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having immersed her child, which was affected
with scurvy, in the healing waters of the
fountain, the presiding saint, insulted at the
indignity, deprived the place of his presence,
and the virtue disappeared. The above and
similar instances of washing call to mind
Elisha's message to Naaman the Syrian, of,
" Go and wash in the Jordan seven times,



HOL Y WELLS OF SCOTLAND.



2I 5



and thy flesh shall come again unto thee,
and thou shalt be clean." The late Angus
B. Reach, in a contribution to Chambers's
Journal, gives a pleasing, fanciful sketch of
this well and the locality generally. Mon-
trose, while being conveyed a prisoner from
Sutherland to Edinburgh, is said to have
quenched his thirst here ; the well, easily
visible from the high road, having attracted
his attention. That he did so allay the burn-
ing heat of his fever under which he was
labouring somewhere hereabouts is attested
from the following graphic picture by the
author of the "Wardlaw Manuscripts." In
1650 he writes: "We are now to set down
the fatal preludium of one of the noblest
generals the age saw in Britain, whose un-
exampled achievements might form a history.
But now I set down that which I was myself
eyewitness of. The 7 th of May at Lovat,
Montrose sat upon a little shelty horse with-
out a saddle, but a bundle of rags and straw
and pieces of rope for stirrups, his feet
fastened under the horse's belly and a bit
halter for a bridle. He wore a ragged old
dark plaid and a cap on his head ; a musketeer
on each side, and his fellow-prisoners on foot
after him. Thus he was conducted through
the country (from Caithness), and near Inver-
ness, upon the road under Muirtown (where
he desired to alight and called for a draught
of water, being then in the first crisis of a
high fever), the crowd from the town came
forth to gaze ; the two ministers went there-
upon to comfort him. At the end of the
bridge, stepping forward, an old woman,
Margaret M'George, exclaimed and brawled,
saying, ' Montrose, look above ; view those
ruinous houses of mine, which you occasioned
to be burnt down when you besieged Inver-
ness.' Yet he never altered his countenance,
but with a majesty and state beseeming him
keeped a countenance high. At the cross
was a table covered, and the magistrates
treated him with wines, which he would not
taste till alloyed with water. The stately
prisoners, his officers, stood under a fore-
stair, and drank heartily ; I remarked Colonel
Hurry, a robust, tall, stately fellow, with a
long cut in his cheek. All the way through
the streets he (Montrose) never lowered his
aspect. The provost, Duncan Fobers, taking
leave of him at the town's end, said, 'My



lord, I am sorry for your circumstances.' He
replied, ' I am sorry for being the object of
your pity.' " Below the toll-house referred to,
and in the bank of the canal, was a small
mineral spring, which attracted attention
some thirty years ago ; it is now quite for-
gotten, or has disappeared. Alex Fraser,
Northern Folklore on Wells and Water, pp.
15-17-

CRAIG DUNAIN : FUARAN A CHRAGAIN BHRIC, OR
THE WELL OK THE SPOTTED ROCK.

Above the Inverness District Asylum, and
immediately below the ascent to Craig Dunain,
is " Fuaran a Chragain Bhric," or the Well
of the Spotted Rock. This was in former
times a place of great resort, the waters,
among other healing virtues, being supposed
to be strongly diuretic. The bushes around
were adorned with rags and threads ; while
pebbles, pins, and shells might be observed
in the bottom of the spring. We have seen
one juniper bush close by so loaded with
rags and threads as to be hardly distinguish-
able. This was also a fairy well, and if a
poor mother had a puny, weak child, which
she supposed had been left by the fairies in
place of her own, by exposing it here at
night, and leaving some small offering, as a
dish of milk, to propitiate the king of fairy-
land, the bantling would be carried off, and
in the morning she would find her own, and
restored in health. Ibid., p. 17.

CAPLAICH HILL : FUARAN DEARG, OR THE RED
WELL.

On the Caplaich Hill, near about where
the estates of Dochfour Relig and Doch-
garroch march, is " Fuaran Dearg," or the
Red Well. It is about two miles south of
Dunain Hill. It is a chalybeate spring, and
hence the name. Its circular stone basin
was placed there by Colonel Charles Maxwell
Maclean, of Dochgarroch, in 1822. Of the
Red Well it is related that on one occasion
while the lairds of Grant and Muirtown were
out hunting in the neighbourhood, the former
became suddenly ill, but that on partaking of
the water he was as suddenly restored. On
a late occasion a large shooting-party sat down
close by to luncheon, and after his betters
had been served and gone away to resume
their sports, the butler of an ancient house set
about spreading an entertainment for "self and



