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archaeological character. Derbyshire being in the
centre of England, and having the special attractions
of its lead mines, very speedily attracted the attention
of early colonists in this country. So that there was
here, in the centre of England, a strange mixture of

I2 4


races, which in archaeological study gave rise to a
diversity of interest. Dr. Cox proceeded to speak of
the Roman occupation and government of this country,
after which he expressed his sorrow that in Derbyshire,
where there was so much interesting archaeological
pursuit, the county town was almost unique in its lack
of an archaeological museum. He quite believed that
if the members of this society, and others living in
the town, would take this question up, there might be
formed the nucleus of an interesting archaeological
museum at Derby, and then various objects of interest
belonging to the county, such as any found at Little
Chester, might be preserved there and not dispersed.
A great pleasure of archa-ology was in collecting
objects which would give pleasure to others, and this
could be well carried out if a museum existed here.

Sir Alfred Haslam said it was his pleasing duty to
propose a hearty vote of thanks to Dr. Cox for his
able lecture. Dr. Cox was in former days the life and
soul of the Derbyshire Archaeological Society, and the
company was very pleased to have him present among
them that night, and to feel that he was still one
with them.

Dr. Milnes seconded the motion, which was cor-
dially passed, and formally acknowledged by Dr. Cox.

+$ $
At a meeting of the British Archaeological Asso-
ciation, held on February 20, it was announced that
subscriptions had been collected in Ireland and else-
where for the purpose of effecting excavations in the
Hill of Tara, and that the Association had consented to
send a representative to help to superintend the pro-
posed works. Mr. Quick described a curious bed-
warmer from Bramley, Surrey, now in the Horniman
Museum. Mrs. Dent, of Sudeley Castle, sent for ex-
hibition a drawing of a bronze steelyard, found at
Winchcombe, bearing various arms and devices of
Richard, King of the Romans, the founder of the
adjacent Hayles Abbey. Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S.A.,
exhibited a series of ancient seals of various English
personages, illustrating the art of the fourteenth cen-
tury. Mr. Oliver described a bellarmine of Flemish
manufacture, found recently in the East of London.
Mr. Barrett produced rubbings of the enamelled
brass of Sir N. Gainsford and lady in Carshalton
Church, Surrey, erected during the lives of the
persons represented, the date 14** never having teen
filled in. The monument is on what was until
recently the north side of the chancel. Mr. Thomas
Blashill exhibited a series of beautifully - written
charters and grants, relating to Sutton-in-Holderness,
some retaining the seals. One of these documents,
dated 1349, the year of the Black Death, indicated
many changes of ownership of properly owing to that
calamity. One of the seals was the impression of an
antique gem. A paper was then read by Mr. Richard
McDonald on the Hill of Tara and the proposed
excavations. After describing the condition of the
hill and the various ancient forts, the remains of
which still exist upon it, the notices of the old Irish
chroniclers were passed in review, not the least re-
markable of which is the record of the burial of the
Princess Tea beneath the hill in a sepulchre of
stated dimensions.

Eetotos anD Notices
of Jfteto 16ook0.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

The Early History ok the Town and Port ok
Hedon. By J. R. Boyle, F.S.A. Roxburghe,
demy 8vo., pp. xvi, 227, and an appendix of
250 pp. Hull: A. Brown and Sons.
There is a great charm about the village it would
not be commonly called the " town " of Hedon, in
the East Riding of Yorkshire. It is still a corporate
borough, with its mayor, aldermen, and councillors ;
but the whole population falls below a thousand, and
it is the smallest borough in the kingdom. In the
centre, on rising ground encircled by stately trees,
stands the noble cruciform church of St. Augustine,
while round the church nestles the little village-
borough. Yet Hedon was once a place of greater
size and importance than its rival Hull. It has been
something of a reproach to Yorkshire archaeology,
that hitherto no separate history of Hedon has been
written. While other Yorkshire places of far less
note or interest have been dealt with in an elaborate,
and almost too diffuse a manner, Hedon has been
neglected. This reproach is now removed, and Mr.
Boyle's book will long remain as a pattern work of
its kind. Possibly the ordinary reader may consider
that too much space has been allotted to documents,
but it will not be the antiquary who will think so.
Mr. Boyle is well known as a very capable antiquary,
and as one of the most trustworthy and careful of
writers. His work on Durham is quite the best that
has appeared, and the history of Hedon now before
us fully maintains his reputation. The author states
that when he began the present work his idea was
merely to produce a pamphlet on the subject. How
the work grew under his feet as he proceeded is in
evidence in the thick volume of 500 pages of closely-
printed material before us. It is hopeless to attempt
to give a digest of the contents of this book. We
can hardly do better than cite some of the closing
words of the prospectus, as originally issued, of Mr.
Boyle's work. " The town possesses a series of
records of almost unique interest, and to these the
writer of the present volume has had unrestricted
access. It is specially worthy of note that amongst
these records are churchwardens' accounts for each
of the three churches, dating from the reign of
Edward III. It ought also to be stated that all the
most important documents relating to Hedon in the
Public Record Office have been consulted. ... To
the student of English municipal history the present
work will afford much new and valuable information.
Persons interested in the mediaeval arrangements of
the English parish church will find in it many illus-
trations of forgotten usages, as well as hundreds of
references to the ecclesiastical utensils and ornaments
of the past."

