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in the centre of the great gallery, is a taking
popular picture of a young girl curled up in
a curious sleeping attitude on a marble



bench, just shaded from a blaze of warm
sunshine. Her form is partly revealed
beneath diaphanous draperies of bright
sumptuous orange. The spectator can feel
the glow of the sunshine, and enter into the
luxury of the just shaded sleep that so com-
pletely enwraps the classic maiden. In the
same gallery, on the opposite side, but suffer-
ing much from its neighbours, is Alma
Tadema's long-talked-of "Spring"

In a land of clear colours and stories,
In a region of shadowless bowers,

Where earth has a garment of glories,
And a murmur of musical flowers.

The finish of this delicious picture is
marvellous. Crowds of damsels, and grace-
ful children flower -crowned, flower -laden,
troop down the marble pavements of a
Roman street rich in classic architecture,
whilst from the house -summits and other
points of vantage the spectators rain down
showers of fragrant blossoms. Close by is
Poynter's small gem "The Ionian Dance"
(270). "A Priestess" (304), by John W.
Godward, is another classic work of exceed-
ing merit ; it pictures a fine female figure,
clad in black gauze and yellow ribbons, stand-
ing erect against a well -rendered door of
studded bronze.

Classic mythology is well represented.
There is a singular pathos in the dead figure
of the fallen " Icarus " (G. S. Pepys Cockerell)
on the wave-wet sand of a land-locked bay.
"Phoebus Apollo" (160), by Briton Riviere,
presents the buoyant god driving his lion-
yoked car. "Ariadne" (210), by Philip H.
Calderon, is a glowing and pleasing present-
ment of the ill-fated daughter of Minos,
with ruddy hair and white apparel, knee-deep
in waves of brilliant blue. "Aphrodite
between Eros and Himeros " (569) is a clever
painting by W. B. Richmond ; the figures
are wrapped in luminous prismatic rays of
the lightest blue and pink. It requires to
be seen from a distance. It would form a
beautiful decoration at the end of a long
white marble gallery. How strange it is
that the story of Daphne should be so pre-
eminently a favourite with artists ! The
metamorphosis is exceedingly difficult to
touch ; it is twice attempted, but without
success, in the Academy of this year.

Legends and fairy tales of later date than
classic times receive no little attention. Val

Prinsep deals successfully with the Arabian
Night story of "The Fisherman and the Jin"
(25). Byam Shaw has chosen a difficult
subject, and has mastered it effectively in
illustrating I). G. Rossetti's "The Blessed
Damozel " (no). The stanza chosen is :

" We too," she said, " will seek the groves

Where the Lady Mary is,
With her five handmaidens whose names

Are five sweet symphonies,

Cecily, Gertrude, Magdalen, Margaret, and

This is emphatically one of those pictures
which is killed by its surroundings. Richard
W. Maddox takes for his theme "The Fair
Maid of Astolat bearing her Letter to the
King at Westminster" (319). whilst F. Vigers
tells in painting once again " How Arthur by
the Means of Merlin got Excalibur his Sword
of the Lady of the Lake" (219). Neither
of these is remarkable, except that in the
latter case Arthur would have been com-
pletely puzzled in real life how to get in or
out of his gilded armour ! Armour and
heraldry are pitfalls to many an artist. The
shield, for instance, of W. E. Lockhart's
"Mirror of Chivalry" (12) could not have
existed at the time intended ; it is an obvious
nineteenth-century counterfeit.

The historical subjects of the year are
varied, and some of much merit. The old
story of "Mark Antony's Oration over the
Body of Caesar" (567) is again treated by
Mr. G. E. Robertson, and with marked
success. " Waiting for the Duke of Guise "
(77), by Seymour Lucas, is a thrilling present-
ment of three well-dressed assassins, poniards
in hand, waiting behind a great crimson
curtain to do the deed. Margaret I. Dicksee
has produced a tender picture of "The
Children of Charles I." (378) ; they are the
two younger children, Elizabeth and Henry,
when confined in Carisbrooke Castle after
their father's execution. More modern days
are illustrated by "Nelson leaving Ports-
mouth, 1805" (491, Fred Roe), and
" Napoleon's Last Grand Attack at Waterloo "
(499, Ernest Crofts). "Joan of Arc" (594,
G. W. Gay) is somewhat meretricious ; the
" light of ancient France " lies sleeping in
an elegant suit of armour on a litter of straw,
with a child-angel crouching at her feet