2l6



HOL Y WELLS OF SCOTLAND.



friends," and, as a preparatory step, placed
three or four bottles of champagne in the
well to cool. When the time came for the
production of this precious fluid, lo ! it was
found to have been spirited away. The poor
butler looked stupid, not knowing what to
say, and was in the position of the fox who,
having caught a fat goose, after carefully
hiding it, went to invite a friend to dine.
But, alas ! a man had observed the proceed-
ing, removed the goose, and waited to see
the result. The friends having returned, and
finding no dinner, it was in vain to demon-
strate that it had been there. The host
looked abashed ; the guest angry, imagining
he was befooled, gave his would-be enter-
tainer a good cuffing, which he received as
meekly as if deserved. The butler made
what amends he could. Soon after the hunt-
ing-party returned loaded with spoil. The
homeward procession was formed, and the
piper at its head blew up the return march ;
but in such a fashion of gait and action, and
such strange music did he discourse, that it
was quite clear who the spirit was that caused
the champagne to disappear in more than
one sense. He had observed the actions of
the butler, and carried off and emptied the
bottles himself. Ibid., p. 18.

BUGHT : THE GENERAL'S WELL.

On the left bank of the Ness, a little above
the bridge leading into the islands, and near
the entrance to the grounds of Bught, is the
General's Well. From time immemorial it has
borne the same name, though some associate
it with Wade and others with Caulfield, both
of whom were frequent visitors in Inverness
during the construction of roads in the High-
lands. Others attribute the name to Captain
Godsman, who was local factor for the Duke
of Gordon. The spring, however, was put
into its present condition about sixty years
ago by a Mr. Jamieson, who is still alive and
resides at Newcastle. Being so conveniently
near the town, it was much frequented, and
the variety of diseases it could subdue was
proportionately great. Children and young
people affected with rickets were brought to
it, and manipulated upon with its waters.
To strengthen the virtue of the waters, silver
coins of all sizes, together with small pebbles,
were immersed in the well, and various curious



ceremonies were observed. A gentleman
who on one occasion had witnessed the per-
formance, informed us that in one instance
he saw a mother put into the water a half-
crown, a shilling, a sixpence, and a groat, as
also some small round stones or pebbles.
She then stripped her child, and with
moistened hands operated upon its ribs and
shoulders in a most extraordinary manner.
Ibid., p. 19.

AULTNASKIACH.

This well was situated on the brae-face
behind the house at the bridge leading to
Drummond. Ibid., pp. 19, 20.

BALMORL" : FUARAN NA LAIR BANA, OR THE
WHITE MARE'S WELL.

This well, the favourite resort of a kelpie
of very destructive propensities, is situated
near Balmore of Culduthel. This well had
no special characteristic to distinguish it from
others of that class, save that it frequently
needed a thorough cleansing to keep it in
healthy condition. Its sacredness is attributed
to its connection with the ceremonies of the
ancient religion. Ibid., p. 20.

BALMORE : HOLY WELL.

This well supplies the farm. It has no
special characteristics. Its sacredness is
attributed to its connection with the cere-
monies of the ancient religion. Druid circles
and stones with rude figures sculptured
thereon were once of frequent occurrence
all over the Leys, and some of them still
remain. Ibid.

BALMORE: SCHOOLMASTER'S WELL.

This well is situated opposite Balmore by
the side of the private road leading to Leys
Castle. It is, however, sadly neglected, and
what with improved drainage and other
modern inventions, promises soon to dis-
appear altogether. Ibid., p. 21.

STIRLINGSHIRE.
airth : Christ's well.
In 1628 a number of persons were brought
before the Kirk Session of Falkirk, accused
of going to Christ's Well on the Sundays of
May to seek their health, and the whole being
found guilty were sentenced to repent "in
linens " three several Sabbaths. " And it is



HOL Y WELLS OF SCOTLAND.



217



statute and ordained that if any person be
found supersiitiously and idolatrously, after
this, to have passed in pilgrimage to Christ's
Well on the Sundays of May to seek their
health, they shall repent in sacco (sackcloth)
and linen three several Sabbaths, and pay
twenty lib. (Scots) toties quoties for ilk fault;
and if they cannot pay it the baillies shall be
recommended to put them in ward to be fed
on bread and water for aught days." The
well was that at Airth, about six miles north
of Falkirk.

In 1757 several persons were accused of
going to the well, of fetching water, and
laying money in God's name, and a napkin
in the name of the patient ; others had said
the belief there. In fetching the water it
had to be carried, not touching the ground
all the way. They were all admonished
publicly. Hone, Everyday Book, ii., pp.
686, 687.

yarrow : st. philip's well.