All this is fully borne out, and knowing Hedon,
as we do well, we have no hesitation in saying
that the treatment it has received from Mr. Boyle
in the present volume leaves nothing to be desired.


I2 5

We ought to add that there is a very good glossary
at the end of the book, as well as a full index. The
book is clearly printed, and is supplied with several
illustrations and plans, and reflects credit on the Hull
firm of publishers by whom it has been produced. It
is a good book all round, and deserving of the highest

* * *
The History of Mansfield. By W. H. Groves.
Cloth, crown 8vo., pp. viii, 428. Nottingham :
Frank Murray.

Mansfield is a town in Nottinghamshire, of about
16,000 inhabitants. It is not very well known, as
it lies off the main line of railway on the western side
of the county, not far from the Derbyshire border.
It is a modern borough, having been incorporated so
recently as 1890 ; but as an old market-town it has
the course of several centuries to record in its history.
We wish we could speak well of Mr. Groves's book,
which seems to be a well-intentioned and unassuming
effort. Unfortunately, however, the book is so full
of the most extraordinary blunders, that it is impossible
to pass anything but an unfavourable verdict on it.
The mistakes are of so elementary a nature, that had
Mr. Groves consulted any competent person before
printing his book, he would have been saved from
making so lamentable an exhibition of his ignorance.
If we cite a few of the blunders, our readers will be
able to judge whether we are speaking too harshly or
not. On p. 18 the reader is informed that the word
carucate is derived from a Danish word carue, a
plough ! On p. 20 we meet with the following
sentence: "Thomas Bek, sometime Bishop of
Mandavensis (St. David's), made one purpesture of
one old rood of ground," etc., from which sentence
more than one deduction may be made as to Mr.
Groves's competence for the work he has undertaken.
It is, however, in the section headed "Ancient
Records relating to Mansfield," which covers thirteen
pages, from p. 51 to p. 64, that some of the most
astounding items can be culled. One or two must
suffice. The following, from p. 52, must be a riddle to
many good people at Mansfield, who read the book.
We quote it verbatim, stops and all. " The Manor of
Mansfield. Patent de anno 22 Regis Henrici tertii.
M. 4. ' Rex concessit Henrico de Hastinges et ude
urorejus et adce in feodo pro rationabili parte ipsam
contingem de hoereditate quae fuit Johnis quond aur
comitis cette fratris adae in cestr Manerium de Bremes-
grave,' " etc. This is a fair sample of the rest, but
we will quote another specimen from the opposite
page. " Extract from Inquisitionis Hominem.
Inquisico capta fuit apud Notynghm die m'rt. px.
post fm s'ti Breg. pape anno r.r.e. t' eij a Conquestu
qutod'ccio cor. venditor & assessor none Gart vett
& agn in com. Nott. p. sacmentu," etc.

We wonder what the good people of Mansfield will
make of that, except, perhaps, that Mr. Inquisitionis
Hominem was a highly-educated person, coupled it
may be with a wish on their part, that Mr. Groves
had been a little more explicit, and had told them
what it was all about.

