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.'. Some of his books went by bequest to the
British Museum.
Samuel Tyssen (1802).
*Tyssen- Amherst, Lord Amherst.

William Upcott.

.: See George Daniel's Sale, 1864, No. 1698.
E. V. Utterson (1852 and 1857).

Vaughans of Hengwrt.

. . Sold privately to Kerslake of Bristol.
Vaughans of Rug.

.'. Lord Vernon, Dantesque, and other
Italian literature.

Voigt, of the Custom House (1806).

Gilbert Wakefield.

James Walker of Innerdovat, M.D.



NOTES ON THE LONDON BRIDGE WATERWORKS.



243



Edmond Waller.

Alfred Wallis of Derby.

.*. Some of the books collected by prede-
cessors.

Horace Walpole.

Izaak Walton-
Sir William Walworth.

.'. MSS. left by his will in 1385.

Bishop Warburton.

Lee Waring.

.. A portion of the Oxenden Collection
seems to have come into the hands of this
family. The whole has been dispersed of late
years.

Joseph and Thomas Warton.

G. L. Way (1881).

Dr. Webster (1690).

Sir Godfrey Webster.

/osiah Wedgwood (1846).

James West (1773).

Joseph Whatley.

B. R. Wheatley (1884).

*//. B. Wheatley.

Henry White of Lichfield.

Roger Wilbraham.

Wilkes (1847).
Ralph Willett of Merly.

Griffith Williams, Bishop of Ossory.
Rev. Theodore Williams.

. \ Choice copies and bindings.
Winnington Family.
Michael Wodhull.
Wolfreston Family (1856).

Woodhouse (1803).
H. Woodthorpe.

William Wordsworth (1850).
Archdeacon Wrangham.
Dr. Wright (1787).

Wrightson.

.-. A buyer at Heber's sale (Withers, etc.).
*Wynns of Peniarth.

* Wynnstay.

.*. Much of the old collection was destroyed
by fire.
Edward Wynne of Chelsea.

. . The books of Narcissus Luttrell are said
to have come to this gentleman.

Duke of York (1827).
Vorke, Earl of Hardwicke.
Hon. Charles Yorke.
Alexander Young.



ilSotes on t&e Lontion TBritJge
COatertootfes.

By E. Wyndham Hulme and Rhys Jenkins.

JRIOR to the year 1582 the failing
and contaminated sources of the
water-supply of the Metropolis were
supplemented by means of water
drawn from the higher levels on its northern




and western boundaries. In this year water
was first raised by a new engine, described
by a contemporary as "a most artificial
forcier," and delivered into men's houses in
Thames Street, New Fish Street, Gracechurch
Street, and as far as Leadenhall, at which
point a standard was erected at the cost of
the Municipality for distributing the waste
of the new system. The inventor, one Peter
Morris, is described as a Dutchman by birth,
but a free Denizen. The additional facts
which are here collected respecting the
inventor and his new system are offered as
a contribution to the history of the London
Bridge Waterworks, which existed down to
the removal of the Bridge in 1822.

The well-known versions of this enterprise
which are to be found in Holinshed, Stow,
and the latter's continuators, although not
deficient in accuracy, omit certain facts which
we propose to chronicle here. Morris's claims
to be considered the first introducer into this
country, if not the true and first inventor, *
of the force pump appear to be well founded.
Patents for various systems of raising water
for different purposes form the largest class
of the Elizabethan monopoly patents a reign
which is remarkable for the advances made
in deep mining, fen drainage and water-supply
but none of these grants indicate that the
inventions embodied the new principle of
raising water by forcing as opposed to suction
or other and more ancient methods. From
a petition preserved in the State Papers,
Dom. CXV., No. 62, ? 1575 (a more probable
date is 1577), we learn that Peter Morice,
or Morris, was in the service of Sir Christopher
Hatton, then captain of the Queen's Guard,
and that the latter was exerting his influence
to obtain for his follower a patent for an
engine " to draw and raise up water higher
than Nature itself onely serveth out of any
manner of fen grounds or other places." As
Morris was of Dutch extraction, the applica-
tion of the invention to land reclamation
naturally suggested itself as the most feasible
method for its profitable employment ; but
on his arrival in this country his attention
appears to have been entirely devoted to its
application for the purposes of water supply.

