new tales about mermen and mermaids, and
about apparitions and spirits.
In the Folklore of the Isle of Man, we had
described the Fenodyree and the Glashtin*
* The Glashtin, however, has, as will be seen,
as partaking of characteristics derived from
both Scandinavian (or Teutonic) and Celtic
sources ; and this view is confirmed, as far
as the Fenodyree at least is concerned, by
Professor Rhys, who writes : " I am inclined
to think the idea more Teutonic than Celtic ;
at any rate, I need not point out to you the
English counterparts of this hairy satyr in
the hobgoblin, ' Lob lie by the Fire,' and
Milton's Lubber Fiend, whom he describes
as one that
' Basks at the fire his hairy strength,
And crop-full out of doors he flings,
Ere the first cock his matin sings.'"*
In support of it he gives Cregeen'sf definition
of the word as meaning one who has hair for
stockings or hose.
One among the many stories related of
the Fenodyree's strength was recently told to
the writer as follows: "On one occasion,
when he was cutting grass, harrow-pins were
placed in the meadow to tease him, but he
promptly cut them right through, merely re-
marking, Cuishagyn Creoi, Cuishagyn Creoi,
' Hard Stalks, Hard Stalks.' " ( IV. J. Cain.)
This creature, originally a household spirit,
has latterly been invested with the character-
istics of the Fenodyree. A man from the
parish of Rushen told Mr. Roeder that the
Night Man "took a hand at the flails" in
the night, and he related the following stories
about him, which, as will be seen, are practi-
cally identical with those about the Fenodyree :
on one occasion, when he was threshing the
corn at a farm near St. Mark's, they listened
to him, and believing that he was half naked
and had the form of a man, they took pity
on him, and brought him a suit of clothes.
When he saw it he exclaimed :
" Troosyn er toin, " Trousers on rump,
Lheiney er dreeym, Shirt on back,
Wass er dreeym, Waistcoat on back,
Jackad er dreeym, Jacket on back,
Hatader chione." Hat on head."
He then left the place and the clothes, and
was never seen again.
On a previous occasion, he said, the same
farmer, for whom the Dooinney-Oie had done
the threshing, was talking about getting in his
* " Manx Superstitions," Folklore, vol. ii., p. 286.
t Author of Manx Dictionary.
FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.
sheep from the mountains on the morrow,
and all the while the Dooinney-Oie* was
listening. The next morning all the sheep
were in the farmyard, and the Dooinney was
in the " laugh " (loft), from whence he
shouted that " there was one that he could
not get home, but that a hare had sprung up
among them, and he had " catched " him and
brought him with the rest. This was a little
loghtan (native sheep). M For," said the man,
"he did not know the difference between a
hare and a sheep."
The following story about him emanates
from the north of the island : " Yer know we
have Night-Men, too, big, big fellars, and
they wear no clothes on them. Many years
ago, when I was a lump of a girl like our
Kitty theer at one of the farms, cloas (close)
where I was livin', a night-man used to come
every night and grind the corn for the
farmer ; he was a terrible big chap, and so
awful strong, yer never saw the like; one
day the farmer was thinkin', ' Now the couth
(cold) was comin' he would give the fellow
some clothes,' and his wife made the clothes,
and in the evenin' the farmer put them
down, so that he could see them ; in he
came, and surely he seed them clothes,
and catchin' hould on them, he muttered
something, and putting on theer clothes, he
went away and never came back again."
If a scythe were left out at night and an
H put on it, the Dooinney-Oie would cut the
corn. (C. Roeder.)
The Glashan or Glashtin is defined by
Kelly as "a goblin, an imaginary animal
which rises out of the water,"t and by
Cregeen as " a goblin, a sprite,"* while the
popular idea of him varies, as he is some-
times supi>osed to be a hairy goblin or sprite
of similar characteristics to the Fenodyree,
and sometimes merely a monster in the shape
of a Cabbyl- Ushtey, "Water-Horse." Pre-
cisely similar stories are told about him as
about the Fenodyree, yet the balance of
evidence appears to be in favour of the
view of him as a water-horse. Thus one of
* Mr. Roeder's informant spoke of the Dooinney-
Aeg, "Young Man," not the Dooinney-Oie ; but the
writer, who has often heard similar tales about the
Dooinney-Oie, never heard of the Dooinney-Aeg, nor
has anyone else to whom he has spoken.
f Manx Dictionary, Manx Soc., vol. xiii , p. 96.
Z Manx Dictionary, p. 79.