There is a Holy Well in this parish dedi-
cated in honour of St. Philip.

YARROW : ST. MARY'S LOCH.

A water-cow is said to inhabit St. Mary's
Loch near Yarrow.

ABBEYTON BRIDGE : BLESSED VIRGIN'S WELL.

The water used for baptism in the chapel
of Airth is believed to have been procured
from a well dedicated in honour of the
Blessed Virgin near Abbeyton Bridge.

PEEBLESSHIRE.

EDDLESTONE : POWBATE WELL.

A singular superstition is, or was till quite
lately, cherished in Peeblesshire that Powbate
Well, close to Eddlestone, completely fills
with its water the high hill on whose top
it is situated. Chambers, in his Popular
Rhymes of Scotland, gives the following par-
ticulars about the spring : " The mouth,
called Powbate E'e, is covered over by a
grate to prevent the sheep from falling into
it ; and it is supposed that, if a willow wand
is thrown in, it will be found some time after
peeled at the water-laugh, a small lake at the
base of the hill, supposed to communicate
with Powbate. Of course the hill is expected
to break some day like a bottle, and do a
great deal of mischief. A prophecy said to

VOL. XXXI.



be by Thomas the Rhymer, and bearing
evident marks of his style, is cited to support
the supposition :

Powbate, an ye break,
Tak' the Moorfoot in yer gate ;
Moorfoot and Mauldslie,
Huntlycote, a' three,
Fine kirks and an abbacie !

In explanation of this prophecy Chambers
remarks, " Moorfoot, Mauldslie, and Huntly-
cote are farm-towns in the immediate neigh-
bourhood of the hill. The kirks are under-
stood to have been those of Temple, Car-
rington, Borthwick, Cockpen, and Dalkeith ;
and the abbacy was that of Newbattle, the
destruction of which, however, has been
anticipated by another enemy." J. M. Mac-
kinlay, Folklore of Scottish Lochs and Springs,
pp. 138, 139.

PERTHSHIRE.

HUNTINGTOWER.

At Huntingtower there was a well, the
water of which was believed to have sanative
qualities when used under certain circum-
stances. In May, 161 8, two women of
humble rank were before the Kirk Session
of Perth, " who being asked if they were at
the well in the bank of Huntingtower the
last Sabbath, if they drank thereof, and what
they left at it, answered that they drank
thereof, and that each of them left a prin
(pin) thereat, which was found to be a point
of idolatrie in putting the well in God's
room." They were each fined six shillings,
and compelled to make public avowal of
their repentance. Chambers's Domestic
Annals of Scotland.



Cfje ft&calD of >us0er anU
i&ent.

By J. De Vitre.

T the end of William Somner's
treatise on the Roman ports and
forts of Kent there are several
pages relating to the Weald, and
it is from these pages that the following is
taken. The Britons called it Coid Andred,
the Saxons sometimes simply Andred, at
other times Andredsberg and Andredswald,

2 F




218



THE WEALD OF SUSSEX AND KENT.



the later syllable of which survives in the
present name Weald. It was apparently
scarcely inhabited, but was "stored and
stuffed with herds of deer and droves of
hoggs only." In these early days it seems
that the whole Weald belonged to the King
alone, acknowledging no private lord or pro-
prietor, and for this reason it was usually
called Sylva Regalis. The King, however,
gave parts of it to anyone he chose, " in the
nature of what since is termed a Mannor or
Lordship," and it was usual to add to this
grant, " a Common of Pannage," which was
the liberty to keep hogs in the Weald, " yet
not at large, but with a limitation usually,
and with reference to such and such a part
of it, one or more Den or Dens, in their
term, i.e., a woody valley, a place yielding
both covert and feeding for cattel, especially
swine."

The usual expression for this right of
pannage was Denbera, or sometimes Weald-
bera. Pannage is explained as the feeding
and fatting of hogs with the mast of the
forest, and from the emolument arising out
of this tithe was usually paid. Many old
accounts, as of Aldrington, Charing and other
manors take notice of so much money
received by the accountant for " Pannage in
Waldis, deducta decima."

A curious custom connected with pannage
was Scot-ale, " which was a shot or contribu-
tion from the Tenants for a provision of Ale,
to entertain the Lord, or his Bayliff or
Beadle, holding a Parock or meeting on the
place, to take an account of his Pannage,
what it yielded."

There was also the custom of Gavelswine,
so called when paid in kind, but if re-
deemed with money, called " swine-mony "
or " swine-peny." It was for " the Lord's
leave and sufferenance of his Tenant to keep
and feed swine of his own, or to take in
other men's to feed within his land."

