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fuller notice than we are, unfortunately, able to de-
vote to it. All we can say is that both as regards
letterpress and illustrations it merits very high com-
mendation. The illustrations, we may add, are
mainly collotype photographic prints, and are beauti-
fully soft and clear, showing all the details very fully.

Of new magazines, we desire to welcome in its
new guise our old friend, or friends, the Reliquary
and the Illustrated Arclurologist, which have now
combined forces under the capable editorship of Mr.
Romilly Allen with the happiest of results. We
wish the new combination a long career of useful
prosperity.

The first numbers of a new Scotch magazine of
archaeology, entitled Scots lore (Glasgow : William
Hodge and Co. ; is. monthly), have reached us. It is
well illustrated, and contains some good papers on
Scotch archaeology. It has the best wishes of the
Antiquary for its success.

From the Upper Norwood Athenaeum we have
received the accounts of the Winter Meetings and
Summer Excursions of that club. We have on
former occasions been glad to speak well of this
annual publication, which still maintains its useful
character. There are some capital papers in the two
numbers just received.

Part lviii. of The Index library (Charles J.
Clark, Agent, 4, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C.) has also
reached us. The present number contains (1) " Pre-
rogative Court of Canterbury Will*, 1 583 15^8 " ; (2)
" Wiltshire Inquisitiones Post-mortem " ; (3) Glouces-
tershire Inquisitiones Post-mortem," vol. ii. ; (4)



128



SHORT NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.



"Gloucestershire Wills"; and (5) "London Inyuisi-
tiones Post mortem." The annual subscription to this
most useful publication is only a guinea. Of all the
publications dealing with records, none is of greater use
or value than the Index Library, and the long cata-
logue of good work done, which is recorded on the
back of the cover, indicates pretty plainly the value
of the publication to antiquaries, and, indeed, to the
public at large. It is almost a na'ional undertaking,
which, abroad, woull probably have been subsidized
ere this out of the national exchequer.

Northamptonshire Notes and Queries : April-Sep-
tember, 1894 (Northampton: Taylor and Son;
price 3s.), ought also to have been acknowledged
.onner. It is well illustrated, and contains, among
a number of papers on various subjects, one, with
illustrations, on the misericords in Wellingborough
Church ; another is on Northampton Castle ; and
a long one on " Rushton Hall and its Owners,"
with several illustrations.

Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, Decem-
ber, 1894 (Sherborne : Sawte/l ; subscription 5s. per
annum), contains a numl>er of short notes, many of
them well illustrated. The churchwardens' accounts
of St. John's, Glastonbury, for 1418 and 1421, are
printed in full, and contain many entries of consider-
able interest.



^fiort Jftote.s ant)
Corresponoence.

ENGRAVINGS OF ST. ALBAN'S ABBEY.

In an interesting article on this subject in the
Antiquary for February, Mr. F. G. Kitton tells us that
Mr. Lewis Evans, F.S.A., an ardent collector of
Hertfordshire prints, owns, perhaps, the best and
largest collection of those relating to St. Alban's
Abbey. He has 140 exterior views of the abbey, and,
counting those of the interior and items appertaining
thereto, has acquired a total of nearly 600 different
representations of this grand old fane. Whilst upon
the subject, it may be useful to record the state of my
own collection. It stands as follows :



Exteriors of St. Alban's Abbey

Interiors

Prints of details

Portraits of those connected with the
abbey, past and present

Ground plans ...

Maps into which the abbey is intro-
duced



118

42

127

27
13



335



Of a greater number of these I also possess duplicates.
Further, I have (all carefully pasted and arranged in a
book) many hundreds of newspaper and other cuttings,
each and every one having reference to the abl>ey.

The earliest engraving I possess of the abbey is on
John Sj>ced"s map of " Hartford Shire," which
Mr. Kitton dates, I see. at about 1610. There was,
however, a second edition of Speed's Theatre and
Empire of Great Britain, " Printed for Thomas Basset



at the George in Fleet Street, and Richard Chiswel
at the Rose and Crown, in St. Paul's Church-yard,
m.d.c.lxxyi., with sundry additions by E. Phillips."