Professor Rhys's informants told him " that
it had nothing human about it, but was a
sort of gray colt, frequenting the banks of
lakes at night, and never seen except at
night."* And Train speaks of him as "a
water-horse, that formerly, like the Tarroo-
Ushtey, left his native element to associate
with land animals of the same class, and
might frequently be seen playing gambols in
the mountains among the native ponies, to
whom the Glashtin is said to have been at
one time warmly attached, but since the
breed of the native horses has been crossed
with those of other countries, he has wholly
deserted them."t On account of his being
seen only at night he is sometimes called
the Cabby Iny-Hoie, or " Night-Horse."
A Cabby I- Ushtey, or Water- Horse, was seen,
in 1859, in a field near Ballure Glen, and
hundreds of people left Ramsey in order to
catch a sight of it, but they were doomed
to disappointment. The people about Glen
Meay believed that the part of the glen
below the waterfall was haunted by the spirit
of a man who one day met a monster of this
kind, and, thinking it was an ordinary horse,
got upon its back, when it ran off and dis-
appeared in the sea, and the rider was
Here follows a more recent tale about the
same creature : " Now, theer's a relation of
mine, Jim Quirk by name. He's a real smart
one, and terrible fine, not the man to be
afeard of anyone, but one night his senses
were near taken away from him ; he was tellin'
it many times in this house. One winter's
night, two years ago, when all the ground
was covered with snow, my relation Jim
came into the cottage in the evening, covered
with snow and as pale as a sheet, like as if
he had been frickened. 'Well, Jim,' says I,
'what's been your work to-day?' He looked
at me so strange, I began to tremble. Then
he laughs, queer like, an' says, ' I had work
enough to last me some time to come. I
left home six o'clock this evening to go to
mend Farmer S 's barn. It took me two
hours before I got to the river. I could not
see the bridge at all, at all, and the couth
* Rhys, "Manx Superstitions," Folklore, vol. ii.,
t History of Isle of Man, vol. ii., p. 147.
% Newspaper cutting ; name and exact date lost.
FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.
(cold) was something terrible. I did not
know what to do, when I saw good-luck an
old mare, with bit already in its mouth ; so I
catches hold of it and jumps on its back.
Without my leading, it plunges right into
the water, and takes me along under, and
the water, woman, was as cold as ice. I
thought I should never see the land again,
when all of a sudden the sketch* plunges out
on the other side, and before I could give it
a taste of my stick, it had gone under the
water again. I was terrible frickened, and it
will be a long time before I get on the
back of a water-horse again.' " (C. Roeder,
The next tale refers to the same creature
under the name of Cabby-ny-Hoie, or Night-
Horse : " Yes, theere's night-horses. A man
was telling me he was for riding one, and it
is quite true, bekase I know the man very
well, and he would not be for tellin' me a
lie, at all. One night he was comin' home,
and he was feelin' very tired it's like he
could scarcely go on much further an' just
as he was turning round the corner of the road,
near by Christian of Milntown,\ he seed (saw)
a fine horse, a terrible beauty of a horse, and
he gets quicker like in walkin', and soon gets
near to it ; the truth, there was no one near
about, and the horse was main and beautiful,
and theer was a splendid saddle on, so he
jumped in the saddle and the horse flew
oft wid' him like mad just, and he was think-
ing surely he would be home soon, when the
horse it gives an awful leap right up in the
air, an* he was frickened, and it then gives a
regular plump on to the airth (earth) again,
and, sudden like, he finds himself kicked on to
the growand (ground); he got up middlin'
quick, but the horse was gone, and he said
it wearnt one of our horses at all he had
been ridin', but a Night-Horse." (C. Roeder.)
A Lezayre woman told Mr. Roeder that
her father never allowed the girls and boys
to go down to the river by moonlight for fear
that the Night- Horse would carry them off.
She J would take some people across safely,
but others she took "down." Another in-
* Sketch, "slime" a deceitful, slippery person.
Manx Dictionary, Manx Soc, vol. xiii., p. 169.
+ I.e., The estate of Milntown belonging to
% The " Night-Horse " was sometimes a mare.
formant in the same parish spoke of a Spirit-
Horse, evidently a similar creature, which
travels on the roads, takes up belated
travellers and puts them down at their
doors. People she does not care for she
The Glashtin in his capacity as a Water-
Horse much resembles another monster, the
Tarroo- Ushtey, or Water-Bull, about whom
some stories have already been given.*
Mr. Roeder mentions that where there is
now the Promenade in Ramsey, there was
formerly a large pool, which was inhabited
by a Tarroo- Ushtey, and people never dared
to go near it for fear of harm or mis-
chief being done to them by him. It would
seem that in 1852 this breed had not been
long extinct, as " a farmer of Kirk Onchan,
on returning from a place of worship, met
one of these brutes near Slegaby.f He de-
scribed it as a wild-looking animal, with large
eyes sparkling like fire, which crossed the
road in front of him and went flapping
The vengeance of the Fenodyree, the Glash-
tin, and the Tarroo- Ushtey, are all invoked
upon some person unknown, in the following
verse of an old song :
"Cred dy jinnagh yn Tarroo-Ushtey spottagh,
As yn Glashtin 00 y ghoaill,
As yn Fenodyree y glionney sprangagh,
Clooiesagh y jean jeed noi'n voal.