With landscapes proper we are not here
concerned ; suffice it to say that Hook, Peter



Graham, Leader, Boughton, Waterlow, and
other well known names are strongly repre-
sented. Occasionally landscape and other
work is combined with ancient buildings with
most happy effect. This is the case with
a beautiful canvas of Leader's in the first
room, simply entitled " Evening " (43) ;
across the water is a delightful old English
country church, chiefly of fourteenth-century
date, and closely adjoining is a crumbling,
verdure-clad old Tudor manor-house with
later Elizabethan additions. We know not
if these two buildings are thus to be found
in real juxtaposition, but Mr. Leader's pictures
are but seldom compositions from different
sites. "November Sunshine" (81), by G.
D. Leslie, is beyond doubt the best land-
scape of the year ; it is full of that quiet gray
glow so characteristic of the best of our
English November weather. A long stone
bridge of differing dates, from fifteenth-
century downward?, stretches across the
picture. The gateway to the abbey pre-
cincts, Bury St. Edmunds, comes out well
in 105, by J. P. Beadle, which is a picture
of the "Inspection of the Suffolk Hussars."

In buildings, we may mention with strong
approval "Palazzo Ca d'Oro, Venice" (72),
by Sarah Stanley; "Canal at Amsterdam '
(184), by Karel Klinkenberg; and "II
Campo SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice " (660),
by Henry Woods, R.A.

In the Architectural Room is a design for
the glazing of the new north transept five-
light " Early English " window, lately put in
Lichfield Cathedral by Mr. J. O. Scott, after
destroying the old history of that transept to
produce an imaginary pretty effect. This
design, by Messrs. Ward and Hughes (14 12),
is for a Jesse window, but not only is the
design stiff and ungraceful in combination,
but all the best Jesse windows are of later
date, and require much more contiguous
lights for producing any due effect. Ought
not also Jesse designs to be invariably for
east windows ?

R L. Outram paints "Sir John Evans,
K.C.B., D.C.L., Treasurer Royal Society"
(553)1 we H> ar| d all antiquaries will delight to
see his welcome features on the Academy
walls ; but surely Sir John, though a many-
sided man, is far more eminent as an anti-
quary than anything else, and why is there


no reference in his descriptive initials to his
position in the Society of Antiquaries ?


For comment on this collection we have
but little space, and as certainly as the
Academy is better than the average, so
certainly is the New inferior to last year and
to some other of its predecessors. W.
Logsdail's " Interior of Murano, near Venice"
(3), and his other Venetian subjects (54 and
171) are delightful, and so are the two by
Clara Montalba of the same City in the Sea
(68 and 214). "The Market Hall, Chipping
Camden" (287), by F. Hamilton Jackson,
has good architectural effects, and there is
power of a different character in T. Fletcher
Watson's "King Henry VII.'s Chapel,
Westminster Abbey" (294).

Of sacred subjects by far the most striking
is Mr. G. Hitchcock's " Flight into Egypt."
It is a reverent dream of tender blue and
white. The Blessed Virgin in soft white
raiment, clasping the Holy Child, rides on
a bridleless ass, and is represented as passing
through meads knee -deep in flowers of
soft-hued blue and fleecy white. St. Joseph
follows at some little distance. This is a
great improvement on Mr. Hitchcock's
previous works in the same direction. Mrs.
Adrian Stokes is successful with her "St.
Elizabeth of Hungary spinning Wool for
the Poor" (81); the simple red garment of
the saint is of a most pleasing and effective
hue, and attracts almost unconsciously to
the simple dignity of the quietly busy figure.
Mr. Halle has done well in his half-length of
"St. John the Baptist" (270); he is repre-
sented full of youthful vigour and fervour,
and less ascetic in appearance than he is
usually pictured. Mr. W. G. F. Britten is
not to be congratulated on the two female
figures labelled "Angels Ever Bright and
Fair" (200); they are neither the one nor
the other. "England's Emblem" (101),
by Walter Crane, is a fine example of the
vigorous, realistic work of this spirited artist ;
the subject, as the title tells, is St. George
and the Dragon.

