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a well here. A gold coin of the time of
James I. of Scotland was found some years
ago near this ancient healing well.

cairnie: st. martin's well.

St. Martin was the patron of a well at
Cairnie ; nothing is now known about it.
fyvie: st. Catharine's well.

A well formerly existed here dedicated in
honour of St. Catharine. All tradition is
now lost.

* The illustration is reproduced from a photograph
signed N. D. , which was purchased in France. We take
this opportunity of apologising for any unintentional
infringement of copyright of which we may be guilty,
endeavours to trace the artist, so as to obtain his
permission, having failed. It should also be added,
perhaps, that the church only became a cathedral
church in 1536, when the see was transferred from the
deserted island of Maguelone to the Church of St.
Benedict at Montpellier, which was thereafter re-
dedicated to St. Peter.



HOL Y WELLS OF SCOTLAND.



181



GARVOCK : ST. JAMES'S WELL.

There was, or is, a well here dedicated in
honour of St. James, the only one to this
saint, it is believed, in Scotland.

HUNTLY : ST. MUNGO's WELL.

In this parish was a well on the west side
of St. Mungo's Hill dedicated in honour of
St. Mungo.

RAYNE : ST. LAURENCE.

St. Laurence was held in reverence at a
well here dedicated in his honour.

LONGSIDE : CAMP WELLS.

The Camp Wells of Longside, with the
adjacent "battlefield," point to some ancient
engagement, probably betwixt the Danes and
the natives of the district. Alex. Fraser,
Northern Folklore on Wells and Water,
P- 32.

ARDNACLOICH IN APPIN.

There was a prophetic well at Ardnacloich
in Appin, which, when consulted, contained
a dead worm if the patient's illness would
prove fatal, but a living one otherwise.

CRUDEN : ST. OLA, OLAM, OR ST. OLAU's WELL.

The virtues of this well are recorded in
the lines :

St. Olav's Well, low by the sea,
Where pest nor plague shall never be.

KINNORD : ST. LAURENCE'S WELL.

There was a well here dedicated in honour
of St. Laurence.

LOGIE COLDSTONE: ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST'S
WELL.

St. John the Evangelist was patron of a
well here. Nothing, however, is now known
about it.

ARGYLESHIRE.

GIGHA : TONBIR-MORE, OR THE GREAT WELL.

There is a well at the north end of this
isle, near the west coast of Kintyre, on
a farm called Ardachad, or High Field.
Tonbir-more, or the Great Well, so-called
because of its effects for which it is famous
among the islanders, who, together with the
inhabitants, use it as a catholicon for diseases.
Tradition says that a plague once visited
the island, but that the people belonging to



the farm escaped its ravages. This immunity
was ascribed to the good ofifices of a well
in an adjoining field. It is covered with
stone and clay, because the natives fancy
that the stream that flows from it might
overflow the isle ; and it is always opened by
a Diroch, i.e., an inmate, else they think it
would not exert its virtues. They ascribe
one very extraordinary effect to it, and it is
this : That when any foreign boat is wind-
bound here which often happens the
master of the boat ordinarily gives the native
that lets the water run a piece of money ; and
they say that immediately afterwards the wind
changes in favour of those that are thus de-
tained by contrary winds. Every stranger
that goes to drink of the water of this well is
accustomed to leave on its stone cover a
piece of money, a needle, pin, or one of the
prettiest variegated stones they can find.
Martin's Tour.

When the foreign boat was wind-bound
on the island, the master of the craft was in
the habit of giving some money to one of
the natives to procure a favourable breeze.
This was done in the following way : A few
feet above the well was a heap of stones
forming a cover to the spring. These were
carefully removed, and the well was cleared
out with a wooden dish or clam-shell. The
water was then thrown several times towards
the point from which the needed wind
should blow. Certain words of incantation
were used each time the water was thrown.
After the ceremony the stones were replaced,
as the district would otherwise have been
swept by a hurricane. Pennant mentions,
in connection with his visit to Gigha, that
the superstition had then died out. In this
he was in error, for the well continued to
be occasionally consulted to a later date.
Even within recent years the memory of the
practice lingered in the island, but there
seemed some doubt as to the exact nature of
the required ritual.

Captain T. P. White was told by a shep-
herd, belonging to the island, that if a stone
was taken out of the well a storm would
arise, and prevent anyone crossing over ; nor
would it abate till the stone was taken back
to the well. Folklore of Scottish Lochs and
Springs, pp. 223-24.

