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l>e best helped locally.

The publication of the Transactions of the Cumber-
land and Westmorland Antiquarian and Arch.eological
Society is now somewhat overdue, the delay having
been caused by accidents in the preparation of the
illustrations to Mr. Ilaverfield's report on the work in
Cumberland along the Roman Wall last year. How-
ever, the illustrations are all now in the hands of the
lithographers, and they are the only things necessary
to complete the Transactions.

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At the monthly meeting of the British Archaeo-
logical Association held in May, the hon. secretary
announced that by the invitation of the Mayor and
Corporation of Stoke-upon-Trent the congress would
be held in that town in August next, commencing on
Monday the 12th, under the presidency of his Grace
the Duke of Sutherland, K.G. Mr. Cecil Davis
exhibited some illustrations of monumental brasses,
and the chairman portions of Roman concrete and
tile found at Dover. Miss Edith Bradley read a
paper on "Glastonbury Abbey," which was well
illustrated by plans and engravings, as well as by a
large series of photographs. Miss Bradley also
brought for exhibition some articles from the site of
the prehistoric village near Glastonbury. A dis-
cussion ensued, in which Mr. Barrett, Mr. de Gray
Birch, Mr. Rayson, and others took part.

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The concluding meeting of the session of the British
Archaeological Association was held on June 5.
Mr. W. de Gray Birch read a list of the places to be
visited during the forthcoming congress at Stoke-on-
Trent in August. Mrs. Dent, of Sudeley Castle, sent
for exhibition some further illustrations of tiles from
Winchcombe Abbey, one of which bears the curious
canting device of Tydeman de Winchcomb, Bishop
of Worcester 1395 1401, viz., a capstan or winch,
and a large comb surmounted by a mitre and pastoral
staff. Mr. Earle Way described some Roman remains
found at Southwark, and the Rev. Cams Vale Collier
exhibited an interesting relic of the last Jacobite
rebellion, consisting of a box ticket for the trial of
Ix>rd Lovat. A paper was read by Mr. Walter
Money on Shirburn Castle, Berks, and some notes
on four Northamptonshire churches of the Norman
period from the designs of a French architect were
contributed by Mr. J. T. Irvine. The churches are
St. Peter's, Northampton ; Castor, near Peterborough,
Maxey, and Wakerley. Upon one of the capitals in



Wakerley Church there is some curious carving
illustrative of a knight on his way to the Holy Land
parting from his lady, who had accompanied him as
far as the Hellespont; she is taking leave of him
beneath the walls of the city of Constantinople, and
in the background the carving indicates a very early
representation of the Church of St. Sofia, the dome
and the openings for light being distinctly shown ;
the date is about 11 20. Mr. R. B. Barrett then read
a paper upon " Castor Castle and Sir John Fastolfe,"
which was illustrated by some pen and ink drawings.
In this paper he pointed out the incorrect orientation
given to the map in Mr. Dawson Turner's book on
Castor published in 1842. In this map or plan the
author placed the chapel of the castle, a free chapel
dedicated to St. Margaret and chapel of the adjacent
college, at a point adjoining the great tower, and the
compass points would appear to have been made to
agree with that position ; but Mr. Barrett showed
from observations of the shadows cast at noon one
day in May, 1S93, and from reference to the
Cambridge orientation chart and the ordnance maps,
that the orientation of Mr. Turner's map could not be
accepted as correct.



Eetnetos anD Notices
of Jfteto T5ooks.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

The Book of Common Prayer in Manx Gaelic.
Being translations made by Bishop Phillips in
1610, and the Manx clergy in 1765. Edited by
A. W. Moore, M.A., assisted by John Rhys,
M.A., LL.D., Professor of Celtic in the Uni-
versity of Oxford. Printed for the Manx Society.
Two volumes. Cloth, 8vo., pp. xxiv, 670, and
xi, 18.3. London : Henry Frmvde. Price 50s.
net.
It is an interesting fact for reflection, that within
the limits of the British islands no less than six dif-
ferent languages are spoken at the present time, viz.,
English, Welsh, Norman-French, Gaelic, Irish, and
Manx. A couple of centuries ago two more might
have been added Cornish and Norse. These two
last are dead, and Cornish is not dead merely, but
has become, practically, a lost language. The be-
ginning of next century will witness the extinction of
Manx. There is something unspeakably pathetic in
the death of a language, and from what Professor
Rhys says, it is evident that he is deeply moved by
the inevitable fact that the ancient language of the
Manx people is rapidly dying, and in a brief space
will be dead. Cornish died and was lost, chiefly
because no part of the Bible or Prayer-Book was
translated into Cornish for use in church. The same
thing, curiously enough, occurred in Norway, where
the Danish service-books and Bible killed the ancient
Norse, just as English has killed Cornish. Manx,
although its death-knell is already sounding, will be



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



221



preserved to literature mainly because the translation
of the service-books and Bible into that language
has kept it alive to the present time.