On comparing the map in my own copy of this
work with the map amongst my St. Alban s Abbey
collection, both appear identical, but the latter is cer-
tainly a sharper and better print, so it is possibly from
the first edition. My last acquired print is from the
Illustrated Carpenter and Huilder for January 25,
1895, and is a general view (looking east) of the high
altar screen. I have a fine engraving of this screen
drawn by F. Nash and engraved by II. Le Keux,
and published by Nichols, Son, and Bentley,
May 1, 1815. A curious mistake thereon is that
only twelve niches are shown immediately over
the altar, although, as a matter of actual fact,
there are thirteen. The central one of this series is
somewhat wider than are the rest, and so when we
restored the fabric generally, and refilled the for so
long a time empty seventy-four niches with statues,
we considered that we needed to have no hesitation as
to what to place in these thirteen. So it conies about
that to-day our Lord seated in majesty occupies the
middle one, whilst the twelve Apostles (six on either
side, and all, like our Lord, in pure white alabaster)
occupy the rest.

I may remark that when, in 1884, under the direc-
tion of Sir Arthur Blomfield, A.R.A., I commenced
the restoration of this screen, I did not possess a single
print of St. Alban's Abbey. All have been collected
by me one by one, and here and there, during the
course of a very busy life since 1884.

It is only fair to add that the whole cost of the
restoration of this most beautiful altar screen in the
world (for, as regards exquisite early fifteenth-century
detail, that at Winchester Cathedral cannot hold
a candle to it), a work which occupied us about six
years, was defrayed with characteristic liberality by
Mr. Henry Hucks Gibbs, of Alderham House, Herts.
The total expenditure was something like ,10,000.

Harry Hems.

Fair Park, Exeter.



THE SUPPRESSION OF SUPERSTITION.

A society has been recently formed which has for its
object the suppression of superstition, an end devoutly
to be wished ; but at the two annual dinners the
society has celebrated, the guests are reported to have
done several acts which were useless to attain the
desired result, because they were done deliberately,
and not accidentally. It is the accidental breaking of
a looking-glass, the unpremeditated crossing of knives
and overturning salt-cellars, which in the eyes of the
superstitious produce misfortune and woe.

J. Lewis Andre.
wwiiwiwinwwitiwiwwwwrwwwwwwnwiHWll

Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly
obliged to publishers if they will always state the price
of books sent for review.

To intending Contributors. Unsolicited MSS.
will ahoays receive careful attention, but the Editor
cannot return them if not accepted unless a fully
stamped ami directed envelope is enclosed. To this
rule no exception will be made.

It would be well if those proposing to submit MSS.
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and
manner of treatment.



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



129




The Antiquary.



MAY, 1895.



jftotes of tfie Q^onti).

The necessities of the printing-press, and of
the due issue of a monthly magazine, pre-
clude a report appearing here of the election
of the officers of the Society of Antiquaries
on St. George's Day (April 23), as a fait
accompli, but we have not the least reason
for doubting that the nominations made by
the Council will have been unanimously con-
firmed at the time that this paragraph appears.
The recommendations of the Council are :
Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B., as President;
Edwin Freshfield, Esq., LL.D., as Treasurer;
F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., as Director; and
C. H. Read, Esq., as Secretary of the society
for the year ending on St. George's Day,
1896.

'J?

In regard to the Council for the ensuing
year, the proposals are as follows : Eleven
members from the old Council : E. W.
Brabrook, Esq. ; Sir John Evans, K.C.B. ;
Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B. ; Edwin Fresh-
field, Esq., LL.D.; G. W. G. Leveson
Gower, Esq. ; R. Claverhouse J ebb, Esq.,
Litt.D., M.P. ; John Henry Middleton,
Esq., Litt.D. ; Philip Norman, Esq. ; F. G.
Hilton Price, Esq. ; Charles Hercules Read,
Esq. ; and Mill Stephenson, Esq., B.A. ;
together with the following ten members of the
new Council : Caspar Purdon Clarke, Esq.,
CLE. ; Rev. E. S. Dewick, M.A. ; Arthur
John Evans, Esq., M.A. ; C. D. E. Fortnum,
Esq., D.C.L. ; Emanuel Green, Esq. ; W. J.
Hardy, Esq. ; J. T. Micklethwaite, Esq. ;
W. Minet, Esq., M.A. ; J. G. Waller, Esq. ;
and John Watney, Esq.

VOL. XXXI.