(To be continued.)



182



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



Publications anu proccemngs of
3rcba:olog:ical Societies.

PUBLICATIONS.
Another of the admirable volumes of the " Yorkshire
Record Scries " has l>ccn issued to the subscribers.
No portion of the work which the Yorkshire Arc hi. -
OLOGICAL Society undertakes is more valuable
than that comprised under its Record Series. The
volume just issued is the seventeenth of the series, and
is entitled Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses
of Yorkshire. It is edited by Mr. W. Paley Baildon,
F.S.A., and is composed of a numl>er of scattered
notes which Mr. Baildon has met with, during many
years' work, at the Record Office. The period
covered api^ears to be that of the whole of the pre-
Reformation era, from the reign of Richard I.
onwards to the time of the dissolution of the religious,
and most of the secular, houses. Mr. Baildon states
in the introduction that the notes are, for the most
part, taken from the Plea Rolls rolls, or records,
that is, of various courts of law, setting forth actual
legal proceedings. He also, very pardonably, draws
attention to the fact that no less than 900 notes, and
1,300 references to original documents, previously un-
printed, are contained in the book ; as well as the
fact that two hospitals, the very existence of which
was hitherto unsuspected (St. Leonard's at Sheffield,
and St. Mary Magdalene's at Skipton), are mentioned
in the notes. The notes contained in this book are
of necessity the result of casual discovery, and are,
therefore, unconnected with any special plan, or
system of research. The Yorkshire Society has done
well, however, to avail itself of Mr. Baildon's dis-
coveries, and the volume will be very welcome to the
student in the future. We are glad to be able to con-
gratulate the society on its issue.

^ ^ *>g

Besides this work by Mr. Baildon, the Surtees Society
has also turned its attention to the religious endow-
ments of Yorkshire, and in Volumes XCI. and XCIL,
which have lately been issued, it has presented its
members with transcripts of the Chantry Certificates for
Yorkshire, which have been ably edited for the society
by Mr. William Page, F.S.A. These two volumes of
Chantry Certificates are full of material of exceptional
interest, and not the least interesting feature of all is
the evidence which they afford that Edward VI. was
by no means the founder of English education. " If
inquiry be made," Mr. Page aptly observes, "it will
be found that very few, if any, of the so-called King
Edward VI. grammar schools had their origin in the
reign of that monarch. Up to the time of the
Reformation nearly all education was maintained by
the Church, and when the chantries were dissolved
practically the whole of the secondary education of
the country would have been swept away, had not
some provision for the instruction of the middle and
lower classes been made by continuing, under new
ordinances, some of the educational endowments
which pious founders had previously provided." This
is very true, and it is amply corroborated by the
certificates printed in these two volumes. The
Surtees Society has published such an exceptionally



important series of volumes since its foundation sixty
years ago, that it is difficult for any particular volume
or volumes to be ranged against the rest. We have
no hesitation, however, in saying that these two
volumes relating to the Yorkshire chantries are among
the best of the long series of the Society's publica-
tions. We wish other counties would follow suit and
publish their Chantry Certificates, which are com-
plete for nearly the whole of England.

^ ^ ^

The Surrey Arch/EOlogical Society has issued the
first of its extra volumes, containing a list of Surrey Fines
from Richard I. to the end of the reign of Henry VII.
The book is one which, if not exactly light reading,
will prove to be of almost inestimable value to the
student. It has been compiled by Mr. Frank B.
Lewis, who has prefixed a preface explanatory of
what a " fine " was, as well as a copious index at the
end of the volume. The book is one which has
a value, as Mr. Lewis observes, to others besides
Surrey antkpjaries, as a large number of the fines in-
cluded in the book relate to Southwark and adjacent
parishes and manors. The origin of this valuable
compilation reveals such an admirable example of the
manner in which the archaeological student of the
present day sets to work, that we cannot refrain from
quoting Mr. Lewis's description of his labours. He
says : ' ' Some five years ago I wished to obtain some
information relative to certain places in Surrey which
the county histories of Manning and Bray, Allen and
Walford did not disclose, and to complete my re-
search it became necessary to examine the series of
pedes finium relating to the county. To my dismay,
and probably others have experienced the same feeling,
I found that until temp. Henry VII., with the ex-
ception of Hunter's transcripts temp. Richard I. and
John, there was no calendar, and that I should have
to look through about 3,000 Surrey and 7,000 divers
counties' fines to see if the information I wished to
obtain was to be found amongst them. With a view
of making these fines more accessible to myself I
compiled this calendar, and finding it of very great
use to myself, I considered that it would be of equal
use to Surrey antiquaries and others, and I offered to
give it to our County Society, provided that it was
printed en bloc." The society was fortunate in re-
ceiving such an offer, and it is to be congratulated on
having received for its first extra series volume a book
of so much value and utility. Mr. Lewis's patient
labour is worthy of the highest praise, and is, as we
previously observed, an indication of the thoroughness
of the antiquarian work of the present day.