Two versions of the Manx Prayer-Book exist, and
are edited, in the volumes under notice, by Mr. A.
W. Moore and Professor Rhys. The earlier of these
two versions dates from the beginning of the seven-
teenth century, and was made by John Phillips, a
Welshman, who was Bishop of the island from 1604
to 1634, and who had been previously Archdeacon of
Man. It is a curious question where Bishop Phillips
found the original nucleus of his subsequent transla-
tion, for that he had some groundwork to begin with
is manifest, although what that was is unknown. We
would suggest as a possible explanation, that as in
the Church before the Reformation certain portions of
the services were always used in the vernacular, as
they are in English or Continental Roman Catholic
churches to-day, Bishop Phillips based his work on
mediaeval versions of the Lord's Prayer, the Creed,
the Decalogue, the Gospels, and other portions of
the ancient services which were extant, and which he
found ready to hand. Another curious matter is,
that when Phillips proposed to print his translation,
the clergy of the time condemned it as unintelligible ;
yet at the present time it is perfectly intelligible
to ordinary Manxmen, and, moreover, is pronounced
to be, on the whole, better Manx than the modern
version. An explanation of this difficulty also occurs
to us as possibly the right one. We all know how
the modern school-board teacher is wont to condemn
and banish what he considers the uncouth local
dialects with which the children of his school offend
his more highly - trained ears. May not Bishop
Phillips's Manx have been too uncouth for the
offended taste of his clergy, incorporating, possibly,
what they looked upon merely as the barbarisms of
the speech of the common people ? We offer this as
an explanation. Under any circumstances, philology
will long remain laid under a great debt of obligation
to the good Bishop who first reduced the Manx
language to writing, as well as to Mr. Moore and
Professor Rhys for the two highly-important volumes,
so carefully edited, before us.

The two volumes contain (besides a biographical
memoir of Bishop Phillips by Mr. Moore) the two
versions of the Prayer-Book of 1604 (translated by
the Bishop about 1 6 10), and that of the Prayer-Book
of 1662 (translated by the Manx clergy, and first
printed in 1765, and reprinted in 1842 by the
S.P.C.K.).

Of Bishop Phillips's version only one manuscript
copy exists. It belongs to the Ven. W. Gill, Arch-
deacon of Man, and it is from this manuscript that
the printed version has been directly taken. The
other version, in parallel columns, is that of the
printed copy of 1842, the errors, which are not incon-
siderable, having been corrected by Mr. Moore, with
the assistance of Mr. W. J. Cain, parish clerk of
Braddan, and Professor Rhys. At the end, after
some brief appendices, comes an extremely valuable
essay on "The Outlines of the Phonology of Manx
Gaelic," by Professor Rhys. Of the elaborate con-
tents of this important excursus we cannot speak in
the brief space we have at our disposal, but we cannot
refrain from quoting a little of what Professor Rhys



says in the Introduction as to his method of work
when on his different visits to the island :

" After enjoying an early breakfast, and fixing no
time for any other meal, I would set out for the house
of someone who could read for me, and the reading
took about an hour, without reckoning the time spent
in conversation in Manx and the discussion of the
many questions which I had to ask. . . . For my
purpose, however, I consider that the shoemakers
were the most helpful class of men ; they were also
unaccountably numerous in some of the villages. I
found them always kindly and willing to talk, though
nobody ever seemed to pay them for anything ; and I
may say that I have spent hours at a stretch patching
Manx dialogues under the direction of shoemakers,
both at Kirk Michael and the little village between
Surby and the parish church of Rushen. When I met
people in the roads and lanes in places where I was
unknown I used to ask them questions in Manx.
They would invariably answer in English, for Manx-
men, when addressed by a stranger in Manx, regard
him as taking liberties with them, and feel altogether
differently from my own countrymen, who usually
dote on any stranger who learns a few words of
Welsh. . . . The phrases which I learnt to sound
during the day had to be analyzed in the evening
with the aid of Kelly and Cregeen. Some of them
resisted all my attempts, and the attempts, even when
successful, used to occupy me at first till midnight, or
even considerably later. Such, briefly described, was
the way in which my day was wont to be spent in the
Isle of Man.