There was also a tax called " Gate-peny,"
" for the liberty of one or more Gates for the
Tenant's ingress and egress to and from his
own by the Lord's land."

Another tax was that called " Sumer-hus-
silver," and in the old Custumal of Newing-
ton by Sittingbourn there is this entry :
" Homines quoque de Walda debout unam
domum sestavalem quod Anglice dicitur
Sumerhus, aut xx solidos dare."



It seems to have been the custom of such
as were lords or proprietors of these dens or
parts of the Weald to go to them in summer-
time to look after their pannage, and for
them, during their stay, some sort of house
was to be provided by the tenants, or they
were to pay a sum of money instead.

Attached to this " Sumer-hus-silver " was
" Corredy," which was " a provision of dyet
for the Lord's coming upon that occasion."

It seems that the Wealdish tenant might
not plough or sow his land in pannage-time
without the lord's leave, " for fear of en-
damaging the Lord in his Pannage, or if he
did, he was liable to recompence," and hence
this service was called "Danger."

The dens that were set apart for " the
feeding of hoggs and other droves of cattel "
were called Drove-denns, and the man who
minded the herds was called the " Drof-
mannus."

The wood that covered the Weald did not
belong to the tenant till the reigns of
Edward III. and Richard II., when "the
then Archbishop of Canterbury, and the
Prior and Covent of Christchurch respec-
tively, amongst (I suppose) other like Lords
and Owners of the Wealdish dens, finding
themselves aggrieved by their Tenants there,
and others in the wasting and making havock
of their woods, ... to quit and rid them-
selves of further care and trouble in that
matter of the wood, entered into composition
with their Tenants, and for a new annual
rent of Assise . . . made the wood over to
them by indenture of feoffment in perpetuity,
either to be cut down or left standing at the
Tenants' choice : reserving still their old or
wonted rent, and all their former services,
except Pannage and Danger."

The old word "den" still survives, I think,
in the names of such places as Newenden,
Rolverden, Bennenden, and others.



Publications anu proceedings of
atcfj^eoiofjical Societies.

PUBLICATIONS.
The second part of Volume VIII. of the Transactions
of the Leicestershire Architectural and
Arch^iological Society, just issued to members,
contains the following papers : "On the Discovery of



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



ZJt)



an Ancient Representation of the Agnus Dei at
Shawell," by the Rev. E. H. Bates ; " Lady Margaret
Bromley," by the Rev. W. G. D. Fletcher ; "On an
Anglo-Saxon Cemetery uncovered near Saxby," by
the Rev. Dr. J. Charles Cox ; and "Notes on some
Stained Glass formerly in a window at Sketchley Hall,"
by Mr. T. Harrold. The part also contains a useful
calendar of Leicestershire Wills and Administrations,
I495-IS58, by Mr. Henry Hartopp, and a full record
of the proceedings at the bi-monthly meetings and at
the annual excursion. There is aLo an excellent plan,
drawn to scale, of the Roman Jewry Wall, which is
threatened by the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincoln-
shire Railway now being formed through Leicester,
besides several other illustrations.



$



<*>S



*$



The first field meeting of the season of the Caradoc
and Severn- Valley Field Club was made to
Corvedale on May 21. The first place visited was
Eaton-under-Haywood Church, with its Norman (and
possibly Saxon) masonry. In the chancel is a curious
wooden recumbent effigy, dressed in what seems to be
a shroud. Upper Millichope was next visited, the
oldest domestic building in Shropshire, with its walls
from 4 feet to 6 feet in thickness, and small windows
splayed inwards, of Early English character. Thong-
lands was also seen, a half-timbered residence of the
sixteenth century, with a fine round columbarium,
having stone walls 3 feet to 4 feet in thickness, but the
roof of which has unfortunately fallen in.

On May 9 a half-day excursion was made to the
Isle, and on the 30th to Whittington Castle and
Halston. The "Long Meeting" of the club was
fixed for the Lake District (Bowness, Ulleswater,
Thirlmere, Borrowdale, Lodore, and Keswick) from
June 8 to June 15.

*> *> ^

The Shropshire Archaeological Society has just
issued Part 2 of Vol. VII. of its Transactions. The
part fully maintains the high-class character of this
society's publications, and contains the following
papers : " Notes on the Church, Castle, and Parish of
Shrawardine, including a Transcript of the Registers,
1645-1812," by the Rev. J. E. Anden; "The Berring-
ton Love-Feast," by the Rev. A. Thursby-Pelham ;
" History of Selattyn," by the Hon. Mrs. Bulkeley-
Owen ; " Churchwardens' Accounts of High Exall,"
by the Hon. and Rev. G. H. F. Vane ; "An Inven-
tory taken at Park Hall," by Mr. Stanley Leighton,
M.P. ; and the "Ottley Papers relating to the Civil
War," edited by Mr. William Phillips.