4H$ <* ^

Part II. of the Port/olio of the Monumental Brass
Society has reached us. It deserves to be as highly
commended as the first part was. There is plenty of
good work in store for this new society, which has
our best wishes for a prosperous career of usefulness.
The second part of the Port/olio contains photo-
lithographed facsimiles of six brasses, which have
been reproduced by Mr. Griggs, of Peckham. This
alone is a sufficient guarantee of the excellence of the
work. The brasses illustrated are those of Robert de
Paris and his wife Alienora at Hildesham, Cambridge-
shire (1379) ; Sir Aylmer de Athol and his wife Mary



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



183



at St. Andrew's, Newcastle-on-Tyne (1387) ; Sir
Robert Bardolf at Mapledurham, Oxon (1395) ; John
Ffynexs at St. Mary's, Bury St. Edmunds (1514) ;
Anthony Hansart and his wife Katherine at March,
Cambridgeshire (151 7) ; and Barbara Plumleigh at
St Petrock's, Dartmouth (1610). Part II. of the
Portfolio is issued (post free) to members at half a
crown, and to non-members for a shilling extra. It
can be obtained from the honorary treasurer, O. J.
Charlton, Esq., 1, Eldon Square, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
The plates measure, we should add, 18 inches by 11.



PROCEEDINGS.
At a meeting of the British Archaeological
Association held on April 17, Mrs. Dent, of Sudely
Castle, sent for exhibition a careful rubbing of a
Spanish tile from a church in Cordova, having con-
siderable interest from its bearing the arms of the
Count de Cabra, the captain of the famous Boabdil,
the last of the Moorish kings, at the battle of Lucena,
when twenty-two banners were taken by the Chris-
tians. King Ferdinand, in reward for this service,
bestowed many favours upon the count, amongst
others the right for himself and his descendants to
bear as his arms a Moor's head crowned, with a gold
chain around the neck, in a sanguine field, and with
twenty banners bordering the escutcheon. These were
distinctly visible upon the rubbing exhibited. Mrs.
Dent also submitted a large number of illustrations of
encaustic tiles found at Hailes Abbey, Gloucester-
shire, now preserved in a pavement at Southram ;
others from Hailes Church and the parish church of
Winchcombe, and from the ruins of Winchcombe
Abbey, some being of the thirteenth, but the
majority of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Mr. Earle Way exhibited some examples of Roman
pottery found in High Street, Southwark, on the site
of the Blue-eyed Maid publichouse, now being re-
built. One of these formed a portion of a mortarium
bearing the letters "tucem"; another, a piece of
Samian ware, has "OF passiem " within a circular
label. The honorary secretary (Mr. Patrick) exhibited
some fine examples of ancient chest keys, one of
Norman date found many years ago at Birchington,
in Thanet ; another of Italian design and workman-
ship was much admired. He also exhibited a very
fine gold medal, the badge of some foreign religious
order, bearing on one side in high relief the head of
the Saviour crowned with thorns, and on the other
the head of the Virgin ; the chasing of the ornamental
bordering appeared to indicate French design and
execution.

A paper was afterwards read by the Rev. H. Cart,
M.A., describing his recent visit to Carthage. The
paper was illustrated by photographs of the chief
remains of the ancient city, together with a plan of
the Basilica of Damos-el-Kerita and of the famous
cisterns, both before and after restoration, one of
which now supplies the Goletta and Marsa with water,
having a storage capacity of 27,000 cubic metres.

