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appear, from what Mr. Hamilton says in regard to
Bishop Carr, that this has actually been done. It is
well to be on the guard for any similar attempts with
the other plates given by Harris, so we have thought
it well to direct attention to the original source of the
plate in question, which is not Canon Dwyer's
" History," but Harris's edition of Ware.
4 So many books have recently appeared which deal
in a superficial and trivial manner with book-plates,
that a solid work of intrinsic value is very welcome.
This the second part of Mr. Hamilton's book is, and
when completed the whole will form a very service-
able book of reference on this fascinating subject.
We shall await its completion with interest, and
meanwhile cordially commend this second instalment
of the work. We hope that it will be found possible to
give a full index with the third part, as a good index
is a necessity with a book of this kind. We ought to
add that the second part now issued, is well illustrated
with a series of typical examples of book-plates, and
is clearly printed on good paper, in a clear type.

* * *
The Gentleman's Magazine Library : English
Topography. Part V. Edited by G. Law-
rence Gomme, F.S.A. Ellict Stock. Pp. xii,
350. Price 7s. 6d.
The counties dealt with in this further instalment
of an eminently useful series are Hampshire, Here-
fordshire, Hertfordshire, and Huntingdonshire. The
grievous maltreatment of the fabrics of our ancient
parish churches receives further illustration. The
rebukes administered to an eminent " F.S.A.," thirty
years ago, for spoiling the church of Ealing, Hants,
covering up the gravestones with Minton tiles, etc.,
were eminently merited ; but, alas ! these rebukes do
not undo the mischief accomplished. The same pro-
cedure still goes merrily on with the very few un-
spoiled churches that are yet left in the land, and the
buildings still mainly suffer at the hands of Fellows
of the Society of Antiquaries. There are, at the pre-
sent moment, several "restoring" F.S.A. 's who
would be hopelessly blackballed by all their brethren
of taste if they had to come up for re election. Could
not some scheme be devised by which architect
Fellows had to be passed under judgment at the end
of every five years ? Or at all events they might be
compelled as a condition of Fellowship to submit to
the Council drawings, elevations, and sections of all
buildings they touched, both "before " and " after."
There is much about St. Alban's Abbey in this
volume, including a valuable tramcript of the survey



i58



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



of the site 2 Edward VI., and also a description of
the condition of the church in 1803. On this point
Mr. (Jomme remarks : " Bad as that noble church
was then, it is far worse now. Neglect of a structure
like this is to be deplored, of course ; ignorant destruc-
tion of it, such as Lord Grimthorpe is now indulging
in, only adds the strongest of all arguments to the
plea that these national structures should be taken
out of the hands of those who cannot protect them,
and placed in the hands of the Government, who
would not dare, if they wished, to be so gratuitously
wanton in effacing the beauties and the records of our
ancestors."

Family history is abundantly illustrated through-
out these pages, particularly by inscriptions in the
churche?, some of which have completely disappeared.
Full and interesting lists of the portraits that were
then extant at Hinchinbroke House, near Huntingdon,
and at Hampton Court, Herefordshire, are given.
We cordially endorse Mr. Gomme's reflections on
these portrait catalogues. He says they " afford ex-
amples of what could be done by our archaeological
societies if they would collect into one alphabet a
complete record of family portraits in each county.
Many of the county houses contain treasures of great
value in the shape of ancestral portraits, the existence
of which is known to few, and which, besides giving
evidence of the progress of art in portrait-painting,
tell us a great deal about the dress of different periods
of history. A properly annotated catalogue, with
artists' names where possible, and birth and death
dates of the subject of each portrait, would be an
undertaking of value in many ways, and the county
families would probably assist in such work in other
ways than by giving permission for such a catalogue
to be compiled."

* * *
Mabbe's Celestina : a Tragicke Comedy. Wiih

Introduction by James Fitzmaurice-Kelly. Small

4to., pp. xxxvi, 287. Price 12s.
Underdowne'sHeliodorus: an /Ethiopian History.

With Introduction by Charles Whibley. Small

4to., pp. xxx, 290. Price 12s. David Nutt.
These two works, which form the fifth and sixth
volumes of Mr. Nutt's beautifully-printed and charm-
ingly presented series of " Tudor Translations," are
not only attractive in themselves, but are of genuine
value to every student of English literature. It is
granted but to a select few to have original copies of
these translations, and when they are possessed they
are destitute of the interesting and entertaining intro-
ductions that accompany these reproductions. Every
Englishman of letters should strive to find shelf-room
for these admirable " Tudor Translations."

