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first position. The horn, which is over
2 feet long, was presented to the Guild of
Corpus Christi about the year 1347, and
passed from that society to the college when
founded. There were two other specimens of
fourteenth-century plate exhibited a silver-
gilt beaker and cover from Trinity Hall (known
as the Founders' Cup, and dating about the
middle of the fourteenth century), and a
silver-gilt cocoanut-cup of the end of the
fourteenth century from Caius. Among the
fifteenth-century plate were the beautiful

Y



162



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



pieces left to Christ's College by the Lady
Margaret Pembroke sent "the Foundress'




THE " rOISON CUP," CLARE COLLEGE.

Cup " (early fifteenth century) and the
"Anathema Cup "(1482); Corpus a silver-
gilt cup (1532), and ewer and dish (1546),
salts and apostle spoons, given to it by Arch-
bishop Parker, and a silver-mounted cup,
formed of an ostrich egg (1593); Clare
College exhibited the " Falcon Cup " (1550),
and the " Poison Cup " (late sixteenth
century), so called from a belief that poison
poured into it would be detected by the glass
bursting and the crystal in the lid becoming
discoloured ; Emmanuel College exhibited
the beautiful tazza and cover (late sixteenth
century), known as the " Founders' Cup,"
given by Sir Walter Mildmay, and a remark-
able tobacco-pipe (eighteenth century), with
silver mountings and mouthpiece, said to



have belonged to Dr. Parr, and about 2 feet
long. Peterhouse sent the only gold piece
in the exhibition a small cup and cover
date 1772.

#

The collection also included a considerable
number of pieces of ecclesiastical plate, among
which were several Elizabethan communion-
cups with their paten-covers. These were
mainly of the year 1569, and of local type
and make, bearing only a single maker's
mark. The date in many cases is engraved
on the knop of the paten-cover, and occasion-
ally after the name of the parish, which is
generally engraved on the bowl of the cup.
The paten-cover of the cup from Westley
Waterless proved to be of exceptional interest,
as it bore plain indication of being the
original pre-Reformation paten, refashioned
to suit Protestant arrangements.

# #

By far the most interesting pieces included
among the ecclesiastical plate were the censer
and incense boat, found in 1850, when
Whittlesea Mere was drained, and which
passed by purchase a few years ago into the
possession of Lord Carysfort, who kindly
sent them for exhibition. The incense boat
(of which we give the accompanying illus-
tration) is of silver-gilt, the foot and base
being hexagonal. At each end of the boat
is a ram's head, from which it has been
surmised that it and the censer originally
belonged to Ramsey Abbey. In the centre
of each part of the cover of the boat is




INCENSE BOAT.



engraved a Tudor rose, which helps to fix
the date of these most interesting vessels.



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



163



The censer stands on a round foot ; it has a
shallow bowl, the cover being pierced with
open tracery work.

The silver mitre and crosier - staff of
Matthew Wren, Bishop of Ely (1638-1667),
exhibited by Pembroke College, were among
the more notable pieces included in the
ecclesiastical section. The entire collection
was one of exceptional interest, and was
visited by nearly four thousand persons
during the three days on which it was open.



Mr. R. Blair, F.S.A., informs us that a tomb-
stone of Roman date, measuring a little over

3 feet 6 inches in height by about 2 feet

4 inches in width, was recently found at
Corbridge-on-Tyne. Within the pedimented
top is a fir cone. The inscription, so far as
it has been possible to decipher it at present,
seems to read :

D M

ivl



COH

p .



. ic

VIC



4? 4p 4p

By the death, on April 22, of the Rev. C. T.
Whitley, Vicar of Bedlington, in Northumber-
land, the last of the original members of the
Surtees Society, who joined it on its forma-
tion in 1834, has passed away. Mr. Whitley
graduated from St. John's College, Cam-
bridge, in 1834, as senior wrangler. For
the last forty years he has lived in compara-
tive retirement in his country parish in the
north.

4t <k 4p

We are glad to see that a proposal has been
set on foot for the formation of a county
museum at Lincoln. Natural history seems
to be the object held most in view in the
proposal for the museum. We hope, how-
ever, that in this instance, as in many others,
archaeology will not be lost sight of, and
that the two sciences may each have their
due share of attention in the museum. A
safe place in which to deposit local antiquities
is always desirable, and never more so than
in an ancient city like Lincoln, where the
soil can seldom be turned over without
some discovery or other being made. The
Lincoln folk might do worse than follow the
admirable example set them by the York



Philosophical Society, in their museum at
St. Mary's Abbey, where natural history and
archaeology are both well represented.