Sir Edward Burne- Jones, as might be
expected, is strongly represented in fact,
this is the great and saving feature of the
exhibition. Sneer as some will at his endless


! 7


creations of pallid, large- eyed, melancholy
women, clad for ever in trailing raiment of
blue-green, there is an art and a pathos and
a cleanliness of tone peculiarly isis own in all
that comes from this great artist's brush, and
an exhibition of his annual works alone is
bound to attract, and deservedly so, a crowd
of true art loving people. "The Sleeping
Beauty" (106) of this master is an early
design of the fourth picture of the Briar Rose
series. "The Fall of Lucifer" (135), with
the motto Vexilla Regis prodeunt inferni,
is a noble work of absolutely original con-
ception. The defeated angels are solemnly
going down and down from the citadel gates
of their lost heaven in gloomy sin-stained
ranks bearing their folded banners with them.
We could gaze and gaze for hours into this
marvellous meditative work, whilst fresh
waves of solemn thought roll on, and this
notwithstanding the almost wearisome same-
ness of the fallen saddened faces gloomily
peering from their close-fitting helmets. But
admirers as we are, and profound ones, of
Burne-J ones' art, could not the master have
given us some brighter expressions in the
features of the damsels at " The Wedding of
Psyche " ? (163). The baronet's other works
in the New Gallery are portraits of " Dorothy
Drew" (109), "Lady Windsor" (119), and
an unnamed one (390).

Herbert Schmalz has a charming classical
sketch of a young maiden making Her First
Offering" (46) of flowers to a statue of
Cupid. It is a pure and glowing composi-
tion. C. Smithers' "A Race: Mermaids
and Tritons " (7,1) is noteworthy for the rich
translucent blue of the water.

Botes on arcfjrcologp in
Iprotiincial a^useum*.


By J. Ward, F.S.A.

(Continued from p. 56, vol. xxxi.)

HE prehistoric and Romano-British
contents of this museum came
under notice in the February
number of this magazine. There
now remain an extremely varied collection of
mediaeval and later objects to be described

too numerous for all to be noticed, and too
varied to admit of precise classification. I
will therefore describe the more interesting
and important as they occur in my note-

One of the first cases to attract the visitor's
attention contains a remarkable collection of
mediaeval floor-tiles, obtained from the Friary
in this town in 1887. I may here mention
that there are, in the garden behind the insti-
tution, a considerable number of carved
stones from the same source, mostly bases
of columns and fragments of string-courses
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
There are no visible remains on the site of
this religious house, but it is pleasing to
relate that the Warrington Corporation has
marked the spot by an iron tablet attached
to a neighbouring wall. This Friary is
the subject of an excellent paper con-
tributed by Mr. William Owen to the
transactions of the Historic Society of
Lancashire and Cheshire in 1889. The
plan appended to that paper exhibits a
characteristic friary church, with a single
transept (north side) of great size and of
greater width than nave or choir. A few of
the tiles under consideration have inlaid
patterns ; but the rest, which obviously
formed part of one series, are either plain
or bear small impressed patterns. These
patterns, however, are of very subordinate
character, the general scheme of ornamenta-
tion depending upon the shapes of the tiles
themselves. These shapes are squares and
oblongs of various sizes, lozenges, stars,
quatrefoils, and the like, made to fit in with
one another to form an elaborate design.
Accompanying these tiles is a photograph
of the floor before it was pulled up. The
impressed devices consist chiefly of lions'
heads, roses, and cinquefoils ; and on most
of the tiles which are thus decorated the
device is repeated several times. A com-
parison of these makes it clear that the
pattern did not form part of the mould,
but was " punched " after the tile was made,
but while as yet in a moist condition. In
another case are a few specimens, inlaid and
impressed, from Warrington Church and
other places in the neighbourhood.

In the small room which contains these
friary tiles, objects so diverse as ancient
Egyptian and Greek remains, the grotesque



pottery of Peru, home antiquities of less
remote age, the implements of modern savages,
and mounted fishes, find an equal home. I
believe the room is shortly to be rearranged,
but in its present state it is the least satis-
factory part of the institution. Perhaps it
may be regarded as a sort of museum Cave
of Adullam almost a necessity in most
museums in which are turned all the " dis-
contents," objects which do not readily fall
into the more orderly groups, or for which
room cannot at once be found in more
suitable cases. On the walls above the
cases is a series of rubbings of monu-
mental brasses from various places, one
being that of a remarkable brass (figured
by Haynes) to Sir Peter Legh, at Winwick,
near Warrington. This knight turned priest
in his later life, so his monument expresses
his dual career by representing him as a
knight with a chasuble over his armour. In
one of the cases are several old-fashioned
weapons of ordinary types (pikes, swords,
etc.) ; but with them are a remarkable flint-
lock, breach-loading gun ; a brace of pistols,
fitted into a leathern case ; a spring-gun ;
and a pair of substantial " Cromwellian
boots," with a single spur. Hudibras, it will
be remembered, " wore but one spur."

