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idle curiosity. But others have sufficient in-
telligence to appreciate many things there
exhibited if attractively set forth and de-
scribed in simple language, and thus their
visit will become a profit to them, and
thus the institution will have fulfilled its
mission. To such visitors the regiments of
fossils and minerals, with their forbidding
scientific names, have little attraction, and the
same may be said of many archaeological
exhibits. But watch their brimful interest
in the pictures of an art gallery ! Note how
they linger round a case of "old-fashioned"
appliances, such as strike - a - lights and
spinning - wheels ! Why ? It is because
these appeal to their experience and measure
of knowledge. The strike - a - lights and
spinning-wheels are interesting because their
mothers and grandmothers used such im-
plements, and mothers and grandmothers
are concrete realities, which come within
range of most people's memories and ex-
periences. The principle is simple. It is
not so much the object that rivets the atten-
tion as its associations. It is upon the same
principle that "relics" are attractive. A
cinder is a cinder, and without a label it is
to the visitor a cinder, and nothing more.
But if it is specified that it was from the Great

Fire of London, the visitor's attention is at
once turned off to a great historical fact
which everybody has heard of. He calls to
mind the various pictures he has seen and
accounts he has read of the burning houses
and flying people, and for the moment the
cinder has transported him to the days of
Charles II.

The great variety of this class of objects
at Warrington may be gathered from the
following picked out at random : Tobacco-
box made from Shakespeare's mulberry tree ;
fragment of the ship that brought William III.
to England ; objects made from the Royal
George ; piles of Old London Bridge, etc. ;
whip-handle that belonged to John Howard ;
tricolour worn after the French Revolution of
1 830 ; French eagle from Waterloo ; mourn-
ing locket distributed after the death of Wil-
liam III., etc. Those which are connected
with Warrington celebrities and events are
equally extensive, and from a local standpoint
the primary standpoint of a provincial
museum are of greater interest. These would
find their proper place in a room devoted ex-
clusively to local antiquities, but the former are
sufficiently numerous and varied to fill a case,
and they supply the curator, Mr. Madeley,with
an excellent opportunity to show how such
untoward materials might be worked up into
an attractive feature. To gain this end, much
reliance must be placed on a copious and
judicious supply of descriptive letterpress to
accompany the objects. This might include
short biographical notices (cuttings from
books when convenient), portraits, etc.

This museum is in the happy possession
of a nearly perfect Welsh crvvth, a musical
instrument long gone out of use, and of
which very few specimens are left. It repre-
sents probably the most primitive form of a
stringed instrument played with a bow. In
Europe its use was apparently confined to
England, and especially to Wales, where it
died out in the last century. The Warrington
example was exhibited at the "Inventions"
Loan Exhibition in 1885. A similar specimen
is described in the South Kensington cata-
logue of musical instruments, 1874 (p. 294).
It is 1 foot \o\ inches long and io| inches
wide. The back, sides, frame, and neck
are hollowed out of one piece of wood.
It had originally six iron pegs ; the finger-



board and tail-piece are missing. There
are two sound- holes, both circular. The
feet of the bridge usually passed through
these holes, and rested on the back.
Four of the strings were stretched over the
finger-board, and were played with the bow,
while the remaining two lay beyond the
board, and were pinched with the thumb of
the left hand. In this museum is also an
extremely fine example of a seventeenth-
century virginal or spinette. This was also
exhibited at the " Inventions " in 1885. The
compass is 4^ octaves ; natural keys of wood,
black ; sharps of wood plated with ivory.
The sound-board, which has a sound-hole
in the centre, is painted with flowers and
birds in water-colours. On the inside surface
of the lid and the flap in front are landscapes
with figures coarsely painted in oil-colours.
The outer oak case measures 5 feet a| inches
x 1 foot q| inches x \\\ inches.