* That the force-pump was known to the Greeks
will be apparent on reference to Hero. Spirital. Lib.,
1575, p. 33, where a force-pump for use in fire extinc-
tion is descried.



244



NOTES ON THE LONDON BRIDGE WATERWORKS.



The patent was granted on January 24, 1578,
and is reproduced here for the benefit of
those who still adhere to the belief in the
hostile verdict pronounced by Hume and
other writers on the monopoly system of this
reign.

Patent Roll, 20 Eliz., p. 10, memb. 34.
De concessione pro Petr' Morris pro xx
Annorum.
Elizabeth by the grace of God etc. To
all Justices Mayors Sheryffes Baylyffes Con-
stables Hedboroughes and all other our
Officers Mynisters and subjectes to whome
these presents shall come gretinge. Whereas
our welbeloved subjecte Peter Moris hath
by his great labor and charges founde out
and learned the skill and coning to make
some newe kynde and manner of engynes
to drawe and raise vp waters higher then
nature of yt selfe only serveth out of any
manner of fenne groundes or other places
not nowe or heretofore as we are informed
made practized or vsed by any other within
this our realme of England whereby greate
benefyte maye come to our subjectes and
whole comon wealth and to the ende he
maye not be defrauded of the frute of his
labours herein employed by others that
shoulde attempte the making or practyzing
of the same worke hath made humble sute
vnto vs that yt myghte please vs to graunte
vnto hym privyledge and lycence that none
but he his executors admynystrators and
assignes or such as he or theye shall speciallye
appoynte or lycence shall interpryse to make
or putt in practize any such worke within
the space of twentye one yeres nowe nexte
ensueng we lett you witt that consydering
howe much the fyrste fynders and searchers
of this or any such thinge profytable or
comodyous for the comon wealth ar to be
favored and encouraged we have as well in
respecte thereof as for other consyderacons
vs moving graunted vnto hym his said suyte
and therefore of our especiall grace and mere
mocion we do geve and graunte for vs our
heires and successors to the said Peter Moris
his executors admynystrators and assignes
full and sole priviledge lycence power and
aucthorytie to enterprise make putt in vse
and practise all and every such engyn not
nowe or heretofore wythin memorye of any



man made or vsed by any other within this
our sayd realme of Englande for or touching
the draweng or rayseng of any water or waters
engyne or engynes worke or workes as the
said Peter hath invented learned or devised
or he or any of hys executors admynystrators
or assignes shall invente learne or devise
within the space of twentye one yeres nowe
nexte ensueng And that none other parson
or parsons but he the said Peter his executors
admynystrators or assignes or such as he or
they or some of them shall nominate appoynte
or lycence so to do shall interprise to make
putt in use or practyse any such engyne or
engynes worke or workes as laste before is
menconed during the said space of twenty
one yeres To have exercise and enjoye the
said priviledge lycence power and aucthorytie
to the said Peter Moris his executors admynys-
trators and assignes fully solye and only
wythout any lett intermedling or ympeache-
mente of any other parson or parsons for
and during the said whole terme of twentye
one yeres nowe nexte ensueng And therefore
we will and straightly charge and commaunde
all and singuler our subjectes of what
condycyon or estate soever they be that
neyther they nor any of them do make or
cause to be made or vse any such engyne or
engynes for any such kynde of worke or
workes during the tyme of twentie one yeres
next ensueng the date hereof with out hys
specyall consente lycence or appoyntmente
Straightly charging all our Officers Mynysters
and subjectes to whome yt shall apperteyne
not only to be ayding and assisting to the
said Peter Moris his executors admynystrators
and assignes and his and theire servantes
deputies and assignes in the putting in vse
of all the said engynes and workes but also
from tyme to tyme to apprehendeand commytt
to warde all and every such parson and
parsons as contra rye to thys our graunte
shall after warning given by the said Peter
Moris hys executors admynystrators or
assignes or any of them make or cause to
be made vse or cause to be vsed any such
engyne or engynes for any such kynde of
worke during the said terme of twentye one
yeres causing all such offenders to remayne
in warde without bayle or maynprise vntill
he shall have made fyne vnto vs for such
contempte And also payd vnto the said Peter



NOTES ON THE LONDON BRIDGE WATERWORKS.