*> *> ^

At the April meeting of the Society of Anti-
quaries of Newcastle, the Rev. R. Coulton
exhibited a curious early eighteenth-century medal
of brass with a stem, probably used as a pipe stopper,



found in Kirkmerrington churchyard, representing on
one side the pope's head, on the other a cardinal's
head ; the medal being turned upside down, they
appear as the devil and a fool respectively. The
Rev. H. E. Savage, vicar of St. Hild's, South Shields,
read a paper on " Easington Church, co. Durham,"
which will be printed in the Arclnvologia ALlia-no.
in extenso. Mr. George Reavell, junr., of Alnwick,
also read some " Notes on Recent Discoveries at
Hulne Priory," as follows : "lam entitling my half-
dozen sentences as they are entered in the agenda
paper of this evening, but the title may be misleading
to the extent of indicating something more than the
small matter I may lay before you now. The careful
excavation and examination instituted by his Grace
the Duke of Northumberland in 1888 89, and carried
through by my father, under the directions of Mr.
St. John Hope, was of so thorough a nature that
only an accident can reveal anything further. But as
an accident in the shape of a drain trench striking
upon the interesting grave cover of Loreta de Botry
was the indirect cause of the excavations at Alnwick
Abbey, when the whole of the arrangements and
many interesting details were brought to light, so an
accident at Hulne, in the shape of alterations to the
keeper's house, has resulted in the discovery of a
feature which helps to verify Mr. St. John Hope's
designation of the ancient purpose of the building in
which it is placed. In order that the position of the
various buildings may be called again to mind, I
show you the plan made by my father on the occasion
of Mr. St. John Hope's examination of the remains.
That in which the keeper now lives, and which con-
tains the recently opened arch, is called by Tate
in his History 0/ Alnwick 'The Stranger's Chapel,'
and Clarkson in his survey made shortly after the
dissolution of monasteries (Grose dates Clarkson's
survey at about 1527 I think this should be some
years later) this building is described as 'a house
covered with sklaite . . . the neather parte of the
saide house is called the farmery, the over parte
serveth for a gardner for come. ' The ' farmery '
here may be easily a corruption of infirmatorium,
which is the use of the building as assigned by Mr.
St. John Hope. We now come to the point of this
note. You will see that the building is shaped like
a small church, with nave and chancel, the part
corresponding to the nave being called by Mr. Hope
the infirmatorium, or residence of the sick and infirm
brethren, and the part corresponding to a chancel
the chapel. There is shown in Clarkson's survey an
opening between these two apartments, which open-
ing has been for many years blocked by the fireplaces
in the keeper's house. A re-arrangement of the
rooms of the keeper's house being necessary, a corre-
sponding change in the fireplaces was required, and
in taking down the old chimney breasts an arch was
discovered of the dimension and outline shown on
this drawing. There are two peculiar hagioscopes at
the side of this archway, and they are, I think, in-
teresting as showing the provision made for persons
not easily able to move about to see the altar. The
peculiar plan of these openings verifies this. Neither
archway nor hagioscopes show any traces of door
hangings, though the latter have checks. An arrange-
ment was made and sanctioned by Earl Percy whereby



1 84



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



one side of this interesting arch is allowed to remain
uncovered, the fireplace necessary for the use of the
room being recessed in the arch, and the dressed
work of the latter left exposed. Unfortunately, it
was not possible to leave the side bare, which showed
the dressed work of the hagioscopes ; but a drawing
of these, of which this is a copy, has been preserved.
Our gratitude is certainly due to Earl Percy for con-
senting to the re-arrangement of the plan for the
alteration to the house I have detailed, as it has been
at considerable increase of cost. I trust the matter
has been of sufficient interest to have occupied your
time for the few minutes I have taken." One of the
secretaries (Mr. Blair) thus announced the recent dis-
covery of a Roman altar at South Shields: "On
Monday, Apr.l 8, a Roman altar was discovered in
South Shields at the corner of Baring and Trajan
Streets, about ioo yards due south of the south-west
angle of the Roman station, as the ground was being
prepared for building purposes. The stone is 2 feet
io inches high, 16 inches wide top and bottom, and
13 inches from back to front. On one side is a
pra/ericulum, on the other a patera, while on the back
is a bird ; on the top are the focus and horns. On
the face, in a moulded panel, is the inscription in five

lines : DEAE * BR[l] | GANTIAE * I SACRVM | CON-
GEN n[i]c I cvs ' v s L M. The letters in the
first line are 2 inches long, in the last line ij inches,
in the others 1 J inches. One corner of the altar has
been knocked off, as has been the last letter of the
first line ; with these exceptions the altar is perfect.
The owner of the land on which the object was found
has presented it to the museum of the public library
at South Shields, where it can be seen. Another
record of the Dea Brigantia is on an altar discovered
at Birrens, near Middleby, in Dumfriesshire, about
a hundred years ago. This is now in the Antiquarian
Museum at Edinburgh ; it is No. 1,062 of the Corpus
Jttscr. La/., vol. vii. Mr. Haverfield informs me that
the name of the goddess occurs on a nearly illegible
altar at Adel, on two others also, probably from this
station, and on one discovered at Castlesteads, but
now lost."