Among the antiquities which have no con-
nection with the district the following may
be mentioned : A small horn- book, 2^ by
$\ inches, which, however, has no provision
for horn, is shaped out of a piece of thin
wood, covered with red paper, and over this
on each side is pasted white paper, which
bears the letterpress. This consists of the
alphabet, vowels, diphthongs, the Lord's
Prayer, and a woodcut of King Charles II. on
horseback. An extremely fine specimen of
a leathern bottle has the shape of a horse-
pistol, i8 inches long. Such a bottle Fal-
staff offered Prince Hal on the field of
Shrewsbury, saying that there was that
within it which would "sack" a city. The
present specimen bears an impressed date,
but the second figure is too much worn to
determine whether 1512 or 16 12 is intended.
An excellent specimen of a leathern pocket-
case, containing writing materials, is probably
as old. It is cylindrical, and about 5 inches
high. A lateral cavity makes provision for a
knife and a quill. In the central cavity is a
turned wooden case, which can be unscrewed
into three segments and a lid. In the lowest
of these segments is a small bottle for black
ink, the central one forms a sand-dredger,
and the top one evidently also contained a
bottle, probably for red ink. A screw nut-
cracker from Staffordshire is one of the best
I have come across. This brings to mind

that I recently saw one in an important
museum labelled as a " Thumb-screw an
ancient instrument of torture," etc. A box
for a pair of scales and weights the former
missing is a very fine example of its sort.
Several of the weights bear seventeenth-
century dates, and on the lid is 1625 in
black ink. The box, which apparently is of
cedar-wood, is artistically tooled after the
style of old book-binding. Less interesting
are the following : A pistol powder-tester and
strike-a-light, man-trap, spring-gun, antique
microscope, spurs of various ages, and leathern
dice-box. This museum also contains exten-
sive series of coins of Great Britain, the
British Empire, and foreign countries ; of
traders' tokens ; of medals ; and of mediaeval
seals and their casts.

A very complete series of relics relating to
the local volunteers of 1 794-1808 fills a com-
partment of one of the cases. These objects
consist of muster-rolls, orderly-books, lists of
subscriptions, attestations, colours and their
poles, weapons, etc. And in another case
are six name-ribbons of iron ships launched
at Bank Quay, Warrington, 1853-55.

The oak chest illustrated above for the first
time is from a church in the district. It is
a fine specimen of the sort, carved out of
one block of oak, and is in a fair state. of
preservation. It is 5 feet 6| inches long,
1 foot high, and 13 inches wide. The mas-
sive lid, which is about 3 inches thick, does
not extend the full length of the body, but
stops short of one end by about 1 foot 7 inches.
This portion of the chest is solid. The cavity
is small compared with the outer dimensions,
being only 2 feet 2 inches long, 7 inches wide,
and 6\ inches deep. The lid is secured by
three hinges and three hasp locks. The
details of the ironwork are given below the
sketch. The other sketch is that of an object
of unknown use and origin. It is carefully
shaped out of fine sandstone, and is about
15 inches long. The inscription seems to be
ts 1607.

In the museum yard are two prehistoric
boats found during excavations in connection
with the Ship Canal in the vicinity of Arpley
Fields, near Warrington. The one is in an ex-
tremely precarious condition; the other, which
was found on March 29, 1894, is tolerably
perfect. When I was at Warrington the latter



was covered up with sawdust to prevent the
too rapid evaporation of its moisture. '1 his
boat is cut out of a tree trunk, and is about
12 feet long, graduated in width from 2 feet
4 inches at the bow, to 2 feet 1 1 inches at
the stern, and 1 foot deep. The average
thickness of the sides is about 3 inches.
Near the extremities the wood is left in the
form of two pilaster-like stiffeners, 7 inches
in thickness. The stern seat and the flat
well-curved waling are neatly held in position
by wooden pegs. It has been carefully drawn
to scale by Mr. W. Owen, F.R.I.B.A., for the
local historic society's transactions.

jfurtber JRotes on a^anr

By A. VV. Moo re, M.A.

Author of Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man :
Diocesan History o/Sodor and Man ; Folklore of the Isle
of Man, etc.

Chapter III. Fairies and Familiar
Spirits {continued).
HE following are stories about fairies
culled from various sources, for the
most part oral :

Fairies as Hunters.
Some stories about the fondness of fairies for
hunting have already been given.* Waldron,
writing on this subject about the year 1726,
says : " There is no persuading them but that
these huntings are frequent in the island, and
that these little gentry being too proud to
ride on Manx horses, which they might find
in the field, make use of the English and
Irish ones, which are brought over and kept
by gentlemen. They say that nothing is
more common than to find these poor beasts
in a morning all over in a sweat and foam,
and tired almost to death, when their owners
have believed they have never been out of
the stable. A gentleman of Ballafletcher
assured me he had three or four of his best
horses killed with these nocturnal journeys."
Nor did they confine their rides to horses, as
will appear from the following : " A poor
woman had two sons. She noticed that one
* Folklore of the Isle of Man, pp. 37, 38.