We have cited enough to convince most persons as
to the author's unfitness for the work he has under-
taken. In spite of these revelations of his ignorance,
we feel sorry rather than irritated, for the book has

none of the blustering self-assertiveness which is so
often a feature in writers of Mr. Groves's calibre.
All we can say is that we regret very much to see a
well-intentioned author make so unfortunate an exhibi-
tion of himself. The book is nicely printed and
illustrated. It should serve as a warning to others
not to play with such edged tools as ancient records,
unless they know what they are about. The latter
part of the book is a little better than the earlier
portion, but even there, too, the writer is often out
of his depth. Alas ! that it should be so much
labour, good paper, and better money wasted.

* * *
The Early Oxford Press: A Bibliography of
Printing and Publishing at Oxford.
" 1468 " 1640. By Falconer Madan. Cloth,
8vo., pp. viii, 365. With seven facsimiles.
Oxford Clarendon J'ress. Price 18s.

A curious, and keen controversy has raged in the
past as to the real date of ihe earliest book printed at
Oxford. The points of the controversy are so well
known that it is not necessary to do more than allude
to them, because the more thorough knowledge of
bibliography in the present day has definitely settled
the matter beyond all reasonable element of doubt.
The question is whether the date mcccclxviii. on
a mis-named work of St. Jerome, printed at Oxford,
is not an accidental error for mcccclxxviii. There
can be no doubt that it is a mistake for the latter
date, and in Appendix A, Mr. Madan gives a summary
of the reasons which have definitely settled the
matter, so far as all reasonable persons are concerned.
Mr. Madan's limits of date are bounded on the one
hand by the fictitious "1468" (in reality 1478), and
on the other by 1640, when the dreary period of
Commonwealth literature set in.

Of books printed at Oxford during the fifteenth
century, fourteen are extant, the limits of date
being the years 1478 and i486, when for some un-
known cause the Oxford Press ceased to work till
1517. In 1517 it began again, and copies of seven
books are extant which were printed between 15 17
and 1 5 19, when the Oxford Press again ceased
for a lengthened period. It is mainly with these
earlier books, printed prior to 1520, that most of the
interest of the Oxford Press rests. It was not till
1585 that printing became firmly established at Oxford,
when Mr. Madan says that "it began to reflect faith-
fully the current tendencies of thought and study in
the University. Theology is predominant, animated
on its controversial side with fierce opposition to the
Church of Rome ; but the quieter fields of classical
work are well represented, and side by side is seen an
increasing study of English literature. Of lighter
books there are few, and of chap-books perhaps only
one." The year 1640 has been chosen as the " inferior
limit " of this bibliography, because the British
Museum catalogue of Early English hooks and
Arber's Transcript of the Registers of the Stationers'
Company adopt that limit, and also because of the
break up of all regular work by the convulsions of
the Commonwealth, "combined," as Mr. Madan
naively expresses it, " with the dismal prospect of
that trackless wilderness the literature of the Civil

The author pleads for the present work, that it



possesses four features of novelty (i) the better
representation of the title-page by the use of Roman
and italic capitals, as well as ordinary type ; (2) the
mention of the chief type used in each book ; (3)
the furnishing of first words of certain pages, to
facilitate the identification of imperfect copies ; (4)
the insertion of actual pages of books printed at
Oxford, selected from works which arc cheap and

The first three of these features are a distinct
advantage, but we cannot say that the insertion of
pages from actual books commends itself to our judg-
ment. It was distinctly abused in a serious manner
by the first person who adopted it. At the best, it is
a destructive process, and it carries no real advantage
with it. Mr. Madan does not include in this category
a more striking innovation which he has invented in
describing the sizes of books. That is elaborated
under the heading of a page entitled " Plan of the
Bibliography. " We have not space to describe it here.
It remains to be seen whether it will commend itself
for general adoption by bibliographers. We have
some doubt on the point.

We welcome Mr. Madan's book as a thoroughly
painstaking and scholarly piece of work worthy in
every respect of his reputation, and of the University
Press, whose earlier history and works he has so care-
fully described.