We must not, we suppose, pass by, wholly
without reference in these notes, the horrible
burning to death as a witch, by her relatives,
of a poor woman in Ireland. The story is
being reported so fully in the newspapers at
the present time, that a recapitulation of the
facts here is rendered unnecessary. To the
student of folk-lore, this most painful event
cannot fail to be of interest, dreadful as it
is to think of such an act being perpetrated
in a civilized country at the present day. We
will only remark, in passing, that though a
case like this brings into prominence the
existing vitality of superstitious belief, it is
quite a mistake to suppose, as people appear
to do, that superstition is confined to a few
ignorant Irish peasants. Fortunately, it is
rare indeed to hear of witch-burning at the
present day ; but any person who is accus-
tomed to hold much intercourse with the
working classes in the country parts of Eng-
land, must often be amazed at the amount of
reliance still placed in superstitious observ-
ances, in spite of the general spread of edu-
cation. The " Thirteen Club " may help to
kill superstition among the educated classes,
or at least to bring it into ridicule ; but with
others it is evidently destined to die a hard,
and a lingering death.

$ $ $

We regret to learn from a letter addressed to
the papers by the Dean of Peterborough, that
the recent gales are thought to have seriously
affected the stability of the west front of
Peterborough Cathedral. Mr. Pearson is
about to make a critical examination of the
west front, in order to ascertain its actual
condition. Without in the least wishing
to prejudice the Dean's appeal for funds to
preserve the cathedral from further injury,
we would take leave to observe that if any
serious amount of pulling about, or rebuild-
ing (falsely called " restoration "), is pro-
posed, that then antiquaries will need some
corroboration of Mr. Pearson's verdict before
acquiescing in its justice, or responding to
the appeal.

4f 4p

In regard to the fears expressed as to the
condition of Peterborough Cathedral, Mr. H.
W. Brewer suggests, in a letter to the Daily
Graphic, that the more thorough system of
modern drainage is to blame for injuring the

s



13



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



stability of the foundations of ancient build-
ings on marshy ground, such as those of the
Fen district This seems very probable, and
Mr. Brewer refers to the case of the church
at Minden, in Germany, and recommends
similar treatment. This is the gradual inser-
tion and substitution of a secure foundation
under the walls of the cathedral, which he
declares is not only desirable, but quite
possible, as at Minden. In the present day
there ought to be no insuperable difficulty in
such a piece of engineering work. Indeed,
something almost as difficult was successfully
carried out by Sir Gilbert Scott five-and-twenty
years ago, at St. David's Cathedral, when the
heavy central tower showed signs of weakness,
and it was feared that it might share the fate,
which had then only recently befallen the
spire at Chichester.

4f

The neighbouring abbey church of Croyland
possesses a most energetic and persistent
mendicant in its present rector, who is un-
tiring in his zeal for its " restoration," and in
sending out broadcast among antiquaries
urgent appeals for pecuniary assistance, which
we have alluded to before. A fresh appeal
has again been going round. We can only
say in his case, as we do in that of Peter-
borough Cathedral, that antiquaries wholly
mistrust Mr. Pearson in these matters. His
eminence as an architect, is not equalled by
a wholesome desire to preserve all that is
ancient about a building. When Mr. J. L.
Pearson joins the Society for the Preserva-
tion of Ancient Buildings it will be time for
antiquaries, from their point'of view, to revise
their opinion of him as a " restorer " of old
churches. Till then, they will hold their hands.

4? 4? *k

Mr. R. Blair, F.S.A., communicated the pith
of the following note to the Newcastle Daily
Journal of April 9, 1895 : A Roman altar,
2 feet ic inches high, 16 inches wide at top
and bottom, and 13 inches from back to
front, was discovered yesterday morning at
the junction of Baring and Trajan Streets,
South Shields, about 100 yards south-west of
the site of the south gateway of the Roman
station, while the ground was being prepared
by Mr. Aaron Robinson, the owner, for the
erection of a dwelling-house. The site of
the discovery is about the line of the Roman



Road, leaving the camp by its south gate-
way, and going in a south-westerly direction
to the Wreken Dyke. The altar has on the
top the usual focus and horns, on the left-
hand side a ewer, and on the right-hand
side a dish, objects which frequently occur
on Roman altars, while on the back is a bird.
The inscription may provisionally be read :

deae br[i]

GANTIAE
SACRVM

congenn[i]c

CVS V.S.L.M

which, roughly translated, informs us that
Congennicus erected the altar to the goddess
Brigantia in performance of a vow. The
altar has been very kindly presented by the
discoverer, Mr. Robinson, to the Free Library
Museum, South Shields, where it is to be
seen. The only other record of Dea Brigantia
is an altar discovered about a century ago at
Birrens, near Middleby, in Dumfriesshire,
which is now in the Edinburgh Antiquarian
Museum.

