state of
preservation. The vessel is about 18 inches



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



in height and 30 inches in circumference,
with a moulded handle. The opening at the
top is about 5 inches in diameter, inclusive
of the spout.

4p

A correspondent, writing to a Manchester
newspaper, very properly calls attention to
the extreme risk which is run as to the loss
of non-ecclesiastical parish records. These
are kept, not by the clergyman in the vestry,
but by the overseers, who are generally
tradesmen, and often publicans, in their own
houses. The documents contain a great
deal of valuable local information from the
beginning of last century, and sometimes for
a longer period. There is no doubt that a
scheme for their proper custody ought to
be adopted. The subject has been strangely
overlooked in the past, and we are glad
that attention has been drawn to the matter.

ty $? ifc
We learn that during the meeting of the
Dorset Field Club, at Dorchester, on
February 21 last, Mr. George Parker, of
Southampton, who is engaged as contractor,
attended and informed the members that
in excavating some ground in the town the
workmen had unearthed a considerable por-
tion of a Roman pavement, measuring
about 12 feet by 4 feet, and about 5 feet
below the surface of the soil. The mem-
bers, including Sir Talbot Baker, afterwards
went to inspect the pavement, steps being
taken to insure its preservation. A few coins
and pieces of pottery were also turned up.



The recent severe weather has interfered
very greatly with the exploration of the bone
cave at Oban, and some of the crude material
which had been removed to facilitate its
careful sifting and examination, became so
hardly frozen as to render its examination
impossible. Now that better weather and
longer days are coming, we may hope to
hear more concerning this highly important
discovery.

4p

A Shrewsbury School Register is in course
of preparation, and old Salopians are re-
quested to send particulars of their career,
and of all other Salopians past and present
that may be known to them, to the Rev.
J. E. Auden, Shrawardine, near Shrewsbury.



The next part of the Leicestershire Archaeo-
logical Society's transactions will contain a
carefulLy prepared calendar of all Leicester-
shire wills prior to the Reformation that are
preserved in the registry at Leicester. It
is compiled by Mr. Henry Hartopp.

4? )J( &
For years past the sea has been making a
series of encroachments along the Norfolk
coast, and different places have, in turn, dis-
appeared. The storms of the opening part
of the year settled the fate of a well-known
landmark, the old tower of Eccles Church,
which has now disappeared. This destruc-
tion, although due to natural and unavoidable
causes, is none the less to be deplored, and
we understand that Happisburgh Church is
slowly though surely approaching a like fate.
Cannot something be done to check this
steady inroad of the sea?

& 4? 4?

A proposal is being made for the exploration
of the Hill of Tara. Perhaps to many persons
the name of Tara is best known in connec-
tion with Thomas Moore's spirited and tuneful
verses. Antiquaries may be expected to know
a little more about it, but even in their case
much is the result of conjecture. Tara is
only a little over twenty miles from Dublin.
It is one of two hills which relieve the
monotony of the level plain from which they
rise. Curiously enough the Hill of Tara
has never been properly examined, in spite
of its great historical importance. The
present proposal for its excavation is that
the works shall be directed by experts under
the supervision of the British Archaeological
Association.

4? 4? 4?

Tara is covered with remains of a very early
date, but it is on the southern side that
the principal of these exist. A fence of
stone runs across from the old churchyard
and divides the Russell and Preston pro-
perties. On the southern side of this wall
are the principal earthworks, namely, the
Rathna-Riogh or Cathair Corolin. The
Rath-na-Riogh is a large outer earthwork
encircling two raths or ancient Irish forts,
the lines of which intersect. The western
rath is the older of the two, and the centre
of it is a raised mound, on which rests the
Lia Fail still at Tara, which now covers the



102



ENGLISH GLASS-MAKING.