* fe 4
Yorkshire Lay Suusidy. Being a Ninth col-
lected in 25 Edward I. (1297). Edited for the
Yorkshire Record Series by William Brown,
B.A. Pp. xxix, 191. Price to non-subscribers,
10s. 6d.
The Yorkshire Archaeological Society is one of the
most active of all provincial antiquarian societies,
and its Record Series, of which the volume before
us is the seventeenth, is a most useful branch of
its work. We are only sorry to see, both from the
annual report of the society, and from the list of sub-
scribers to the Record Series, that this department of its
work is not more widely supported than it is. In fact,
it is a serious reflection on the large county of Yorkshire,
that so little general interest seems to be taken by its
inhabitants at large, in the past history of the county.
Its excellent archaeological society should surely count
its members, not by hundreds, but by thousands, while
the 150 subscribers or so (we do not include libraries)
to the Record Series ought to be increased tenfold at

This volume of the series deals with only a portion
of the county. Mr. Brown remarks in the introduc-
tion that, unfortunately, only a small part of the
original has survived. "There is nothing at all for
the North Riding, and only portions of the West and
East Ridings are represented. Curiously enough,
in the return of the Fifteenth levied in 1302, there is
nothing at all for the West Riding, only the wapen-
take between Ouse and Derwent in the East Riding,
whilst the North Riding, with some exceptions, is
quite perfect." Further on, Mr. Brown remarks:
" The granting of the subsidy here printed marks a
point of very great importance in the constitutional
history of England. This grant of a Ninth of per-
sonal goods was the consideration by the King of all
liberties conferred by the Great Charter and the

Forest Charter, and thus concluded a strupgle be-
tween King and Parliament, which had continued
for over eighty years indeed, ever since its com-
mencement with the first grant of the Great Charter
by King John in 121 5. Annexed to this confirma-
tion by Edward I. was the celebrated statute, De
tallagio non conceJcndo, which established the prin-
ciple that no tax could be levied without the assent
of Parliament." On pages xxiv-xxvii, Mr. Brown
has made a careful and highly interesting summary of
the quantity and value of the personal property taxed
in 1297 in the West Riding, from which we venture
to make the following shortened summary of the
average prices : Oxen, 4s. iod. ; cows, 3s. iod. ;
young oxen, 2s. ; stirks, 23d. ; small stirks, 22d. ;
calves, 141I. ; horses, 3s. 2d. ; sheep, 7d. ; goats,
9 at 4d., 48 at 6d., 2 at 7id. ; donkeys, 3 at i8d.,
1 at 2Cxl., and 1 at 2s. ; pigs, highest price, i8d.,
lowest, 3d. ; one goose at I2d. Barley, average
price per quart., I4^d. ; hay, iod. a cartload;
oats, average price per quart., almost 7^d. ; wheat,
average price per quart., 2s. sd. ; fine wheat,
average price per quart., 2s. iod. ; peas about
22d. per quart. These prices are of very high in-
terest, and Mr. Brown has done good service in
drawing attention to them, and in making the sum-
mary. The contents of the Subsidy Rolls them-
selves are of very great interest, both in the names
they contain of the persons taxed as well as their
taxable property. The spelling of the place-names is
also a minor detail, very full of an interest and im-
portance of its own. Mr. Brown has added foot-
notes where needed, and these, together with the
introduction, give a very full explanation of such
points as need elucidation. The book is an admirable
addition to its many excellent predecessors in the
Yorkshire Record Series.

fc 4 3
A History of the Welsh Church to the
Dissolution of the Monasteries. By the
Rev. E. J. Newell, M.A. Cloth, 8vo., pp. x,
435. London : Elliot Stock.
Much that is very wide of the mark is written at
the present time, and much is spoken on political
platforms which is altogether erroneous as to the
past history of the Church in Wales. We are afraid
it must be admitted, too, that even in the "High
Court of Parliament " speakers on this subject are
often not as well informed as they ought to be, or as
they profess that they are. It is inevitable that this
should be the case when a subject is not discussed on
its own inherent merits, but merely for the sake of
party advantage, or the opposite. It is much to be
deplored that any religious organization should ever
become a subject for the strife of contending parties
of politicians. It is a sign of the decadence of the
morale of the public spirit of the age when this is the
case, and when a subject of vast significance and im-
portance is no longer discussed for its own sake, but,
on the contrary, is made a convenience of by party
politicians and wirepullers. The Church of France
was treated in this fashion towards the end of last
century, and the end came at the close of that
century in the overthrow of all that was noble in that
country, when all was plunged in the vortex and
horrors of the French Revolution. So far as the



religious, or merely political, aspect of the present
agitation concerning the Welsh Church is concerned,
the Antiquary occupies, of course, absolutely neutral
ground ; but it is open for us, in common with many
persons who view this question from opposite sides,
to regret very deeply that such a subject should ever
have come on the scene for political wrangling at all.
One thing, however, is quite clear, and it is, that
without accurate knowledge of the history of Chris-
tianity in Wales, no satisfactory solution of the
present agitation can be ariived at.