^ +



+$



The annual meeting of the Norfolk and Norwich
Arch/EOLogical Society was held on April 24.
The Rev. W. Hudson read the annual report,
which, after reviewing the excursions held under
the auspices of the society during the past year,
alluded to the reopening of the choir of Norwich
Cathedral after extensive cleaning and re-arrange-
ments. " The society," the report continued, '* desires
to record its sense of the care which has evidently
been taken by the Dean and Chapter to avoid, as far
as possible, any interference with structural details.
The general result has, no doubt, been to enhance
the beauty of this part of the cathedral. But all
alterations, however carefully made, tend to obliterate
architectural details, by the aid of which a practised
eye could read much of the history of the past. It is
much to be wished that in such cases an exact record
should be made of what has been done." Adverting
to the conversion of the old castle keep into an in-
tegral portion of the new castle museum, the report
expressed "satisfaction at the excellent manner in



which, on the whole, the antiquarian interest of the
building has been preserved. Some may have wished
to see it left as a ruin ; but it is pertinent to observe
that it is to its preparation for its present use that we
owe the revelation of nearly all the architectural
details, which add so much to its interest, and which
are now effectually secured against future decay."
Reference was made to the efforts of the Yarmouth
branch to preserve Eccles Tower, but the notes which
Mr. F. Danby Palmer had read upon this work had
to be altered into a record of the destruction of the
tower. The committee announced the early issue of
the concluding portion of vol. ii. of 7 he Norfolk Visi-
tation, and added, "They feel that they cannot ade-
quately express the thanks of the society to General
Bulwer for the skill and perseverance with which he
has conducted this laborious work for so many years at
no little cost as well as labour. He began this volume
with two coadjutors one, the Rev. William Grigson,
died in 1879 ; the other, Mr. Carthew, in 1882, since
which time he has borne the burden alone. The
volume will be accompanied with a full index, for
which the society's thanks are due to the Rev.
Edmund Farrer, F.S.A." Referring to the death of
Mr. Robert Fitch, F.G.S., F.S.A. , whose connection
with the society dated back to its commencement,
the report stated, "The first volume of Norfolk
Archaology contains a notice by him of a ' Seal of
Carrow Nunnery,' and he survived till the last por-
tion of vol. xii. was passing through the press. His
principal contribution to local archaeology was ' The
Gates of Norwich,' published by the society as a
separate volume in 1861. This society was instituted
in 1845, ar, d M r Fitch was one of the original
members. He was elected on the committee on
January 6, 1848. Before 1859 he was both treasurer
and hon. secretary. He continued to act as hon.
secretary until 1887, and as hon. treasurer till 1888,
and only relinquished these offices under stress of old
age. On ceasing to act as hon. secretary, he was
elected a vice-president of the society. Of the valu-
able collections of antiquities and objects of varied
interest which he gathered together during his long
life, it is not necessary here to speak. He has left
behind him an abiding memory by his generous dona-
tion of them to the castle museum." The deaths of
Bishop Pelham (a patron of the society), Lord Arthur
Hervey, Bishop of Bath and Wells, and the Earl of
Orford (two of the vice-presidents), and others, were
alluded to, and regret was expressed that the Rev.
C. R. Manning, F.S.A., had signified his wish to
resign the office of hon. secretary, which he had held
for forty-three years. The report proceeded to say
that " Mr. Manning's services to the society during
that long period have been so numerous and valuable
that it is impossible adequately to describe what the
society owes to him. The history of them would
almost be the history of the society itself during the
greater part of its existence. In thanking him for all
he has done, we may hope that he may still for many
years be able to give us the benefit of his counsel and
assistance, and the committee propose, as a slight
recognition of his services, to place his name on the
list of vice-presidents." Dr. Jessop was also elected
a vice-president, and Mr. L. G. Bolingbroke was



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