A few words must suffice as to each of these
volumes.

The Celestina, or the tragicke comedy'of Calisto and
Melibea, written by the Spaniard Fernando de Rojas
about the beginning of the sixteenth century, is justly
claimed as the parent of literary " realism." James
Mabbe Englished this story of intense passion in
1631 with striking success, transfusing in his copy
much of the vigour and fire of the original, though
bold to a fault in the liberties he took with many of
his master's expressions. Mabbe, who was for many
years a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, became



enamoured of Spanish literature through being ap-
pointed Secretary to the Spanish Embassy, in 161 1,
under Sir John Digby, afterwards Earl of Bristol.

The sEthicptia of Heliodorus is the progenitor of
the modern romance, or novel of adventure. It deals
with bloodthirsty pirates and armed men, caves and
ambushes, poisonings and mysterious deaths, fire and
rapine. It has been called a prose epic, but, as Mr.
Whibley remarks, it is more nearly related to Ivanhoe
than to the Odyssey. The ALthiopica is a purely
imaginary conception, and belongs, like the Arcadian
school of Elizabethan romances, to no period and to
no country. It was first printed at Basle in 1534. It
was Englished by Thomas Underdowne in 1587. His
version is a model of rich, well-measured English.
In fact, Underdowne was one of the makers of
English prose, stately and yet simple, and withal full
of cadence. "In his pages," says Mr. Whibley,
"you find an origin of the Authorised Version. Ac-
customed to esteem our own Bible a separate master-
piece, we foiget that the translators of James I.'s reign
were but the heirs of the Elizabethan. The style,
which they handled with so fine a bravery, they found
fashioned ready to their hand. North and Under-
downe, Holland and Adlington, had come before to
establish a tradition of distinguished prose. And it
is Underdowne who most nearly approaches the dig-
nified severity of the English Bible. For example,
contemplate the following passage : ' Wherefore I
with wayling beweepe my sorrow, like a Birde, whose
nest a dragon pulleth down, and devoureth her young
before her face, and is afraid to come nigh, neither
can she flee away.' Might not these lines be culled
from the Psalms or the Prophets ?"
* * *
The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer.
By Rev. W. W. Skeat, LL.D. Clarendon Press.
Vol. VI. Demy 8vo., pp. civ., 446. Price 16s.

The last volume of this fine edition is now before
us. It contains a general introduction, a glossary,
and indexes. Professor Skeat and the Clarendon
Press are to be warmly congratulated on having,
within the stipulated time, brought to a successful
issue their promised undertaking, whereby all scholars
can readily procure, at a reasonable price, a thoroughly
sound and genuine text of Chaucer. Combined with
this text, we have the advantages of Professor Skeat's
unique philological acquirements, and patient dili-
gence, in giving the latest and most critical informa-
tion on Middle-English grammar, as well as a con-
siderable volume of new illustrative notes relative to
Chaucer's allusions.

Nine tenths of this general introduction deal with
such subjects as pronunciation, treatment of open and
close and e, rhymes, assonances, versification, speech
waves, accentuation, elision, contraction, alliteration,
and suppression of syllables. The last five pages,
however, are of more general interest, and are con-
cerned with Chaucer's authorities. The poet's fami-
liarity with the Vulgate is remarkable ; the quotations,
including the Apocrypha, are nearly three hundred.
His quotations from Greek authors are all taken at
second-hand from Boethius. Chaucer's knowledge of
Italian was evidently considerable ; he quotes largely
from Dante as well as from Boccaccio, and once from
Petrarch. With Continental French, as well as Anglo-



CORRESPONDENCE.



[ 59



French, he was obviously familiar. It was, however,
to Latin authors that Chaucer was most indebted for
his quotations and illustrations, and particularly to
the authors of mediaeval times. His favourite old
Latin writers were Ovid, Virgil, Statius, and Cicero.
Of the Latin Fathers, he had studied St. Jerome,
but the other quotations, as from St. Gregory and St.
Basil, seem second-hand.

The glossary is compiled on a much larger scale
than any that has hitherto been attempted. A special
and commendable feature is the exclusion from it of
non-Chaucerian words and forms. This necessitates
separate glossaries of the chief words occurring in
fragments B and C of the Romaunt of the Rose,
and in Gamelyn.