began to grow fearfully thin, and so she
stayed up at night to watch him, and found
that a lot of fairies came into the room and
took him out of bed, and began to ride him
like a horse. When the day began to dawn,
they put him back to bed again. Thus she
found out it was the fairies ; then she gave
him an herb, and so the fairies did not come
again." (C. Roeder* Lezayre.f)

Another story comes from the south of the
island: "On a long lonesome road a man
heard the cracking of whips, and all in full
chase and ' harrow ' (sic). He just got home
and banged the door, when harrow and body
and dogs, and all went clean over the house."
(C. Roeder, R us hen.)

Fairies cannot pass Running Water.
"A lady in silk walks in the mountain pass
in the evening time. As soon as you go after
her, and she comes to the water or running
brook, she changes ; she cannot go on, as she
cannot pass." (C. Roeder, Lezayre, 1883.)

Fairy Dwellings.
The fairies, as stated by Campbell, lived
in the green mounds which in some cases
were heaped up over the graves of departed
warriors. The largest mound in the island is
the " Fairy Hill," in the parish of Rushen, in
which the fairy king is said to have had his
palace. Many tales are told of the fairy
revels which took place there. (General

The Appearance of the Fairies.
The general appearance of fairies has
already been referred to, + but some special
accounts of it may be added : "A woman
near Agnaish (Lonan) saw two fairies dressed
like little boys in red trousers and blue coats. "
Another woman in Santon described them as
" young girls with scaly, fish-like hands and
blue dresses." || It will be noticed that in
the story of "The sunset fairies," they are

* Some of Mr. Roeder's stories have been published
in Yn Lioar Manninagh, the quarterly magazine of
the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian

f The names of the different parishes where the
stories were told are given.

% Folklore of the Isle of Man, p. 33.

Jenkinson (Isle of Man Guide), p. 106.

II Jenkinson, p. 75.



described as " little things dressed in green
jackets and red caps," with " a hen's feather
stuck in the side, and with wings "; and in
the last story in this chapter they are spoken
of as " withered hobgoblins, three feet high,
clad in little jackets and short red petti-

A Fairy Battle.

" Fairies occasionally fought with each other.
Thus, a woman, walking over Barrule, met
two fairy armies going to battle, which was
to begin on the ringing of a bell. She pulled
the bell, and, in consequence, both armies
attacked her and kept her prisoner for three
years, when she escaped."*

The following tales will illustrate the human
nature of the fairies, as shown by their eating
human food and by their intercourse with
men :

Fairies eat Mortals' Suppers.

"One night when the boys were coming
home for supper, they happened to look
through the window and saw the fairies eating
up their supper. So one of the boys said to
the other fellow, 'Will you cut away that's
been leftover?' 'No,' says he; 'will you?'
' Well, yes ; I don't see the good of leaving
my supper ;' and it's said the fellow who
would not touch his supper died before the
year was over, and the other was all right."
(C. Roeder, Jarby.)

This next story appears to be the same,
with a little more detail : " One night, when
two brothers were returning home, they saw
through the window the unwelcome visitors
in the kitchen eating the crowdyt which had
been left for their suppers. When the fairies
had eaten the whole they spat on the empty
plates, and instantly the suppers reappeared.
One young man afterwards ate his meal, but
the other objected ; the consequence was the
former took no harm, but the latter died
next day.

" A respectable farmer's wife told us that
when she was a girl her mother and family
seldom retired to rest without seeing that
water was in the crock, and a thin cake
broken on the table for the fairies. One

* Notes and Queries, v. 341, 1852.
t Or sollaghan. It is made of oatmeal and the
liquor from meat.

night her mother could not sleep, being dis-
turbed by disagreeable noises ; but remember-
ing she had forgotten to leave the cake, she
went downstairs and threw it on the table
saying at the same time : ' There, eat that,
after which the noises ceased."*

It was not considered advisable to disturb
them on such occasions.