"What if the spotted Water- Bull
And the Glashtin take thee,
And the Fenodyree of the glen, waddling,
To throw thee like a bolster against the wall."
We must refer our readers to the Folk-lore
of the Lsle of Man || for the story of the Great
Fiend, called The Buggane of St. Trinian's,
where his remarks when he demolished the
roof of the chapel so called are recorded.
The following distinct version of them was
given to the writer orally :
" Veil 00 fakin yn kione mooar aym ?
" Veil 00 fakin my roihaghyn liauyr ? Hee.
* Folklore of the Isle of Man, pp. 59, 60.
f A farm in the parish of Onchan.
+ Q u 'ggi' 1,s Isle <f Man Guide, 1852.
Here the Fenodyree would seem to be considered
merely as a monster like the other two.
II Pages 60, 61.
FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.
" Veil oo f akin yn call in mooar ay in f Hee.
" Veil oo /akin my yngnyn geyre ? Hee.
" Veil oo /akin my cassyn seeiltl Hee.
" Dost thou see my big head ? Hee.
" Dost thou see my long arms ? Hee.
" Dost thou see my big body ? Hee. Hee.
11 Dost thou see my sharp claws ? Hee.
" Dost thou see my cloven feet ? Hee.
" This Buggane," says the same informant,
" was as black as ebony, and covered with
wrinkles like the leather of a blacksmith's
bellows. When he failed to catch Timothy*
he threw his head after him, and it fell in
Marown churchyard, where it exploded."
A similar fiend to the SI. Trinian's Bug-
gane seems to have haunted the Manx coast
more than two centuries ago, as Thomas
Denton wrote : " In my returne fro Ireland
when we were cruising along that coast
(i.e., of the Isle of Man) one evening late
between Duglas and Ramsey Bays, the
master of the ship shewed me a rock where
an infernall spirit used to anoy passengers
and would so affright passengers w th hydeous
noyses and cause such disturbance in y e
waters in y e night time y l many ships were
thereby wrackt and many more in hazard and
that was when he was a cabin boy, but that
y l ffiend is now layed to sleep and ye coast is
Other Bugganes of more recent date seem
not to have been fiends, but disembodied
About Giantsl we have gleaned the follow-
ing additional particulars :
The Great Man's Chamber.
" The Fort of Duglas, which commands the
bay, is a very ancient building, but kept in
good repair. They say that the great Cara-
* See Folklore of the Isle of Man, p. 6i.
f MS. 1681, from Mr. G. W. Wood.
X See Folklore of the Isle of Man, pp. 63-67.
tack, brother to Bonduca, Queen of Britain,
concealed here his young nephew from the
fury of the Romans, who were in pursuit
of him, after having vanquished the queen
and slain all her other children. There is
certainly a very strong and secret apartment
underground in it, having no passage to it
but a hole, which is covered with a large
stone; and is called to this day, The Great
There are numerous legends about large
stones being hurled by giants, and in sup-
port of these legends the Manx peasants for-
merly showed strangers the giants' quoiting
stones, which are two huge monoliths of clay-
slate in the parish of Rushen, one being on
Ballacreggan farm, and the other on Cronk-
Skibbylt adjoining. The tradition about them
is that " two giants tossed them thither in
their games from the top of the Mull Hills."t
There are also shown marks of giants' fingers,
called Meir-ny-Foawr, " fingers of the
giant," on two similar monoliths, in a field
at Balle Keeill Pherick, on the way down
from the Sloe to Colby. " I was told," says
Prof. Rhys, " there were originally five of
these stones standing in a circle, all of them
marked in the same way by the same giant
as he hurled them down from where he stood,
miles away on the top of the mountain called
Cronk-yn-Irree Lhaa."J The stones of the
Kew Avenue, and the circle at Lhergydhoo,
in the parish of German, were known by
the same name, and there is a " Giant's
Footmark " at Ballacannell, in the parish of
Giants' graves are not uncommon. There
is one at the foot of South Barrule, and
another at Ballaterson, in the parish of Maug-
hold. The cromlech at the end of the stone
avenue at Kew is called Lhiaght-ny-Foarcr, or
" Grave of the Giant." The same name is
applied to the stone circle at Ballakelly, in
the parish of Santon, and the " cup-marks "
on the stones there are said to have been
made by the giants with their fingers, when
the stones were being brought to the spot by
them. The green mound, 30 yards long,
outside the walls of Peel Castle, is called by
* Waldron ( 1 726), Manx Soc. , vol. xi. , p. 47.
t Jenkinson, Isle of Man Guide, p. 87.