The following are the indexes with which the last
volume of this great and exhaustive work conclude :
Index of proper names, index of authors quoted or
referred to by Chaucer, index of books referred to in
the notes, list of manuscripts, general list of errata
(mostly trivial), and general index.

We are glad to note that a supplementary volume
is now being prepared by Professor Skeat, to be issued
in 1895, containing the Testament of Love (in prose),
and the chief poems which have at various times been
attributed to Chaucer and published with his genuine
works in old editions. The volume will be complete
in itself, with introduction, notes, and glossary, and
will be uniform with the six volumes of Chaucer's
Complete Works already published.



>f)ort jRote.0 ana
Corresponoence.



A REPLY.

The defence of Colchester's claim to occupy the
site of Camulodunum has been taken up by Mr. F.
Haverfield, F.S.A. He admits that the evidence
upon which he relies is merely circumstantial. We
are, however, told that the facts known about the two
places agree in such a manner as to leave no doubt
about the conclusion. Let us consider the evidence
upon which the conclusion is based.

1. It is known that Camulodunum was, and that
Colchester is, situate in the territory of the Trino-
vantes. Chesterford is also so situated, and has the
advantage of being on the confines of the territory.

2. Camulodunum was the capital of Cunobelin,
and Mr. Haverfield argues that Colchester is its
present representative, because more of Cunobelin's
coins have been found there than at any other place.
I admit that Sir John Evans' works contain more
records of Cunobelin's coins found at Colchester than
elsewhere, but this proves nothing more than the fact
that Colchester was an important Roman station, for
the inhabitants of any Roman town would probably
have freely accepted native coins. I am reminded,
also, that Phoenician coins were current in North
Africa till quite recently. But to view the numis-
matic evidence from another standpoint: the map



prefixed to Sir John Evans' Coins of the Ancient
Britons shows that within a radius of 15 miles
around Colchester coins of Cunobelin have been
found at three places only, while within a similar
radius of Chesterford ten places are marked as having
furnished coins of that prince. Again, when Sir
John Evans published his work, in 1864, he had not a
single British coin to record from Braughing (Ccesaro-
magus, as I maintain) ; but in his Supplement,
published in 1890, he was able to refer to at least
seventeen coins of Cunobelin, to say nothing of the
other British coins found there. The presence of a
great number of the coins of Cunobelin at any given
place does not prove that that place was the royal
seat of the British prince, any more than the dis-
covery of a superabundance of the coins of Queen
Victoria at Birmingham will prove at some future
date that one of her royal seats was in that important
Midland town.

3. Mr. Haverfield says we may fairly infer from a
passage in Pliny {N. I/., ii. 187), that Camulodunum
was on or near the coast. In Bonn's translation of
Pliny I have only been able to find one reference to
Camulodunum. It is as follows : " Some persons
also affirm that this is the case in Mona, which is
about 200 miles from Camelodunum " (vol. i. 109).
If we give Mr. Haverfield the advantage of treating
the Roman mile and the English mile as equivalent, and
if the distance be measured in a direct line from the
south-eastern side of Anglesea, we arrive at a point
25 miles west of Colchester and about 7 miles east of
Chesterford. Surely this is not an argument in favour
of the Colchester-Camulodunum theory.

4. Camulodunum was chosen by Claudius for the
site of a colony of veterans and of a temple of the
Emperor ; and we are told that coins found at
Colchester suggest that that place was occupied very
early in the course of the Claudian conquest, and
that the inscriptions show that veterans were among
its inhabitants. This, surely, proves nothing more
than the fact that Colchester occupies the site of a
Roman city, not necessarily Camulodunum. It is
most improbable that the burial of veterans was con-
fined to Camulodunum.

5. "It [Camulodunum] was burnt in the rising of
Boadicea." At Colchester, however, Mr. Haverfield
informs us " of burning and destruction there is no
definite trace, but the south wall is built over the
ruins of a Roman house, and the coins of Claudius
and Nero are comparatively rare." Is the destruction
by fire of the Roman city, whose site was at Col-
chester, to be inferred from the absence of the coins
of Claudius and Nero ? If so, how is it that the coins
of Cunobelin, so profusely abundant, should have
been able to resist the flames ? The fact that a portion
of the wall of the town stands upon the ruins of a
Roman house proves neither more nor less than that
the wall was later in date than the house.