" Croppies' Grave." This has been removed
from the crowning mound to the north-west,
where it originally stood. This central mound,
on which is the "Croppies' Grave," is about
12 feet above the surrounding fosse, and
this it is that many persons are disposed to
assign as the most probable site for Tea
Tephi's tomb. The hill slopes away to the
west, and it is proposed to run a trench into
the central mound along this line. We under-
stand that Mr. George Payne, F.S.A.,is to be
invited to superintend the work of excava-
tion.



Cnglisb ftla*'* - making in tbe
^irteentf) anD ^etientecnttj
Centuries.

By K. Wyndham Hulmr.



No. IV. From Bowes to Mansel.

jOWES' first grant, dated February 5,
1592 (Pat. 34 Eliz., p. 15), after




reciting the patent of Verselyn,
proceeds to invest the latter's suc-
cessor with practically identical powers. This
grant, which was limited to a further term of
twelve years only, is remarkable for the strin-
gency of the clauses respecting the right of
search ; a circumstance which renders it pro-
bable that the prohibition of foreign glass
under the former patent had been evaded in
certain quarters. At the suggestion of Lord
Burleigh (Lansd. MSS. 67, Art. 25) a clause
was inserted enabling the nobility to import
sufficient glass for their private use in case
that the patentee should fail to produce the
finer kinds of glasses at a reasonable price.
The Crown also reserved the right of un-
conditionally terminating the monopoly in
case " that any amitie, league, and friendship
shall happen hereafter to growe . . . between
us and the Duke, Chief Slates, Rulers, and
Governours of the City of Venice." The
legality of this grant, which, it should be
noted, was made in consideration of personal
services rendered by Bowes and of an annual
rent of ico (? 200) marks, is undoubtedly
open to questicn. In 1603 glasses appear



in the heterogeneous list of grievances which
were brought against the Crown for the ill-
advised exercise of its licensing powers ; but
it does not appear that the glass patent was
called in, or that the grievance was felt to be
an acute one. On the score of prices, indeed,
the public had little ground of complaint, for
the B.M. Add. MSS. No. 12496 shows that
Yerselyn's prices, which were presumably
fixed at rates current at the date of the
patent, were somewhat reduced by Bowes
and still further by his successor, Mansel.

On October 5, 1607 (Pat. 4 Jac. I., p. 21),
the grant was again renewed, but this time
for the term of Bowes' life and three years
after. On October 8, 1608 (Pat. 5 Jac. I.,
p. 24), the reversion of the grant was vested
in Sir Pcrcival Hart and Edward Forcett for
a further term of twenty-one years, and by
other letters patent the Irish rights were
assigned for twenty-one years to Roger Aston
(5 Jac. I., p. 7) ; while the right of manu-
facturing certain glasses not included in
Bowes' patent was secured by Edward W.
Salter (Pat. 6 Jac. I., p. 1). The unconstitu-
tional character of these glass patents of
James I. is beyond dispute; nevertheless,
their ultimate overthrow was occasioned not
so much by the pressure of public opinion,
as by the invention of a new process in glass-
making which afforded the Crown an oppor-
tunity of retiring from a dangerous position,
and at the same time of replacing the in-
dustry within the trammels of a new mono-
poly.

The rapid development of the coal in-
dustry in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen-
turies is a fact too well known to require
further illustration, but the circumstances
which led to its successful employment in
the glass industry may be briefly here recited.

On July 28, 1610, by an indenture (Pat.
8 Jac. I., p. 12) made between the King on
the one hand, and Sir William Slingsby, one
of the carvers of Queen Anne, Andrew
Palmer, Assay Master, Edmund Wolferston,
gent., and Robert Clayton, citizen of London,
on the other, the latter obtained, subject to
a yearly rent of ^20 to the Crown and ^100
for three years to Prince Henry (afterwards
to be commuted to one-sixth of the annual
profits), an exclusive license for the use of
certain new forms of furnaces by means of



ENGLISH GLASS-MAKING.



103



which not only could coal be substituted for
wood in various industries, but a great
economy of fuel be effected in industries in
which coal had already obtained a footing.