# #

In excavating ground in order to lay a new
waterpipe, a small portion of a Roman pave-
ment was discovered by the workmen, on
March 25th, 3 feet below the surface of the
ground, in Papillon Road, Colchester. The
pavement was composed of small pieces of
red brick, circular in form, and about the
size of a crown piece.

4*

It is proposed to hold, under the auspices of
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, an ex-
hibition of Old Plate in the Fitzwilliam
Museum, Cambridge, on May 8th, 9th, and
10th. The exhibition will include all the
most important pieces of college plate, and
typical examples of the more ordinary class
of work. Ecclesiastical vessels will also be
included, representing the college chapels,
and the town and country churches. It is
also hoped that some municipal insignia will
be lent for exhibition. The loan of several
pieces of exceptional interest has been pro-
mised, such as the censer and incense boat
of Ramsay Abbey found in Whittlesey Mere
some years ago, and which are now the pro-
perty of Lord Carysfort.

<t 4* $



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



131



Arrangements for the summer meeting of the
Archaeological Institute at Scarborough are
in active progress, but are at present in too
undetermined a condition for us to announce
definitely in the nature of a programme.

$ &

We mentioned in a recent number of the
Antiquary, the discovery of the foundations
of the three original eastern apses of Durham
Cathedral. Another very interesting dis-
covery, which has been made at Durham,
is that of a large portion of the bishop's
official seat of stone, in the chapter-house,
now being rebuilt in memory of Bishop
Lightfoot. The chair, which was fixed at
the centre of the semicircular end of the
chapter-house, was demolished at the end
of last century. Its discovery, following so
soon after that of the three apses, is very
noteworthy, and curious.

$ $ $

Speaking of Durham, we are glad to learn
that Canon Greenwell has been, and is,
making better progress towards recovery than
was at one time thought to be possible. He
is in excellent spirits, and is beginning to be
able to move about There is now every
reason to hope that Dr. Greenwell may even
yet recover much of his former vigour and
physical activity.

if 4f

The members of the Council of the Berkshire
Archaeological Society, in their annual report
recently presented to the members of the
society, suggest the erection of a memorial
brass in the church of Waltham St. Lawrence,
in that county, commemorative of the labours
of John Hearne, the antiquary. It would
seem that no memorial to Hearne exists, and
it is thought to be only suitable that a brass
tablet, or something of the sort, should be
placed in the church of the parish in which
he was born.

#

At the annual meeting of the same society,
the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield brought forward
the subject of a photographic survey of the
county. This is a subject which is con-
stantly coming before the different archaeo-
logical societies in various parts of the
country. It seems to us that it is a matter
in which the different societies might com-
bine their forces and bring before the
Government, in order to see whether some



assistance cannot be obtained from the
national exchequer. The application would
probably fail in the first instance, but by dint
of persevering, something might eventually
be obtained. In this matter England is far
behind other countries.

4? $? 4?
While alluding to the subject of a national
photographic survey of the country, it may be
convenient to mention that a fresh catalogue
has recently been issued of the French
national photographs, taken in connection
with the "Commission des Monuments
Historiques." These photographs now
number about 10,000, and include all sorts
of antiquities and ancient buildings in various
parts of France and Algeria. They are sold
to the public at an exceedingly small sum.
The largest size measures 40 by 30 centi-
metres, and these are sold at a franc and a
half each. The descriptive catalogue (price
1 fr. 50 c.) and the photographs themselves
can be obtained through the agency of the
old - established English firm of Messrs.
Merridew, Rue Victor Hugo, Boulogne-sur-
Mer. It is a reflection on our own country
that we have nothing of the kind in England.