" It is to me a cause of grief and profound sadness
to see how rapidly the men and women who can talk
and read Manx are disappearing. With the excep-
tion of Mr. Cushen, who makes a point of studying
Manx and Manx folklore, I might describe all those
who rendered me assistance in Manx as persons who
had reached the prime of life, or else had already
passed it. Indeed, by the time of my last visit no
less than four of those with whose names the reader
is now acquainted had departed this life, to wit, Mr.
Joughin, Mr. Mylrea, Mr. Cubbon, and Mrs. Keggin.
With regard to the prospects of Manx as a living
language, one has frankly to confess that it has none.
So far as my acquaintance with the island goes, there
are very few people in it who habitually talk more
Manx than English. Among those few one may
perhaps mention the fishermen living in the little
village of Bradda, in Rushen, some of whom I have
surprised conversing together in Manx. Such is their
wont, I learn, when they are out-of-doors, but when
they enter their houses they talk English to their
wives and children, and in this conflict of tongues it
is safe to say that the wives and children have it.
Perhaps Manx might be said to be more living in the
village of Cregneish, on the Howe, still further south;
but even there I know of only one family where
Manx appeared to be more talked than English, and
that was Mrs. Keggin's. She was an octogenarian
who had two sons living with her, together with a
grand-daughter in her teens. That girl was the only
Manx-speaking child that I recollect meeting with in
the whole island. One cannot help contemplating
with sadness the extinction of a language, even
though confined to such a small area as the Isle of



222



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



Man ; but the idiom of the Lancashire ' tripper ' must
triumph, and it is not rash to prophesy that in ten
or fifteen years the speakers of Manx Gaelic may
Come to be counted on the fingers of one hand."

We are sure that no apology need be made to our
readers for quoting these interesting sentences from
Professor Rhys's introduction. How much might
have been rescued of Cornish, if towards the latter
half of last century some Professor Rhys of that day
could have arisen to study, with the same loving care
and scholarly training, the lingering death-throes of
that lost tongue !

These excellent books are issued by the Manx
Society as two of the volumes of their ordinary
series. No more important books have been issued
by any of the larger societies. The Manx Society
counts only fifty members, but it has performed an
act which entitles it to the gratitude of scholars
throughout the world.

# * *
Armorial Families. A Complete Peerage, Baronet-
age, Knightage, and a Directory of some Gentle-
men of Coat-Armour, etc. Compiled and edited
by Arthur Charles Fox-Davies. Large 4to., pp.
Iioo, and 1 12 plates. Edinburgh: T. C. and
E. C.Jaik. Price $ 5s. net.
This is, without doubt, a magnificent volume. It
is admirably printed, and has more than a hundred
full-page plates at the end, all of them engraved in
an -exceptionally excellent manner. The " Library
Edition, ' as it is called, is indeed an edition de luxe
in itself, although an actual t'dition de luxe at double
the price is also issued. The prospectus informs us
that " the present work is the first attempt to compile
in an available form a compendium of all armorial
bearings legitimately in use, and a complete index of
those people who are genuinely entitled to bear them."
It is just in the endeavour to do this that this sumptuous
volume fails, and it fails because of the pedantic spirit
in which the author has set to work. That spirit is
best shown in what he says as to the impersonal arms
of cities and corporate boroughs. We will let him
speak for himself. He says in an introduction headed
" The Abuse of Arms," p. xxviii : "A great deal might
be done by town clerks and mayors. It is a positive
disgrace that many towns are using arms which are of
no authority. It would be very little trouble for each
town clerk or mayor of the towns, which are illegally
using arms, to call the attention of the Corporation to
the fact. I feel certain that in many towns, particularly
in Scotland and Ireland, where the fees for matri-
culating or confirming the arms are so trivial, matters
have only to be placed before the Corporations in the
proper light, for immediate steps to be taken to rectify
the present illegal state of affairs. If, after having all
the facts before them, the Corporations are too parsi-
monious to move in the matter, it should certainly be
made known in order that the effort might subsequently
be made by private individuals (as it has already been
done in a good many cases) to rectify the apathy of
the official body." Mr. Fox-Davies then proceeds to
gibbet several towns by name, including one which
for at least 250 years (ever since, indeed, it received
its charter of incorporation) has used its present arms.
In the succeeding paragraph we are told that *' one of
the most important checks is in the hands of clergy-
men," and although the author does not suggest that