$ $ $

A correspondent at Derby writes to us as
follows in regard to a discovery which has
just been made in that town. He says :
"A most interesting discovery has just been
made in sinking a well at the village of
Allenton, near Derby. When the workmen
were completing the well, they came across
the complete skeleton of what is believed
to be the great Irish elk. The skeleton
was found at the bottom of the well, and
before the men could extract many of the
bones, they were compelled to beat a hasty
retreat, on account of the rapid influx of
water. The position of the bones seems to
indicate that the animal died where it has
been found. This is a highly-important
matter, as hitherto only a few isolated bones
or teeth of the great Irish elk have been
found in river gravels and superficial deposits.
Our knowledge of the extinct mammalia of
central England has been chiefly obtained
from discoveries in caves and fissures in the
limestone. Operations will shortly be com-
menced with a view to securing the whole of
the skeleton, which will be presented to the
Derby Museum. It will be a great acquisi-
tion to that admirable institution an acquisi-
tion the significance of which is greatly
enhanced by the probability that the animal
lived, and moved, and had its being in the
remote past in the very district where the
town of Derby now stands. The discovery
carries us back to a period long anterior to
the dawn of history to the Neolithic and
Palaeolithic ages, when man was emerging
from primitive barbarism, and fought with
local carnivora for the possession of caves
and rock shelters as habitations and places
of refuge."

& 4? fe
The Council of the Yorkshire Philosophical
Society (which owns the site of St. Mary's
Abbey at York) have just issued an urgent
appeal for funds to enable them to take
advantage of a present opportunity (afforded
by the rebuilding of some adjoining tene-
ments) of opening out to view portions of
the mediaeval wall which surrounds the Abbey
precincts. This wall dates from the middle



164



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



of the thirteenth century, and has been
hitherto wholly obscured by a number of
small and mean buildings erected along its
outer side. In issuing their appeal the council
observe that : " The wall has hitherto been
almost entirely hidden from view by the row
of buildings which have been erected from
time to time on the narrow strip of land be-
tween the outer face of the wall and the west
side of Bootham, and little more has been
visible from Bootham than the partially-
obscured Angle Tower at the corner of
Marygate and Bootham. Within the past
few weeks, however, several of the build-
ings nearest to Bootham Bar have been re-
moved, and the site cleared, preparatory to
rebuilding operations, which are now being
rapidly proceeded with. . . . The York-
shire Philosophical Society have already,
by co-operation with the corporation, done
no little recently towards the opening of
the Abbey Wall at the bottom of Mary-
gate. Had it been in their power they
would gladly have taken the opportunity in
this case also of doing whatever might be
possible to open out the walls and to secure
the site. They are, however, informed that
one of the owners of the property in question
would be willing to modify his plans so as to
leave permanently exposed to view the half
of the Round Tower abutting on his pro-
perty, and a short length of the adjacent
Abbey Wall, on payment of the value of the
site thus given up. Several members of the
society have expressed their willingness to
unite in a subscription to attain this end, if
reasonable terms can be arranged, in the
hope that a sufficient sum may be raised to
allow of future extensions of the open space
along the line of the wall, as opportunity
occurs ; and especially that the whole of the
small Round Tower, and the beautiful Angle
Tower at the corner of Marygate may be
fully opened out to view. The committee
now have the definite offer, for a short time,
of the house and shop adjacent to this Angle
Tower, and they are particularly anxious to
include it also in their purchase. To
accomplish this a considerable sum will be
needed. Immediate action is, however,
necessary, if advantage is to be taken of
the present opportunity." We have much
pleasure in commending the appeal to our



readers' notice. Subscriptions may be sent
to Mr. Edwin Gray, the honorary treasurer of
the Yorkshire Philosophical Society at York.



We learn with satisfaction that the remon-
strance made against the proposed " restora-
tion " of Smisby Church, near Repton, has
been partly successful, and that the chancellor
of the diocese of Southwell has refused to
sanction the removal of the remarkable east
window of the church, besides withholding
consent to some of the other changes con-
templated.