6. Camulodunum is stated by Mr. Haverfield to
have been "in existence and flourishing in the second
century." As the Roman towns occupying the sites
of Colchester and Chesterford were both in existence,
Camulodunum may have been either of those places.
I am not aware of any evidence which shows that
Camulodunum was flourishing during the second
century. Will Mr. Haverfield be so good as to



i6o



CORRESPONDENCE.



explain how the inscriptions he refers to " clearly,
though indirectly," support his argument? Does he
follow Mr. J. E. Price [Archaolo^icaJ Review ii., 93),
who maintained that the inscription found in Spain,
which records a Roman "Censistor" Civiunt
Romamrum Colonia Viilricensis qua est in Britannia
Camuloiiuni, would be conclusive with no other evi-
dence that Colchester and Camulodunum are one and
the same place ? It would appear to an unprejudiced
mind that the inscription merely shows that Camulo-
dunum was in Britain, not that it was at Colchester.

7. Mr. Ilaverfield says that "at the end of the
third century [Camulodunum] may have been a mint
of Carausius and Diocletian." As no proof of the
existence of such a mint at Colchester is given by
Mr. Ilaverfield, it is somewhat difficult to follow the
argument.

8. Camulodunum " was on the main road from
London," a remark which applies as well to Chester-
ford as to Colchester. Dr. Laver, F.S.A., of Col-
chester, has endeavoured to trace the Roman roads
radiating from Colchester, and the result of his
investigations will be found in the Transactions of the
Essex Archaeological Society, vol. iii. N.S., 123.
The Roman roads about Chesterford, on the other
hand, were carefully traced by Dr. Foote Cower, and
the result of his researches was reproduced in a paper
by the late Mr. C. Roach Smith, which appeared in
the fifth volume of the British Archaological Journal,
p. 54. If Mr. Haverfield had considered these two
papers, and had personally compared the roads around
Colchester and Chesterfield, as I have myself done, I
think he would have come to the conclusion that the
roads in the neighbourhood of the former place are
not to be compared with those around Chesterford in
width, elevation, or directness of route. If the Roman
road which is marked on the Ordnance map as the
Icknield Way, and which runs directly into the camp
at Chesterford, happens to be on the line of a British
track, it surely strengthens, rather than militates
against, the Chesterford-Camulodunum theory.

9. The walled enclosure at Colchester is said to
contain alx>ut no acres; that at Chesterford contains
about 35 acres. Mr. Haverfield is, therefore, scarcely
correct in saying that the camp at Chesterford is not
more than one-fifth the size of that at Colchester.
But as the walls of Colchester were probably erected
three or four centuries after the establishment of the
colony of Camulodunum, the area enclosed shows only
that at the date of their erection Colchester was a
larger town than Chesterford. Three hundred years
ago Liverpool was but a village, but since then its
population has increased a thousandfold. The im-
portance of the Roman town occupying the site of
Colchester in the middle of the first century, assuming
it to have then been in existence, cannot be gathered
from its status two or three centuries later any more
than the Liverpool of the past can be judged from the
Liverpool of to-day.

10. It would be interesting to learn why the
remains at Chesterford should be considered Rcmano-
Biitish rather than Reman. Can Mr. Haverfield be



aware of the result of the researches of Mr. Nevillei
made chiefly outside the walls of the camp at Chester-
ford, and recorded in Antiqua Explorata and Sepulchra
Exposita and in the early volumes of the Royal
Archaeological Institute? The fact is that, while nearly
every inch of Colchester has been excavated for build-
ing, draining, and other operations, the camp at
Chesterford (within the walls of which there is not a
single habitation) remains, with one or two exceptions,
virgin ground. There must, indeed, be a rich field
here for the archaeologist, and it is practically un-
known.