'"Do you know that little cottage down
Lough-ny-guiy\ side?' said Mrs. G., 'a little
thatched house by the river. Well, Cashen
was the name of the man living there, and
when he was a lump of a boy he remembers
one day before Chrisermus being sent to bed,
and he was terrible cross because his mother
was making a grand bonnag,\ an' he kept his
eyes open, not wanting to sleep. He slept
in his parents' bed, and after they were in
bed he crep', an' he crep', an' he got to the
oven at last without waking his father and
mother, an' when he got theer he was dread-
fully frickened,% for theer was one of the little
uns sitting up before the oven with his han's,
like claws, put up as like he was going to
scratch him, and his great red eyes a-starin',
and starin' vicious at him. Well, he rushed
back to bed midlan' quite.\\ and he was glad
to goodness gracious to get theer, like enough
too. I wouldn't have gone to the oven by
night, not if I'd been starving, and I'm
thinkin' it 'ud be a long time before he'd go
pokin' his nose theer again.'" (C. Roeder,

But it was still more disastrous not to
provide for them, as will be seen from the
following, written about 1840 :

But woe be to the sleeping maid,
Were crocks not fill'd and duly laid ;1F
For once it chanced, in days gone byi
That the good dame to bed did hie,
Forgetting all about the water,
And sacrificed her only daughter
To many a lingering year of pain ;
Her case no doctor could explain,
For on that very luckless night
The fairies came, and at first sight

* Jenkinson, pp. 75 and 92.

+ I.e., "Goose-lake."

% "Cake." "Frightened." || Quiet.

If (Original note. ) This custom of filling the water
crocks with clean water, for the use of the fairies,
before the family would venture to their beds was
strictly complied with by the Manx in former days,
which water was never used for any other purpose,
but thrown into the sink each morning.

2 A

, 7 8


Descried the matron's gross neglect ;
And without waiting to reflect,
They flew towards the daughter's l>ed,
And in her sleep the virgin bled
Into an heirloom china mug,
Then hid it 'neath the chimney lug ;
That while it wasted day by day,
The virgin too would pine away
And die, when no more blood was there
To vanish slowly into air. 1

Fairies' Friends.
"They sometimes brought human friends
with them to feast,- and occasionally they
had even more intimate relations with mortals
than those of friendship, as the story about
the ' Fairy Sweetheart ' 3 will show. But their
semi-human nature was shown in a more un-
pleasant manner than that of either feasting
in mortals' houses or associating with them,
i.e., by their fondness for kidnapping children,
and even occasionally grown-up people."

The Tailor and the Baby.*
" An old man was coming here often, and
my daughter would be giving him a penny to
tell her some fairy tale, and he come in one
day and told her about a young woman who
went to be churched. She left her baby in
the cradle, and a tailor sitting by, and when
she was gone the tailor goes to the baby and
asks it to come and dance and he would play
a tune, and the baby got up on the cradle
and commenced dancing till the tailor went
off fiddling away with the baby. When the
woman came back she looked in the cradle
for the child and could find it nowhere, so it
became a fairy child that's what they were
saying." (C. Roeder.)

Niggison's. 5
"On the Ballacoan stream, about twenty
yards before it joins the Glenroy stream, is a
1 dub ' 6 and waterfall known to all the children
in Lonan and Laxey from time immemorial
as Niggison's. The dub, which is supposed
by the children to have no bottom to it, is
overgrown with brambles, ferns, and wood-
bine, and overshadowed by hazel-nut and fir-

1 (Original note.) The death of many young
women has been attributed to the above superstition
in the island. Kennish's Poems, Old May Eve, pp.
59, 6o.

2 See Rhys in Folklore, vol. ii., p. 288.
s Folklore of the Isle of Man, p 50.

* Told by a person now living.

s The meaning of this word is unknown.

6 Deep pool in a river.

trees. For the children this spot has an awe-
inspiring fascination, but when it grows dark
they, and even grown-up people, will avoid it.
We will let a Laxey g'rl tell us the reason for
the feelings with which it is regarded : ' A
great many years ago, I've hard grandmother
say that a gel, 1 living at Ballaquine, was sent
one day to pur-' a sight on the calves which
had gone astray. She had gur 3 as far as
Niggison's when she tuk a notion she hard
the calves over the rivar in "Johnny Bal-
doon's nuts," 4 and she ups at once and begun
to call " Kebeg ! Kebeg ! Kebeg !" 5 that loud
till you could hear her at Chtfber PherickS'
Well, the people could hear her calling quite
plain. But, behoull 7 ye, a tremenjous mis' 8
came and rowlt down the valley from Mol-
lagh-Ouyr ,J and shut up the valley complete.
But the people on "John Mat's " 10 side could
still hear her vice 11 through the mis' calling
"Kebeg! Kebeg!" and they hard, too, a
lil 12 sweety of a vice from Niggison's calling
" Kebeg's here ! Kebeg's here !" Then came
in answer through the mis' and the trees the
gel's vice sayin' " I'm commin' ! I'm com-
min','' and that was all. The fairies that
lives in Niggison's wis'-out 13 no bottom had
puck 14 her in and carried her to their own
home, and the gel was navar hard of again.' "
(Egbert Ry dings.)