X " Manx Superstitions," Folklore, vol. ii., p. 285.
Jenkinson, Isle of Man Guide, p. 76.
SOME EXAMPLES OF BADGESIFROM MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 233
the same name. It is believed that a great
prince, who never knew death, has been bound
there by enchantment for the last 600 years.*
%ome tramples onaaoges from
By J. Lewis Andre, F.S.A.
HAT accomplished antiquary, the
late J. R. Planche, thus remarks
in his Pursuivant of Arms : " Little
as is the accurate information we
possess respecting heraldry in general, our
knowledge of that very interesting and
and some families were as proud of their
badges as others were of their coats-of-arms,
crests, or mottoes. An instance of this is
furnished by the Sussex family of the Pel-
hams, who, having had the buckle of a sword-
strap granted them for valour displayed in
the field, appear to have omitted no oppor-
tunity of employing their badge, placing it
conspicuously on the churches which they
benefited, on the houses they built, on their
chimney fire-backs and dogs, and other
furniture,* and even on the backs of their
sheep. Almost equal in notoriety was the
far-famed badge :
Old Neville's crest,
The rampant bear, chain'd to the ragged staff.
Henry VI., Part II., Act V., scene i.
When it is stated by Mr. Boutell, in his
curious portion of it the badges of our
royal and noble families is still more
limited." The truth of the above holds
good to a great extent at the present day ;
but when heraldry was held in far greater
esteem than at present, the badge formed a
very important feature in heraldic science,
* Train, History of the Isle of Man, vol. ii.,
pp. 173, 174.
^C.wi. /J-Ulrc. tM.
Heraldry, Ancient and Modern, that " badges
or cognizances are figures totally distinct
from crests, and are borne without a shield,"
it must not be implied that badges do not
appear on shields, as they have done so from
an early date. For instances, we see the
feathers of the Black Prince on shields about
his tomb at Canterbury ; and the badge of
the fetterlock on the brass of Sir Simon
234 SOME EXAMPLES OF BADGES FROM MONUMENTAL BRASSES.
Felbrigge, 1416, at Felbrigg, Norfolk, is
also on a scutcheon. In a similar manner
shields on the tomb of Queen Elizabeth bear
the Tudor emblems of the fleur-de-lis, port-
cullis, rose, and thistle.
The brass of Thomas, Lord Berkeley, 1392,
at Wootton - under - Edge, Gloucestershire,
shows the badge of a mermaid, but the oldest
example here illustrated is the badge on the
noble memorial of Alianore de Bohun, dated
1399, at Westminster Abbey. Here in the
canopy of her brass is the celebrated badge
of the De Bohun family, a swan ar. crowned,
or, ducally gorged, and chained or, as borne
by Thomas de Woodstock, and in the in-
scription the swan is also introduced, but
not crowned or chained. Later examples
show us badges placed between each word
of an inscription, as on one of the Beau-
champ monuments at Warwick. The De
Bohun swan badge, it is, perhaps worth
mentioning, hangs from the neck of the
effigy of the poet Gower on his tomb at
St. Mary Overie's, Southwark.
The brass of Canon William Langton,
1413, at Exeter Cathedral, bears the badge
of the Stafford knot upon the orphrey of his
cope, and it appears there on account of his
relationship to Edward Stafford, Bishop of
Exeter, whose arms are on a shield at one of
the upper corners of the slab.
At Felbrigg, Norfolk, are numerous interest-
ing brasses, and among them is one to Sir
Simon Felbrigge, dated 14 16, and which
displays the badge of a fetterlock, an object
which heralds consider to have been an
instrument attached to the leg of a horse to
prevent his escape. On the same brass,
cleverly introduced as a bracket to the
double canopy over the figures of Sir Simon
and his wife, is the figure of a hart, one of
the badges of Richard II., and the origin of
so many of our inn-signs. It appears here
in consequence of Sir Simon having been
standard-bearer to the unfortunate Richard.