From Slingsby's petition, preserved in the
Harl. MSS. 7009, Nos. 14, 16, we gather
that rival experiments were being conducted
simultaneously with the above by certain
Frenchmen, but that the latter had only
succeeded in the partial use of coal in their
furnaces. The document is specially valuable
for the disclosure made therein as to the
extent to which coal was being utilized in
various manufactures classified by the peti-
tioners under the headings of smelting, boil-
ing, forging, and baking. Although the
sanguine expectations of the inventors were
not destined to be fully realized, it is possible
that the furnaces contained some useful
features which may have contributed to the
adoption of coal in the drying of malt and
the other baking indusrties. The solution,
however, of the problem of the smelting of
iron and copper with the new fuel was reserved
for a later generation. The tabulated state-
ment of the petitioners, nevertheless, is worthy
of reproduction in its original form.

[Diesofallsorte I Now used with P>'"
Boyle^ ^|j om J- coale by us halfe to

UeaSalt J ** 8Wed

'Eweres of all sorte'

Bell Mettall

Lattin

Copper

Brass - -

Iron

Lead
, Glass
/ Copper
Heat for ' Lattin



Melte<



Now used with woode
by us w th Pytt Coale



\ Now with wood by us
/ used with pyt coale
\With pytt coale halfe
/ to be saved

Now used with wood
by us with pytt coale



Batterye 1 r

1 I Iron

IBrede
Brycke
Tyles
Pottes
Malte



The localities in which these experiments
were carried out cannot at present be deter-
mined with certainty. The allusion to the
Frenchmen, who were presumably glass-
makers, coupled with the fact that Slingsby's
furnaces were primarily intended for the
multiplication of iron, points to the Midland
districts. This hypothesis is confirmed by



Dud Dudley, in his Metallum Alarm's, who
states that " the glass invention with pit cole
was first effected near the Author's dwelling,"
i.e., on the borders of Staffordshire and
Worcestershire. On the other hand, I am
indebted to Mr. Grazebrook for the reminder
that Sturtevant, in his Metallica, 161 2, states
that "very latelie by a wind furnace greene
glass for windows is made as well by pitcoale
at Winchester House, Southwark, as it is
done in other places with . . . wood fuel."
Sturtevant, however, does not assert that
prior experiments had not been made else-
where, and it will be probably found that
these experiments relate to a patent granted
(9 Jac. I., p. 29) to Sir Edward Zouch, Bevis
Thelwall, gent, Thomas Percivall, gent., and
Thomas Mefflyn, "our Glasier," for an in-
vention for the use of coal in glass-making.
This patent was unsuccessfully opposed by
Slingsby (S. P. Dom., 161 r, February 26) on
the ground that it infringed upon his own
grant. According to his own account his
invention, though being gradually adopted,
had not made much headway. On the other
hand, the furnaces of Zouch, invented by
Percival, had from the outset proved success-
ful, although at an estimated outlay of ^5,000.
At first, according to Prof. Gardiner {History
of England, 1617-23, p. 362), with a view of
avoiding any conflict with Bowes, whose rights
were safeguarded under their patent, Zouch
and his partners had refrained from manu-
facturing the finer forms of glasses ; but it is
more probable that the secret of the pro-
duction of a clear crystal glass was not
attained by the patentees without further ex-
periment, it being essential to the process
that a practical method of protecting the
metal from the action of the coal fire should
have previously been arrived at. This diffi-
culty appears to have been surmounted be-
tween 161 1 and 16 1 3, to which period should
be assigned the invention of the closing of
the pots in the glass furnace. At all events,
in 1 6 13 the patentees, emboldened by their
success and the royal favour extended to
them, came forward and demanded on public
grounds that the use of wood should be pro-
hibited, and that a new patent should be
issued, placing the whole industry under their
control. After protracted and fruitless nego-
tiations with Bowes and Salter, the opposition



104



ENGLISH GLASS-MAKING.