A superstition is still extant that fairies will
take children who are out alone after sunset,
unless they are marked on their faces with

This predilection of the fairies for taking
children whether before or after sunset was
evidently well known even to children, as a
little girl who was offered a farthing by three
little men (one after the other) wisely refused
it, as she knew that if she had accepted it
she would have been carried off. 15
(To be continued.)

I Girl. 2 Put. Got.

* A part of Glenroy where there are hazelnut trees,
the Christian name of the owner being John, and the
name of his property Baldoon.

8 A word used by old Manx people when calling


6 Patrick's Well. 7 Behold. 8 Mist.

9 " Dun-Top," the name of a mountain.

10 /.<?., John, the son of Matthew. u Voice.

II Little. 13 Without.

14 Pulled. Thus a Manxman would say, " I puck
three ridges of turmuts" (turnips).

15 Notes and Queries, v. 341, 1882.



jftote on Ctoo iRounD Cotoer.s at ^ontpellier.




IFTY years ago, people generally
were greatly interested by a dis-
cussion then in progress among
antiquaries, as to the origin, date,
and use of the round towers, which form so
conspicuous a feature of the landscape in
many parts of Ireland. All sorts of extravagant
theories were propounded to account for the
mysterious towers, and at one period of the
controversy no suggestion seemed too wild
or extravagant to gain acceptance. Among
scholarly students of archaeology, however, a
more sober spirit of inquiry prevailed, and it
is greatly due to the labours of such well-
known Irish antiquaries as the late Mr. Petrie,
Mr. W. F. Wakeman, the late Lord Dun-
raven, Miss Margaret Stokes and others, that
we now know for certain, not merely the use
of the towers, but in several instances the
actual date of their erection. The name
cloictheach, by which they are known in the
Irish language, corroborates the conclusions
arrived at by an elaborate process of investi-
gation, and it is now universally accepted
that the towers are simply bell towers (of a
peculiar shape) attached to churches and
other ecclesiastical buildings. Nor is this
all, for it is now recognised that similar
towers are to be found in other parts of
western Europe. The two towers of Aber-
nethy and Brechin, in Scotland, have all
along been regarded as similar in character
to the Irish round towers, and the same has
also been generally recognised as the case in
regard to the round tower on Peel Holm, in
the Isle of Man. It is, however, only of
recent years that instances have been sought
for, and found, in England and on the Con-
tinent. In England the most remarkable
example is at Hythe Church, in Kent, and
on the Continent several of such towers
have been already noted by Miss Margaret
Stokes, many of which, in France, Ger-
many, and Italy, are illustrated in her well-
known work, Early Christian Architecture in

There is no need to cite the list of the
continental round towers recorded by Miss
Stokes ; but it is worth while to draw atten-
tion to two hitherto unrecorded examples of
this type of round tower, which support the
western porch or portico of the cathedral
church of Montpellier. They are repre-

sented in the accompanying illustration.* It
is obvious that they are of later date than the
Irish towers, but the general similarity is so
marked, as to render them well worthy of
being added to the list of such towers existing
on the continent of Europe. On this ground
we have thought it desirable to draw atten-
tion to them.

olp Wlz\\% of Scotland : tbeir
HegenDs anu Superstitions.

By R. C. Hope, F.S.A., F.R.S.L.
{Continued from p. 151, vol. xxxi.)



HE well here known as the Holy
Well was probably dedicated in
honour of St. Fillan, said to have
been a leper ; it is situated close
to the site of an old chapel, near the church-
yard. It was also known as the Pilgrims' Well.
It is now filled up ; in 1475 ^ was so popular
that the vicar of Aberdour, Sir John Scott,
procured from the Earl of Morton a portion
of land for the erection of a hospital, dedicated
in honour of St. Martha, for the convenience
of the Pilgrims resorting to it.


St. Michael the Archangel was patron of

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