In the next room, that containing the
prehistoric and Romano-British remains
already described, are a large and very
varied number of objects of more recent
times. Not the least interesting of these
are two jet chessmen and other objects
from the "Mote Hill" at Warrington, an
artificial mound, of which few traces now
remain, but which, up to 1832, when much
of it was removed, seems to have been
tolerably perfect. It was oval and flat-topped,
the longer diameter of the summit being
about 162 feet. The late Dr. Kendrick,
whose local archaeological investigations I
have referred to more than once, regarded
this mound as a sepulchral tumulus ; but his
description is much more in accord with a
burrh, or castle-mound, of the Anglo-Saxon
period. In fact, he acknowledged to finding
a well, massive beams, and tooled stones in
this mound ; but these he attributed to the
Norman holder of Warrington, who " selected
the Mote Hill as the site of his residence."
The chessmen consist of a knight and a

pawn. The knight is about 2 inches high,
and may be described as essentially a cube,
but cut away to a slight extent, so as to give
it some remote but a very remote resem-
blance to the arching neck of a horse. It is
superficially ornamented with incised lines
and circles, which do not appear to have any
further significance than mere decoration.
The pawn is smaller, cylindrical, and plain.
The late Messrs. Albert Way and Roach
Smith pronounced them as of the ninth or
tenth century. A slender fibula and some of
the pottery from this mound may also be
set down as of the same period. Dr.
Kendrick also obtained from it fragments
of Roman pottery, which, however, no more
prove that it was raised during the Roman
occupation than does a Portuguese coin of
1724, which he also found, indicate that it is
not older than the eighteenth century. The
potsherds might easily have been introduced
with the soil of which the mound was in the
first instance constructed: and there were
clear evidences that it had been subjected
to considerable disturbance during the last
two centuries.

It is a very pleasing feature of this museum,
and one which the reader must have already
perceived, that Warrington and its immediate
district are strongly represented therein.
This certainly is one of the chief standards,
if not the very chief standard, by which to
judge of the value of the archaeological collec-
tion of a provincial museum. As might be
expected, very many of the objects are of
little intrinsic value, and, except for their local
derivation, scarcely merit space in the exhibi-
tion cases and drawers of such an institution.
I mention drawers because while every object,
no matter how small, which serves to elucidate
the history and archaeology of a place should
find a place in the local museum, it does not
follow that it should be shown. The follow-
ing will give an idea of the minor objects of
this class, ranging from mediaeval times to
the last century : Spurs, keys, wooden spoon,
two small brass crucifixes (one apparently of
the sixteenth century), cannon-balls (said to
relate to the civil war of the seventeenth
century), horse-shoes, fragments of stained
glass, the bar of a gypciere, locks and pad-
locks, matchlock-rest, iron dagger, tobacco-
pipes, set of skittles, a small iron anchor



(probably a shop sign), coins, tokens, and a
considerable number of paintings, engravings,
and other views in and near the town. To
pass to more important local antiquities :
Two scold's branks, the one from Farnworth
and the other from Carrington, are in capital
preservation, and are of the more usual and
simpler form. A set of gibbet-irons in equally
good condition were used at Bruche, near
Warrington, for the body of Edward Miles, a
local malefactor, in 1 79 1. They have the
usual construction, iron hoops riveted to
longitudinal bars, forming a cage of the shaps
and size of the human body. A rushlight
clip, with sconce, for a candle, from Daven-
ham Church, is described as a " monastic

variably some distinguishing mark or symbol
to show whether they were for wine or water."
He suggests that it was used " for oil, or
savoury sauce at meals," and states that he
has seen several like it on the Continent. A
" plague stone " from an old house in Wash
Lane, in this town, is an interesting "bygone."
This stone formed the coping at an angle of
the garden wall, in no way differing from the
other coping-stones, except that it had at the
angle a shallow oblong depression about
5 inches by 6 inches. According to tradition,
several cases of plague occurred at this house,
presumably in 1665. All direct intercourse
with the neighbours is said to have been
suspended, and when provisions and other