the Sacrament of Holy Communion should be with-
held from the sinful folk who make use of arms not
acknowledged at the Heralds' College, he suggests the
withholding of permission to erect monuments with
such arms on them, advice which, if followed, the
courts of law would soon make short work of. It is
strange that, his premiss having led him to such a
reductio ad absurdum of the whole affair, the author
should not have pulled himself up and thought whether
he was not on the wrong tack. The fact is, the
authority of the Heralds' College (or of its equivalents
in Scotland and Ireland) is the all in all of the author's
notions of heraldry. The idea that heraldry is a science
which had a natural and healthy birth, with its in-
evitable growth of prescriptive rights which the
Heralds' College ought to regulate and protect, seems
never to have entered into the practical reckonings of
his mind. With him it is the Heralds' College, with
its grants and its fees, which alone forms the fons et
origo of legitimate coat-armour, and the subject
becomes, with him, little better than a matter of buy-
ing and selling. This fiction, from an archaeological
standpoint, is fatal to the work. Nor is the author
always consistent. We should have supposed that the
official seal of the Primate of All England possessed,
even at the present day, an actual legal value, which
ought to be protected. Yet Mr. Fox-Davies deliber-
ately records the assumed grant by the Pope of a coat-
of-arms to Cardinal Vaughan. These Papal-granted
arms only differ from those of the see of Canterbury
by the ground being red instead of blue, a distinction
scarcely if at all distinguishable on the respective seals
of the two archbishops. Here is, indeed, a serious in-
vasion of the legitimate coat-armour of a great national
officer, a matter in which heraldic protection might be
reasonably invoked for practical reasons of utility.
Vet, just in this very case, Mr. Fox-Davies fails us !

We are extremely loath to condemn a book on which
so much labour and expense have been bestowed, but
it is impossible to do otherwise. Consistently with
his debased ideas as to heraldry, the coats-of-arms
given in the plates are designed in the ugly and de-
graded style of fifty years, or so, ago. The excellence
with which these hideous shields have been engraved
only serves to make the matter more lamentable.
However much we regret having to say it, this is a
book from which both scholar and antiquary will
instinctively turn aside with something akin to a
shudder.

* * *
English Minstrelsie : a National Monument
of English Song. Collated and edited, with
Notes and Historical Introductions, by S. Paring-
Gould, M.A. The Airs, in both notations,
arranged by H. Fleetwood Shepherd, M.A. ;
F. W. Bussell, B.D., Mus. B. Oxon. ; and W.
H. Hopkinson, A.R.C.O. Vol. i. Cloth, royal
quarto, pp. xxii. 1 12. Edinburgh: T. C. and
E. C. fack. Price 10s.
It is intended that this work shall be completed in
eight volumes, and it is with very real pleasure that
we welcome the first volume, the excellence of which
promises well for the others which are to follow.
The intention of the editors and the publishers is
stated in the prospectus as follows :

" It is proposed in this collection to include the
favourite songs of all classes of the English people



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



223



during three centuries up to 1840. The highest honour
is due to the late Mr. William Chappell, for his labours
in the field of Old English music, of which The
Popular Alu sic of Olden Time, 1855, is a monumentum
are perennius. But this work took little account of
the living traditional song of the people, and the
editor of the new edition (1894) has excluded from the
work all the traditional airs not found in print. Con-
sequently this is a monument erected over the corpses
of dead melodies, which indeed it enshrines and pre-
serves. It in no way represents the living music of
the English people.

" Mr. Hatton, in his Songs of England, derives ex-
clusively from printed sources, and only 46 of the 200
melodies are not by well-known composers.

"As a national monument of English song, it
seems only just that the music of all classes should be
included in this work, that it should not confine itself
to such songs as have been written for the harpsichord
and the piano, by skilled musicians, but should in-
clude also the lark and thrush and blackbird song of
the ploughman, the thrasher, and the milkmaid ; that
it should give songs as dear to their hearts as are
'Cherry Ripe,' 'The Wolf,' and 'Love's Ritornella'
to the gentlemen and ladies in the drawing-room."