*><? <; *>$

Part XLV. of Archceologia sEliana (being the first
instalment of Vol. XVII.) has been issued by the
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-
Tyne. It contains several papers of more than
ordinary value and importance, besides including the
Report of the society for 1894, with the treasurer's
balance-sheet, and lists of the officers and members of
the society.

The first paper is by Earl Percy, F.S.A., on the
"Ancient Farms of Northumberland." It was read
l)cfore the society in July of last year, and forms a
valuable contribution to the study of the agrarian
systems of Northumberland in the past. The paper
had its origin in another, which was read by Bishop



Creighton ten years ago at the meeting of the Archse-
ological Institute at Newcastle, in which the Bishop
(at that time a Northumberland clergyman) discussed
the local significance of the word " farm." A later
paper by Mr. Dendy, read in 1892, also forms part of
the basis of this by Lord Percy, whose conclusions
point to the ancient " farms " of Northumberland
having originated in the "husbandlands," of which
they are, it is contended, the lineal and legitimate
descendants. These " husbandlands " were, as a rule,
of equal value within the same township, but gradually
lost their equality. Lord Percy has gone carefully and
thoroughly into the subject, and we cannot do better
than draw special attention to his paper, as being of
exceptional value and importance.

Two other papers of more than usual interest are by
the Rev. J. F. Hodgson, of Witton-le-Wear, on the
church of that village (of which he is incumbent), and
on Darlington Collegiate Church. Mr. Hodgson is
recognised in the North of England as one of the most
capable expounders of ecclesiastical architecture in the
present day, and in these two papers he is seen to
great advantage. In the case of Darlington Church,
Mr. Hodgson has little difficulty in showing how
utterly erroneous were the crude and hasty opinions of
the late Sir Gilbert Scott on the date of the architec-
ture of the church. It is curious how a man of Sir
Gilbert Scott's recognised ability could have formed
so erroneous an opinion as that which he seems to
have given utterance to regarding the architectural
features of the stately church erected by Bishop Pudsey
at Darlington. Mr. Hodgson has a subject all
to his liking in bowling over poor Sir Gilbert,
which he does in no very sparing manner, but cer-
tainly with every necessary element of proof in what
he says. Both these papers are well illustrated, that
on Darlington Church copiously so from elevations
and drawings by Mr. Pritchett.

PROCEEDINGS.
A meeting of the Council of the Cumberland and
Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeo-
logical Society was held recently in Carlisle for
the transaction of business, and for the arranging of
the excursions for the present year. It was decided to
hold the usual number, namely, two of two days each ;
the headquarters for one to be at Furness, and for the
other at Carlisle. The object of the Furness meeting
will be to inspect some excavations the society intends
to make there under the superintendence of Mr.
St. John Hope, the assistant-secretary to the Society
of Antiquaries of London, who has promised to attend
the meeting, and give one of his lucid expositions of
the uses for which the various parts of the church and
of the domestic buildings were intended. The ex-
cavations are for the purpose of clearing up some
doubtful points about the domestic buildings, and the
necessary permissions have already been most kindly
given by Mr. Victor Cavendish, M.P., the owner of
the Abbey, and by Sir James Ramsden, on behalf of
the Furness Railway, who are the tenants. The time
of this meeting cannot at present be fixed, but prob-
ably will be in the autumn. The local committee are
Mr. Fell, of Flan How, Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A.,
and Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A. The society intend,
in co-operation with the Oxford committee, to continue
their excavations on the Roman Wall in Cumberland,



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



and the meeting at Carlisle will be for the purpose of
inspecting these excavations, and of making a pil-
grimage along the Cumberland portion of the Roman
Wall. Professor I'elham and Mr. Haverficld will lie
present. The local committee was appointed as
follows : Chancellor Ferguson, the Rev. W. S. Cal-
vcrlcy, F.S.A., and Mr. T. 11. Hodgson. The time
fixed for this meeting is during the first whole week
in August. At present the local committee are
engaged in searching for suitable places for excava-
tions, and in getting the necessary permissions from
owners and tenants. Dr. Rarnes brought before the
society the project for an Ethnographical Survey of the
United Kingdom promoted by the British Association
for the Advancement of Science, and a large com-
mittee wa< appointed to consider how the survey might



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