candlestick." This surely is a mistake; it is
of the very usual construction and shape in
common use all over the country half a
century ago. My friend Mr. T. H. Thomas,
of Cardiff, saw such a clip in actual use in
North Wales only a few weeks ago. A little
pewter vessel, about 4^ inches high, found in
St. Elphin's Well, in Warrington, is described
as an ampul or cruet, used in the Mass in
pre-Reformation times. It has the almost
exact shape of a tall coffee-pot, with spout,
handle, and lid ; and is hexagonal in horizontal
section. I submitted a sketch and descrip-
tion to Rev. Dr. Cox, and he doubts very
much whether it is of pre-Reformation date,
or was used as suggested above. " Mass
cruets in metal," he writes, " had almost in-

necessaries were brought for sale, the money
was deposited in this depression, which was
kept filled with vinegar and water. It is also
said that several of the inmates succumbed to
the disease, and were buried in the field close
by, a tradition confirmed by the discovery of
three human skeletons there in 1843. In
1852 another skeleton was discovered, and,
with very doubtful taste, the skull and other
bones were deposited in the Museum, where
they still remain. Unlike prehistoric speci-
mens, a skull of so recent a period as the
seventeenth century has no special cranio-
logical value, and it is difficult to see what
justification can be advanced for its presence
in a museum, unless, of course, it has some
peculiar or abnormal features.



The collection of mediaeval and M old-
fashioned" ceramics is excellent, although
small, and might with advantage be better
displayed. It includes some nice examples
of tygs, and a large portion of a thirteenth-
century green-glazed ewer in the form of
a knight on horseback, found in Winwick
Churchyard. This is figured and described
in the British Archceological Journal of 1857,
p. 1, and is not unlike that described in the
Salisbury Museum article of the present series.
There is a small collection of specimens of
Warrington ware, presented by Dr. Kendrick.

should be no great difficulty in getting together
a larger and more representative collection of
Warrington pottery.

A very noticeable perhaps we must regard
it as the most noticeable feature of the
museum is the unusually large number of
objects whose chief or only interest lies in
their connection with remarkable persons or
events. As a rule, such objects have in
themselves little to merit the honour of
occupying space in a public museum. They
are rarely artistic, ingenious, or unusual ;
teach nothing ; are not worthy of being copied.

The pottery of this town was established
about 1798 by two Quakers, and was worked
by a colony of potters from Staffordshire, who
dwelt in " Potter's Row," and kept themselves
quite aloof from the townspeople. The works
continued to flourish until the complications
and subsequent war with the United States in
1812 led to the loss of the American trade,
and involved the enterprise in ruin. The
productions of this pottery were tolerably fine
and good, including printed and common
painted goods, an inferior black jasper ware,
and even porcelain ; but this was of very low
type. Considering the number of years that
these works were in operation, there surely

"Relics" they are, but, unlike the saintly
relics of mediaeval times, no one attributes
occult or miraculous powers to them. " Why,
then, allow them to cumber the ground ?
Treat them as weeds, and turn them out."
Thus would argue some who hold narrow
views on the mission of the municipal

It is true that frequently objects of this
class appear incongruous in such an in-
stitution. One is revelling among the con-
tents of a museum case seals, medals,
pilgrims' signs, and the like all setting forth
the art and customs of bygone times ; then
suddenly the eye falls upon a cinder from



some notable fire, or a commonplace snuff-
box made of wood from the old Houses of
Parliament, in their midst. Its presence
lowers the value of the surrounding objects ;
mars their testimony; casts a glamour of
ridicule over them. Nevertheless, such
"relics" have a sentimental interest, and if
properly treated, cannot fail to have a true
museum value. It is a question of treatment
merely. Distributed among the more
orthodox exhibits, they lower the tone of
the collection generally; massed together in
a case to themselves (properly and fully
labelled, of course), so far from detraction,
they will be an attractive feature, and, to
some extent, usefully instructive to all comers.
Instruction unquestionably should be the
chief end of a municipal museum ; but it
must not be overlooked that such an in-
stitution is for all people, not for the learned
only. Many visitors (probably in most towns
the majority) do not resort thither for
the purpose of learning. They have no
higher motive than the gratification of mere

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