of the latter was summarily quashed by Lord
Coke. The first patent of Zouch was volun-
tarily surrendered, the patents of Bowes and
Salter were called in by the House of Com
mons and delivered up under protest, and on
March 4, 1614, a new patent (11 Jac. I.,
p 16) was issued in the names of Zouch,
Thelwall, Pcrcival, and Kellaway, by which
the King revoked all previous grants as
having grown hurtful and prejudicial, and
placed the entire manufacture in the hands
of the new patentees subject to a rent of
_ 1,000, which Lord Coke had suggested
should be used in compensating the prior
patentees. At the same time the importation
of foreign glass was strictly forbidden, and
the manufacture of glass with wood fuel
absolutely prohibited. Under these condi-
tions the manufacture of glass was carried on
for a period of over thirty years under the
dictatorship of Mansel.who eventually became
possessed of the sole rights conferred by the
patent. For the history of glass-making at
this period most of the materials exist in the
work of Prof. Gardiner cited above, and in
the Life of A f arise/, by G. T. Clark, Dowlais,
1 883. A few notes, however, on the influence
of coal on the manufacture may not be out
of place.

The frequent complaints that are met with,
in the State Papers and elsewhere, respecting
the quality of the glass produced under
Mansel's regime prove that a considerable
deterioration in the manufacture accompanied
the introduction of the new process. In 1 62 1
(H. C. J. 1, p. 622) "Enego Jones, the sur-
veyor, said the glass now not so good as in
ancient times, the price also doubtful whether
now dearer than before the patent" and in
i r >37-3 8 (S. P. Dom., p. 153-54) Mansel's
glass was condemned by the Company of
Glaziers as being bad, dear, and insufficient,
and the patentee was cautioned to uphold
the quality of his manufacture. Notwith-
standing the strenuous and well-attested
efforts of Mansel to improve and extend the
manufacture, the monopoly proved unsatis-
factory to the public and unremunerative to
the patentee. As Howell remarked, the
business was fitter for a merchant than a
courtier, and the want of success which
attended the worthy Admiral's efforts excited
little surprise even in his own days.



In the modification and improvement of the
glass furnace, however, the introduction of the
new fuel effected more striking and permanent
results. Two distinct forms of furnaces
appear to have existed at this period, based
respectively on Italian and French models.
'I he Italian furnace, for the production of
crystal glass, was circular or oval in form, and
was characterized by a number of projecting




Brick StS*

flint. TMCN

C-:t.cr*t "^JBtf



tnu or fit i



ribs converging towards the top of the furnace.
Several varieties of this class are shown in the
work of Agricola in 1561,* probably from
drawings made during his residence in Venice.
The furnaces there described are of one, two,
or three stages or floors, accordingly as the

* An earlier example will be found in the B.M.
Add. MS. 24189, reproduced in G. F. Warner's
edition of Matideville's Travels, Roxburgh Club, 1889.
This circular type of furnace is probably of Syrian
origin.



ENGLISH GLASS-MAKING.



io 5



_2>



JFtyZ.




operations of fritting, glass-working, and an-
nealing were conducted in one or more
furnaces. A single exception to the round
form is a low oblong arched annealing furnace
which is connected with the main furnace by
a series of flues. This circular form of fur-
nace appears to have been slowly adopted in
the north of England and the Midland dis-
tricts ; for I am informed by Mr. Grazebrook
that in the Tristram MSS. it is stated that a
Wm. Tristram, of Stourbridge, "invented
{circa 1660) the first round glasshouse in
these parts, and greatly improved the art of
making flint-glass, and of purifying iron for
making steel." Mr. Grazebrook adds that
there is no evidence to show that Tristram
was a glass-maker. He probably introduced
amongst the French glass-makers of the dis-
trict Italian methods for the production of
the finer kinds of glass, the Italian manu-
facture being practically extinct in this
country at that date.

The French window or broad-glass fur-



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