Practically speaking, no history of Welsh Chris-
tianity has ever been written, except in a very partial
and imperfect manner. Mr. Newell's work removes
that reproach, for it is, so far as we can see, a very
careful, painstaking, and accurate work. It is not
necessary, in making this acknowledgment, to express
concurrence with all or any of the opinions to which
the author gives expression.

The nucleus of the work appears to have been an essay
"On the History of the Christian Church in Wales from
the Earliest Times to the Death of Elizabeth," which
gained the prize at the National Eisteddfod held at
Rhyl in 1892. This essay Mr. Newell has enlarged
and expanded, till it has developed into the book
under notice. It seems to us to be a thoroughly good
book, careful and accurate, and one which persons
who take either side in the present controversy may
study with profit. Starting with the faint glimpses
of the Church during the Roman period, Mr. Newell
traces its history and development through the suc-
ceeding Middle Ages, down to the time of the
dissolution of the religious houses. He brings out
very clearly th$ mischief, as we believe it to have
been, which absorbed, and almost suppressed, the
Celtic Church in the Church of England. This was
by no means the work of the Reformers, but was
rather the act of the early mediaeval Church of
England. To this mistake has been due the present
hostility of so many of the Welsh to the Anglican
Establishment at the present day. Before the
Reformation, when the Church of England was in
doctrine and obedience Roman Catholic, this un-
national appearance of the Welsh Church was not so
apparent, but when, after the Reformation, the
Church of England l>ecame the Church of England
alone, isolated by itself, and English only, then its
lack of Welsh nationality became more and more
apparent. Hence in our own time it is looked upon
by a large number of Welsh folk as absolutely un-
Welsh, and altogether an alien. This, we think, is
clear enough; more than this it would be out of
place for us to say. We can, however, warmly
recommend Mr. Newell's book to all who may
wish to know something of the history of Welsh
Christianity as viewed from a scholarly and tem-
perate Anglican standpoint.

* * *
Among a number of magazines, smaller books, and
pamphlets, which we ought to have acknowledged
before now, is the third part of Bibi.iooraphica.
This contains papers on " Florimond Badier," by Mr.
W. Y. Fletcher ; " Paraguayan and Argentine Biblio-

fraphy," by Dr. Garnett ; " A Forgotten Book-
Uustrator" (the late Mr. A. B. Houghton), by Mr.
Housman ; " La Guirlande de Julie," by Mr. Brad-

ley ; M The Mainz Psalter of 1457," by Mr. Russell
Martineau ; "Early Dedications to Englishmen by
Foreign Authors and Editors," by the Rev. W. D.
Macray ; " Books with Woodcuts printed at Pavia,"
by Mr. P. Kristeller ; and "English Book Sales
1676-1680," by Mr. Alfred W. Pollard. It is quite
needless to observe that the printing and paper, as
well as the illustrations and plates, are deserving of
the highest possible praise.

The Book-Plate Annual and Armorial Year-
Book, 1895 (London: A. and C. Black; price
5s.), ought also to have received earlier notice at
our hands. Those who take special interest in the
designing of book-plates will thoroughly appreciate
this handsome Annual. It contains a very large
and elaborate design for a book-plate for the Leighton
Library at Dunblane. We are afraid that it will be
rather like putting a jewel in a pig's snout to paste
such a book-plate in the musty folios of the good
archbishop's library. Those folios owe their main
interest and value to their former owner, who be-
queathed them to the clergy of the diocese of Dun-
blane. Perhaps the article of the greatest general
interest in the Annual is that on the Chevalier
d'Eon. The illustrations throughout are very attrac-
tive and well done.

Facts about Pompei: Its Masons' Marks, Tmun
Walls, Houses, and Portraits, by H. P. Fitzgerald
Marriott ^ London : Hazell, Watson, and Viney,
Limited), is an admirable book. It is beautifully
illustrated, and has evidently been written with
scholarly care and praiseworthy accuracy. It gives
as good an account of Pompei in a small compass as
almost anything we know. It is deserving of a much

Online LibraryPhoebe PalmerThe Antiquary (Volume 31) → online text (page 22 of 67)