A curious discovery of a series of subterranean
chambers, or caves has been recently made on
the Duke of Richmond's estate in Sussex, near
Goodwood, and the caves are at the present
time being carefully explored at the Duke's
expense. The articles hitherto found include,
it is thought, objects belonging to the neolithic
period as well as Roman antiquities. The
probability is that the caves were open for
many ages, and so contain objects of even
comparatively recent periods. Possibly, too,
smuggling may account for such a discovery
as that of a halfpenny of last century side by
side with a Roman pin. " Smugglers' caves "
are common in many parts of Sussex, and it
will be an interesting discovery if it should
eventually be found that these were in their
origin the abode of primitive man, utilized in
days of civilization by the smuggler to conceal
his contraband goods. If this should prove
to be the case, the underground roads and
smugglers' caves of Sussex will acquire an
interest, little suspected till now. It would
be quite worth while to make explorations
elsewhere along the south coast with this end



13*



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



The death, resulting from influenza or its
after-effects, is announced of Mr. Robert
Fitch, F.S.A., of Norwich. Mr. Fitch was a
very remarkable man in his way, and a very
competent antiquary. He was one of the
original members of the Norfolk and Norwich
Archaeological Society, which was founded in
1845, an d was f r man y years its treasurer,
and also joint secretary of the society with
the Rev. C. R. Manning. Mr. Fitch was a
druggist by trade, and, in spite of the dis-
advantages of his early education, he acquired
an honourable position as a man of learning,
and culture. A considerable collection of
antiquities, which he gathered together during
his long life, he recently gave to the Norwich
Museum, where it forms the Fitch Collection.
Mr. Fitch was elected a Fellow of the Society
of Antiquaries in 1859. He died at the ripe
old age of ninety-three on April 4.

<$ $ $
Newbattle Abbey, not far from Edinburgh,
one of the seats of the Marquis of Lothian,
was originally founded by David I. as a Cis-
tercian monastery. At the Reformation the
abbot, Mark Kerr, by turning Protestant,
contrived to obtain possession of the abbey
for himself ; and he became the founder of
that branch of the ancient Scottish family of
Kerr, so worthily represented at the present
day by Lord Lothian. The abbey buildings
were speedily altered into a private residence,
and succeeding additions and changes have
pretty well obliterated all traces of their
monastic origin. Recently, however, Lord
Lothian has been conducting a series of
explorations in the grounds, with the assist-
ance of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland,
of which he is the president. Several im-
portant discoveries have been made, including
the recovery of the whole of the ground-plan
of the monastic church, as well as those of
other of the buildings.

Earlier discoveries had been made in 1878
by workmen, in digging for foundations of an
addition to the house, which was being made
at that time. The lower part of the walls of
the monastic church were then uncovered,
and the exploration being continued, at the
instance of Lord Lothian, the foundations of
the greater part of the church were found,
and were afterwards marked out on the



surface of the ground. Since 1892 Lord
Lothian has renewed the excavation of the
ground, with the result that up to the end
of last year the ground-plan of the whole of
the church has been discovered. It is found
to have been a plain cruciform church, with
a nave of nine bays, and a structural choir
of only two bays, both nave and choir having
side aisles ; the transepts, each with two
eastern chapels, being aisleless. The interior
length of the church from east to west is a
few inches short of 240 feet, and of this the
structural choir occupied only 36 feet, from
which it is evident that the ritual choir must
have extended far down the nave, west of the
crossing over which (judging from the thick-
ness of the piers) there would seem to have
been a central tower. Several other portions
of the buildings have been traced, and a very
fine chimneypiece has been opened out in
the undercroft, or crypt.

#
The old church of Smisby, Derbyshire, which
was formerly a chapel of Repton, has many
points of interest. It has just fallen into the
hands of a restoring firm of architects, who
have proposed to play sad havoc with its
details. One of the most remarkable features
of this small church is the east window of the
chancel, which is in itself an excellent ex-
ample of Decorated work of the fourteenth
century. The peculiar, if not unique, charac-
teristic of this window is that the centre light
is blocked up, for the purpose of carrying an
image-niche over the altar. This is part of
the original design, and no later alteration.
It is actually proposed to clear out this
window, which is very little decayed, and to
substitute a brand-new pattern, after the
most correctly proportioned modern notions.
Another bit of vandalism is the proposed
ejection of oak pews the wood thereof to be
sold to make way for sticky pine seats of
the now usual fashion. There is, however,
some hope of the mischief being checked, for
the Derbyshire Archaeological Society, and
the Society for the Preservation of Ancient
Buildings have both taken the matter up.
The visitor to this church, which is not far
from Ashby de la Zouch, should notice in the
south aisle a large slab of alabaster bearing
an incised figure of a lady. It has a Norman-
French inscription, and is of the year 1350.



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



*33



The energy shown by many of the newly-
formed Parish Councils, particularly in the
Midlands, with regard to extinguished or sup-
pressed charities, has had the result, in not a



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