Officials under the Crown, it need hardly be
said, often used the badge of the reigning
sovereign, and, on the other hand, royal
personages occasionally assumed the badges
of those of lower rank ; thus, Rous relates of
Earl Beauchamp (who died in 1439) that,
" The empresse of Almayne taking the Erles
livery a Bere from a knight's shoulder, and
for great love and favour setting hit on her
shouldre " ; and there is a portrait at Parham,
Sussex, of Queen Elizabeth, where the dress
is shown embroidered with the ragged staff
of Dudley of Leicester.
The beautiful canopied brass at Burnham
Thorpe, Norfolk, commemorating Sir
William Calthorpe, 1420, has two figures of
falcons facing each other under the canopy,
and not in its spandrels, as stated by Haines
(vol. i, p. 114). The birds are duly belled
and jessed, and standing on mounts, whilst
from each falcon is a label inscribed with the
old motto of the Calthorpes, Fenser de fyner.
Upton, according to Guillim, is not compli-
mentary to those who first adopted the falcon
in their arms, quoting his opinion that
" This bird doth show that he that first took
upon him the bearing thereof was such an
one as did eagerly pursue, vex, and molest
poore and silly creatures." The falcon
appears to be the badge of the Courtenay
family, occurring on the brass of Sir Peter
Courtenay, 1409, at Exeter Cathedral
(Haines, vol. i., p. 114).
On the brass of Sir Humfrey Bourchier,
147 1, in Westminster Abbey, are shields
with his badge of a coudiere, or elbow-guard,
the straps of which are ingeniously twisted
into the Bourchier knot, a figure which
boasts of a high antiquity, as it occurs on a
SOME EXAMPLES OF BADGES EROM MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 235
Roman bas-relief found at Risingham, North-
umberland, now preserved in the library of
Trinity College, Cambridge. Sir John Rat-
cliff (Fitzwalter), who lived in the reign of
Edward IV., had a " garde bras silver " as
his badge (see Pursivant at Arms, p. 185,
where it is engraved).
A brass now in the possession of the
Surrey Archaeological Society represents a
knight and a lady who are supposed to have
been members of the Compton family. It is
a single plate, and behind the figures are
flaming beacons, whilst twisted round the
post of each of the latter is a scroll with the
motto, So have L cause. The same emblem
and motto appear in the east window of
Sopley Church, Hants, and the flaming
beacon is still the crest of the Comptons,
Earls of Northampton, though their motto is
now, Je ne cherche que un.
A large display of heraldry is to be seen
on the tomb of Sir Roger L'Estrange, 1506,
and which stands in the middle of the
chancel at Hunstanton Church, Norfolk.
There is a central figure of the knight in an
heraldic tabard, and with his mantled and
crested helm under his head, whilst the sides
of the canopy have niches, which, instead
of saints, contain figures of his ancestors,
also in tabards; finally, at the sides and
ends of the tomb are eight shields, four of
which bear the badge of two clasped hands,
a device of considerable antiquity, and which
may be seen on a Roman ring engraved^in
Jones's Finger-ring Lore, p. 41 ; it appears
also on others of more modern date.
At Wivernhoe, Essex, are two large but
coarse brasses for William, Viscount Beau-
mont, 1507, and his lady Elizabeth, 1537.
The former memorial has a figure of this
nobleman, with his badge of the elephant
and castle beneath his feet ; it also occurs in
the spandrels of the canopy, and the clauses
of the inscription are separated by a similar
According to Guillim, the elephant in
heraldry was considered an emblem of
strength, wit, and ambition. It appears to
have been early used as a symbol of those
qualities, and the Danish Order of the White
Elephant, dating as far back as 1190, had
the collar of the Order originally composed of
elephants and crosses.
Badges and epitaphs are often combined
up to a comparatively recent date ; probably
one of the latest examples is found on the
tomb of Paul Howard, Earl of Stafford, who
died in 1782, and is buried in Westminster
Abbey. The badges on this monument,
ENGLISH, SCOTISH, AND IRISH BOOK-COLLECTORS.
according to Neale, are no less than eighteen
in number ; and these, he states, are the
ancient badges of honour belonging to the
<ngli3b, fecotteb, ana 3lusf)
A Roll of Fame and Death.
By W. Carew Hazlitt.
In the following tentative catalogue, collections
believed to be still wholly or mainly intact are
marked with a * ; the date of the dispersion,
when it is known to the writer, is added in a
parenthesis. The names of the principal libraries
are printed in capitals ; those of owners, who were
or are distinguished apart from their property in
this way, are given in italics.
CHAPTER, not the least important,
in the transmission of books and
in the vicissitudes of taste so
powerfully influencing their sur-
vival, is that treating of individuals in the
various walks of life who have made it their
business from different points of view, under
different circumstances, and with very un-
equal results, to collect the literary produc-
tions of the ages which preceded their own.