Mr. G. L. Gomme, F.S. A., has recently drawn
attention, in the Athenaum^ to an interesting
survival of the Three Field System, at the
present day, in Northamptonshire. It ap-
pears, from a report by the Board of Agricul-
ture on the Open Fields and Commons at
Castor and Ailsworth, that the ancient Open
Field System is still in existence in those
parishes. Mr. Gomme thus summarizes the
information derived from the report : " The
area of the parishes is 4,976 acres, of which
more than 3,600 are in the unenclosed state,
about 2,425 acres being arable fields, 815
acres common pastures and lammas meadows,
and 370 acres waste lands. The open fields,
pastures, and lammas meadows are held in
known acres by the various owners. The
first named are cropped on the three-field
system, one third being fallow each year.
The pastures and lammas meadows are
enjoyed in severalty by the owners between
February 1 4 and August i2,afterwhich theyare
open for depasturing in common. The waste
lands are a good deal scattered among the
open fields, a considerable part consisting of
headways and balks to the different holdings.
The homesteads are mostly in the villages,
while each farm is composed of a large
number of small parcels in the open fields
scattered very wide apart." Mr. Gomme
adds : " I have used the official language of
the report in this description, but it does not
need much elaboration to show that in these
nineteenth century villages of England we
have traces of the archaic holdings of
primitive agriculturists, of which so much
has been written of late by Mr. Seebohm,
Mr. Vinogradoff, and others."



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



165



We feel that we owe no apology for placing
on record in these notes the substance of Mr.
Gomme's letter to the Athenceum. Here and
there, in a very few other places, traces of the
Open Field System can still be detected, as
at Hamsterley, in Durham, and elsewhere.
The instances are, however, so extremely
rare, that it is well to put on record any fresh
cases that may become known. In the
north of France the system seems, in many
places, to be still in vigorous existence much
as it was, indeed, a century ago, when
examined and described by Arthur Young.

# #

Mr. R. A. S. Macalister writes to us in regard
to the proposed excavation of the hill of Tara
as follows : " Are we to understand from the
notice in the Antiquary that the object of
this undertaking is the exhumation of the
remains of 'Princess Tea,' with the gold
ornaments and other valuables which no
doubt were interred with her ? Must it be
explained at this end of the nineteenth cen-
tury that ' Princess Tea ' is merely an inven-
tion of a stupid scribe, created in order to
afford a plausible etymology for ' Teamhair '
(the Irish form of the place-name)? The
fact that there were half a dozen Teamhairs
in ancient Ireland is alone sufficient to de-
molish the story. Analogous inventions are
common in mediaeval treatises. The deriva-
tion of St. Dorothea's name from the names
of her parents, ' Doro ' and ' Thea,' is a well-
known instance. We shall have an expedi-
tion sent out to grub up their remains next.
Teamhair Luachra, with which the Anti-
quary's note seems to confuse the ' Tara,'
was a wholly different place, probably some-
where in Kerry. The statement that the
'coirthe dearg ' is the ' Lia Fail ' is somewhat
hazardous. Unless I err greatly, the identity
of the two is merely a conjecture of Petrie's.
Lastly, with every respect to the Archaeo-
logical Association, may the hope be earnestly
expressed that careful surveys and photo-
graphs of the site be taken before the excava-
tion is commenced, and that every endeavour
be taken to restore it to its previous con-
dition when the excavation is finished ? Not
far from Tara stands Dowth a melancholy
object-lesson in the results of neglecting such
precautions."



Another correspondent, who writes from
Ireland, facetiously observes : " I see that
some worthy folk are going to waste their
money in digging up the hill of Tara. Per-
haps they expect to find the harp which
Moore mentions still hanging on some piece
of buried wall. This should beat the recent
Boadicea hunt into fits."

4? %? 4?
The forger of sham antiquities has not un-
frequently over-reached himself in the past,
but never more so than an ingenious maker
of pseudo-antique grandfather clocks, whose
nefarious practices have recently been noted.
There lived at Wrexham, in the first half of
last century, a clock-maker named Thomas
Hampson, whose clocks are in some little
request at the present day. Here, then, was
an opportunity for the forger. He would
manufacture and put into the market sham
clocks, purporting to have been made by
Hampson. Unfortunately for the success of
this enterprising scheme, he was ignorant
both as to when Hampson lived, and also as
to the period when genuine grandfather
clocks were made. The result is that one of
these spurious articles has been found with
the inscription, " Thos. Hampson, Wrexham,
1385," on it, and another which purports to
have been made by Hampson in the year
1 39 1 ! ! It is not often that the forger con-
victs himself in so highly amusing a fashion
as this good gentleman has done. If he had
only left the dates alone, his wares might have
been palmed off without detection.