n. We are told that, according to the Antonine
Itinerary, the distance from London to Camulodunum
was 52 [Roman] miles, "though," as Mr. Ilaverfield
says, " the Itinerary is unfortunately inconsistent with
itself as to the lengths of the stages which make up
this mileage." It is not easy to understand this
passage, seeing that Camulodunum is but once men-
tioned in the Itinerary, and the total mileage between
London and Camulodunum is not given, but the
distance is only to be ascertained by adding together
the lengths of the stages. We are informed, however,
in the concluding passages of the article, that the
Itinerary, to be of service in the study of Roman
Britain, must be used " in a wholly different manner
from that which has been customary." It is to be
hoped that Mr. Haverfield will enlighten students of
the Itinerary as to the proper method of treatment.
I have shown elsewhere (East Anglian, vol. v. N.S.,
289) that along the Ermine Street and the Icknield
Way as far as Chesterford, at least, the evidences of
Roman occupation agree with the Itinerary. Between
Colchester and London, on the other hand, it has not
been found possible up to the present time to satisfac-
torily place Durolitum, Caesaromagus or Canonium,
notwithstanding that for the past three centuries the
efforts of many antiquaries have been turned in this
direction.

G. F. Beaumont, F.S.A.



Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly
obliged to publishers if they will always state the price
of books sent for review.

To intending Contributors. Unsolicited MSS.
will always receive careful attention, but the Editor
cannot return them if not accepted unless a fully
stamped and directed envelope is enclosed. To this
rule no exception will be made.

It 7vould be well if those proposing to submit MSS.
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and
manner of treatment.

Letters containing queries can only be inserted in the
" Antiquary " if of general interest, or on some new
subject. The Editor cannot undertake to reply pri-
vately, or through the " Antiquary," to questions of
the ordinary nature that sometimes reach him. No
attention is paid to anonymous communications or
would-be contributions.



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



161




The Antiquary.



JUNE, 1895.



jRotes of t&e e^ontf).

The anniversary meeting of the Society of
Antiquaries was held on St. George's Day as
usual, Sir John Evans (and afterwards the
President, Sir A. W. Franks) presiding. The
officers for the ensuing year, whose names we
gave in the May number of the Antiquary,
were all duly elected. The President, in his
annual address, after alluding to the principal
events of the past year, announced that Sir
John Evans had given the munificent sum of
^"500 to the Research Fund of the society
in addition to his former gift

4? $? &
The excavations at Silchester, which have
now been carried on for five years, are
becoming more and more important as they
proceed. A most important discovery, which
it is believed is without parallel in these
islands, is that of a number of furnaces of an
industrial character and of various sizes, some
being circular and others oblong. These
furnaces were found partly within and partly
outside a series of rectangular enclosures or
buildings. Twelve of these buildings have
been uncovered, as well as twenty-one hearths,
twelve circular and nine oblong. It is be-
lieved that these buildings were used for
dyeing, and this conjecture is made probable
by the large number of wells discovered, one
of which was of peculiar and unusual construc-
tion. One of the circular furnaces is found
to correspond exactly with a dyeing furnace
at Pompeii. The circular furnace was, there
is every reason to believe, used for dyeing.
But there are also a number of others with a
straight flue, and these, it is thought, were

VOL. XXXI.



used for drying. There are also traceable
a number of chambers which, it is presumed,
were intended for storage of goods. It is
thought that these furnaces belong to the
later period of the city, and the traces of
successive occupation lead to the conjecture
that the richer inhabitants left the district
in which this industry was carried on, and
migrated eastwards. The theory is strength-
ened by the discovery in situ of a number of
querns for hand-grinding the madder roots used
! for dyeing purposes. The yearly expenditure
in connection with the excavations is between
^400 and ^450," of which wages absorb
about ^300, and trie rent of the land ^35.
The subscriptions, unfortunately, do not
exceed ^300, and the fund is in debt.



We commend the claims of this most im-
portant branch of archaeological research to
readers of the Antiquary. The treasurer of
the fund is Mr. F. G. Hilton-Price, Director
of the Society of Antiquaries. We ought not
to close this notice without giving expression
to the gratitude which antiquaries owe, more
especially, to Mr. W. H. St John Hope, Mr.
G. E. Fox, Mr. Mill Stephenson, Mr. H.
Jones, and other Fellows of the Society, who
take it in turn to superintend the work of ex-
cavation.

4f & &

The exhibition of specimens of ancient plate,
to which we referred in the Antiquary for
May as about to be held at the Fitzwilliam
Museum, Cambridge, proved to be a great
success. Upwards of 250 pieces of plate
were lent for exhibition, including most of
the well-known vessels belonging to several
of the colleges. The plate was arranged in
chronological order, and under this arrange-
ment a drinking horn from Corpus held the



Online LibraryPhoebe PalmerThe Antiquary (Volume 31) → online text (page 28 of 67)