The melodies of the songs are written not only in
the ordinary notation, but also in the Tonic Sol-Fa ;
and the complete work is to contain upwards of three
hundred songs. Prefixed to the first volume is " An
Historical Sketch of English National Song," by Mr.
Baring-Gould, which, like all that writer's work, is
thorough and complete, containing much odd and
out-of-the-way information. This sketch is also illus-
trated with a number of pictures, and contains a useful
list of all the known printed English song-books with
music. Following Mr. Baring-Gould's sketch comes
a series of notes to each of the songs contained in the
first volume. These appropriately begin with " God
Save the Queen," in which all that is known of the
origin and history of the National Anthem is told in a
brief, but complete manner. The date of its origin is
given as " about 1742," which is pretty well established
by a variety of inferences and deductions. How many
persons know that, under the name of " A Loyal
Song," one version of it contained the following verse
relating to General Wade ?

" O grant that Marshall Wade
May by Thy mighty aid

Victory bring.
May he sedition hush,
And like a torrent rush
Rebellious Scots to crush
God save the King. "

Following the National Anthem comes, appropriately
enough, a song " Pastime with Good Company," both
the words and music of which were composed by
Henry VIII. Among the well-known songs in this
volume are: "The Vicar of Bray," "Amo Amas,"
" Here's to the Maiden of Blushing Fifteen," " Where
the Bee Sucks," "Cherry Ripe," "The Friar of
Orders Grey," " In the Bay of Biscay," to mention no
more. Some forty songs altogether are given in this
volume, which is both a scholarly and very attractive
book. We ought not to omit to say that the sym-
phonies and accompaniments have been executed by



Mr. Fleetwood Shepherd, Mr. Bussell and Mr. Hop-
kinson. The work is one which when completed will
be a distinct gain to our national literature.

* * *
London Church Staves. With some Notes on
their Surroundings. By Mary and Charlotte
Thorpe. With a Preface by Edwin Freshfield,
jun., M.A., F.S.A. Cloth, pp. xiii, 76. London:
Elliot Stock. Price ios. 6d.
This book may be said to have been reviewed in
advance by us last December, the manuscript having
been submitted to us with permission to make use of
some of the proposed illustrations. This, it will be
remembered, we did in a short paper entitled
" Staves of Office." We then observed that the
authors had opened a new field, and had drawn
attention to a subject which had been strangely over-
looked till then. While maces and other insignia of
office had been the subject of special study during
recent years, their humbler fellows the ecclesiastical
and other staves had been passed by. We are very
glad on the present occasion to welcome the publica-
tion of the work, and in doing so, we wish to reiterate
our expression of hope that this work may be the
precursor of a general investigation of similar objects
throughout the country.

The book, which is largely illustrated, contains a
short preface by Mr. Edwin Freshfield, F.S.A., who
has himself recently printed, for private circulation,
an account of the church plate belonging to the
London City churches, in which he has included
photographic illustrations of the staves. Mr. Fresh-
field in this preface (p. vi) divides the staves into
three classes according to their form, as follows :
" First, those with plain pear- shaped knobs, which
are very simple, and do not call for remark ;
secondly, statuettes and buildings, among which some
very artistic and curious specimens will be found.
Of statuettes, S. James and S. John, back to back,
at Clerkenwell ; S. Michael at Wood Street ; S.
Benedict at S. Benet, Paul's Wharf; S. Ethel-
burga, S. John the Baptist at Clerkenwell ; S. Anne
and S. Agnes the Cripple at Cripple Gate, and
S. Augustine by S. Paul, deserve special mention ;
and among the buildings Cripple Gate, Alders Gate,
Lud Gate, the Tower of London, the Dock Gates
at Poplar, the steeple at S. George, Bloomsbury.
Thirdly, medallions, crosses, mitres, crowns, and
other devices. Of the latter group the medallions of
the saint at S. Katherine Cree, of the beggar of
Bethnal Green, and of the ship at Stepney, deserve
mention ; and among miscellaneous devices the most
curious is the staff of St. Vedast." This classification
differs in character from that which we suggested,
and in which we attempted to distinguish the staves



Online LibraryPhoebe PalmerThe Antiquary (Volume 31) → online text (page 39 of 67)