<$? 4? 4?
In regard to the subject of Holy Wells, it may
be well to put on record in the pages of the
Antiquary the following paragraph, which has
recently gone the round of a number of
newspapers. The worthy minister, who has
been so shocked by the " simply disgraceful "
custom he condemns, has evidently very little
idea how widespread the custom of well-
worship is at the present day. " A Highland
minister has been calling attention, at the
Free Church Presbytery of Inverness, to a
curious custom which he characterized as
' simply disgraceful ' namely, the practice
of thousands of people making a pilgrimage
to the well at Culloden on the first Sunday
of May. He was startled, he said, when
he ascertained that last Sunday over 3,000



1 66



THE ANTIQUARY AMONG THE PICTURES.



persons from the town visited the well to
worship at the shrine of some departed saint.
He was told that they put a coin in the
water, then had a drink, and thereafter hung
up a rag upon a tree. The pilgrimage, the
drink, and the rag parts of the story are
not unlikely ; it is the ' dropping in ' of the
coins that will excite the greatest amount of
doubt."

<$> $ 4p

Messrs. Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier
announce a historical novel from the pen of
Dr. William Francis Collier. The book,
which is to be entitled " Marjorie Duding-
stoune," is a tale of St. Andrews in the past,
and is intended to depict the varied life of the
old ecclesiastical capital of Scotland during
the throes of the Reformation, and while the
city was still a royal residence. Those who
are familiar with a work by Dr. Collier entitled
" Pictures of the Periods," which was pub-
lished about thirty years ago, will recognise
that he possesses, in a very remarkable
degree, the uncommon faculty of represent-
ing in fiction the every-day life of the past,
with great vigour, and with an amount of
accuracy rarely attained by other writers.
"Squire Hazlerig's Investment," in the book
to which we refer, gives one of the very best,
and at the same time one of the most vivid,
accounts of the South Sea Bubble to be
found anywhere. If Dr. Collier is as success-
ful in his new venture, the book will possess
a value not generally attaching to attempts to
rehabilitate the past in works of fiction.



Cfje antiquarp among tbe
Pictures.

ROYAL ACADEMY.

OVING leisurely about in these
beautiful galleries during the two
days now graciously reserved for
the press by the council, altogether
unimpeded by crowds or chatter, the im-
pression was strong that the pictures of 1895
are above the average, and certainly of more
general merit and interest than those of 1894.
The impressionist school is far less extrava-




gantly represented, and there is a wholesome
absence of mysticism and unhappy striving
after meretricious effect. Several singularly
fine pictures cannot fail to stamp themselves
on the memory.

It is right for the antiquary to begin with
those works that illustrate the Oldest of Books.
In the first room Sir J. E. Millais's "St.
Stephen" (18) is a most noteworthy picture,
and indicates a rejuvenescence of the artist's
power in light and shadow. The youthful
protomartyr lies dead, sadly wounded on
the brow, with a startlingly vivid nimbus of
electric clearness lighting up the pallid yet
restful features just "fallen asleep." The
murderers have departed, the scene is in
the pale starlight, and in the dark back-
ground can be dimly seen approaching with
awe three of the now sainted deacon's
sympathizing friends. "Jonah" (147), by
Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., is a most powerful
conception, weirdly vivid, of the ancient
prophet of Nineveh. Sparsely clad in a
coarse green tunic of a creepy serpentine
green, the bare brown arms with clutching
extended fingers held aloft, a light of frenzied
inspiration in the gleaming eyes, and a
marvellous pose to the crisply curled head,
the whole figure breathes in every inch of
the canvas a fine idea of the wildest of the
Hebrew prophets hoarsely proclaiming his
terrible burden. It is a picture that can
never be forgotten. In striking contrast to
this Jonah, in the same gallery, but skied
above a doorway, is "The Desire of all
Nations : a Meditation on the Nativity "
(177), by E. A. Fellowes Prynne. This
meditation is pleasingly and devotionally
rendered, though the Virgin and Holy Child
in the centre are less well painted than the
Wise Men on the left or the Shepherds on
the right. It would form a good decorative
picture for a church. Mr. Goodall, R.A.,
is not to be congratulated on his " Rachel as
first seen by Jacob" (216), nor on the fellow-
picture "Ruth" (225), nor on his far larger
composition, " Laban's Pasture : Jacob
serving for Rachel" (291). They are
smooth and well finished, and would doubt-
less please many, but there is a singular lack
of force and true art. In the first of the
three the single figure of Rachel is far too
obviously conscious that she is being " first



THE ANTIQUARY AMONG THE PICTURES.



167



seen by Jacob." " Crossing the Red Sea :
Pharaoh pursuing the Israelites" (438), by
F. A. Bridgman, is a large and vigorous and
well-covered canvas. It is high up, and will
escape much attention, because it is immedi-
ately over the immense Herkomer of " The
Biirgermeister of Landsberg and his Coun-
cillors." Numbers 599, 600, and 601, by
Savage Cooper, form a kind of triptych.
The centre, " He was Despised and Rejected
of Men," represents the thorn-crowned, cross-
bearing Saviour, whilst the smaller pictures
are respectively entitled " Despised " and
" Rejected," and represent manhood under
those two painful experiences, the background
of passion-flowers denoting the exceeding
genuineness of mental pain. The three are
full of suggestion, but the ideas surpass the
execution. Close by is a vivid gaudy render-
ing of the parable of the Ten Virgins
"They all Slumbered and Slept" (602),
which we cannot in any way commend.
"Judas Iscariot: I have betrayed the Inno-
cent Blood" (794), by Albert Goodwin, will
be a surprise to all those who first look at
their catalogue. It is a landscape, with a
luridly -red sunset background. A rock-
strewn wood occupies the foreground. It
is not until the picture has been closely
studied that the very small figure of the
prostrate traitor, who has flung himself
across the trunk of an uprooted tree, is
detected.

A new departure is made this year in the
Lecture Room, which has hitherto been
exclusively reserved for sculpture. It now
contains two large paintings. On one wall
is a great water-colour by W. B. Richmond,
"Melchizedek blessing Abraham" (1713),
an effective cartoon for St. Paul's ; whilst
on the opposite wall is a still larger oil-paint-
ing, by A E. Emslie, termed " The Awaken-
ing" (17 1 2). This last picture is brimful of
brightness and spring light, and the joy of
renewed love. It leaves a most pleasant
savour, and is healthy, beautiful, and sugges-
tive. The groups are charming without
exception, and the drawing of the wingless
floating figures is wonderfully effective. The
whole tone of the composition is set off by
the coolness of the sculpture-room. If the
summer of 1895 has any sultry, blazing days
in store, such a picture as this in such a place



will indeed be a refreshment. On the whole,
Holy Scripture is much better, and certainly
less offensively, illustrated in 1895 than in
several of the immediately preceding years.

"St Cecilia" (97), by J. W. Waterhouse,
in the place of honour in the second gallery,
illustrates the lines :

In a clear-walled city on the sea,
Near gilded organ-pipes . . .

slept St. Cecily.

It is sure to attract great attention, and, from
not a few, great admiration. But the mingle-
mangle of modern colours, in brightest patches
of incongruous tints, is painful to many an
educated, as well as naturally appreciative,
eye. Such colours in juxta-position in a
man-arranged flower-bed or a conservatory,
or on a piece of embroidery, would at once
be pronounced vulgar and glaringly in-
harmonious. Why, then, are we to admire
them when brought together on a few feet
of canvas ? The picture, as a whole, has no
rest or sleep about it. The prettiest bits are
the two little kneeling angels in front of the
saint, holding (strange anachronism) re-
spectively a violin and a viola. With in-
struments of music in angelic hands painters
and sculptors have always felt themselves
free to take any license; but why is St.
Cecilia drawn with an open illuminated
fifteenth -century mass -book on her knees,
the notation of which is round instead of
square ! " Christian leaving the City of
Destruction" (337), by Albert Goodwin, is
a profoundly impressive composition, sug-
gested by the Pilgrim's Progress. "The
Great Light" that was seen by those who
walked in the darkness of the evil city,
shining out from between the precipitous
snowy peaks that tower above, is portrayed
with striking effect. " The Soul's Struggle with
Sin " (533), by Sigismund Goetze, is another
masterly work, but of a very different type.

In classic work the President as usual
shines pre-eminent. His pictures of 1895
lack the poetry and suggestiveness of last
year (there is nothing to compare with the
" Spirit of the Summit "), but he has almost
surpassed himself in presenting the beautiful
in form and colour. " Flaming June " (195).



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