M5



Moris one hundreth poundes of laufull money
of Englande for every moneth wherein he
or they shall vse any of the said engynes in
or for any suche kynde of worke as is afore-
said after warning gyven by the said Peter
his executors, admynystrators or assignes as
you and every of you tender our pleasure
and will aunswere to the contrarie at your
perilles Provided allwayes that yt shalbe
laufull for all manner of parsons to make or
cause to be made all and every such kynde
of engynes or workes as be or have benne
vsed within the space of twentye yeres before
the date hereof for drawing of waters out of
fenne groundes or for other conveyeng of
waters within this our realme in as large
and ample manner as they myghte have done
before the graunting of this our priviledge
Provided also in case the said Peter Morys
his executors or admynystrators or assignes
do not within the space of three yeres nexte
after the date of these presentes putt in vse
and practize the premisses that then this our
graunte and letters patentes to be vtterly
voide and of none effecte any thinge herein
conteyned to the contrarye in any wise not
with standing ffor that expresse mencon etc
In wytnes whereof etc. Wytnes our selfe at
Westm the fower and twentieth daye of
Januarye.

per ipsam Reginam.

In 1580 we learn from the Remembratuia,
p. 551, that Morris had secured a contract
for supplying water from the Thames to
Leadenhall, but required an extension of
time for the completion of the work. In
the following letter dated July 5, 1580, from
the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor,
Morris complains of delay on the part of the
Civic Authorities. As a matter of mutual
arrangement the works had been suspended,
as Morris had other business to attend to,
and the provision of certain lands for the
erection of his works was not completed ;
but now Morris is desirous of proceeding,
and the Council request to be certified of
the reasons of delay on the part of the City.
A third letter dated December, 1582, explains
that, all difficulties had been surmounted by
the promise of a large sum of money by
Bernard Randolph, Common Sergeant of the
City, on the strength of which Morris " had



entangled himself in bonds and bargains,"
and was again in urgent need of money.
The Mayor vouches that the works will not
prove a hindrance to the poor water-bearers,
who would continue to supply water from
the conduits, while they would be of great
benefit to the City both in cases of fire and
infection. The works must now have been
practically completed, for the system was
opened on the Christmas Eve of the same
year. From the above allusion to the appli-
cation of the works for fire extinction we
gather that Morris had already demonstrated




his ability to throw water over the steeple
of St. Magnus Church a feat never before
witnessed in this country.* The statement
of Stow and others that the water was con-
veyed in pipes of lead over the steeple of
St. Magnus Church is inconsistent with later
accounts and the illustration of the works in
Norden's map. The difficulty might be sur-
mounted by assuming that a temporary cistern
was erected in the tower, and that the water
tower shown by Norden was of later date.
It is certain that the pipes eventually were
laid under the street " and so into men's
houses," and not as described in the above
authorities. In 1583 Camden narrates that

* We are unable to produce the authority for this
statement, which is attributed in Matthew's Hydraulia
to the 1633 edition of Stow.



246 NAVIGATING A VESSEL FROM PORTLAND TO PLYMOUTH.



the citizens of Norwich conveyed water out
of the river through pipes by an artificial
instrument, or water forcer, up into the highest
places of the city. As Morris enjoyed a
monopoly of this kind of engine, it would
seem that the works were carried out simul-
taneously with those at London Bridge, but
the fact is not corroborated in any of the
local histories to which we have had access.
In 1584 Morris obtained the lease of a second
arch, but in spite of the additional power
thus obtained the public supply of water in
the conduits is noticed by Stow (2nd Edit.,
1598) as falling below the public require-
ments. Morris appears to have amassed a
considerable fortune at this period, so we
may assume that the bulk of the water
supplied passed into private channels.

The earliest representation of Morris's
engine known to us occurs in the second
edition of Bates's Mysteries of Nature and
Art, published in 1635. Owing to the fire of
1633 which destroyed all the buildings at
the north end of the bridge our author was
enabled to inspect the machinery, and from
a rough sketch made from memory imme-
mediately upon his return a fairly accurate
idea of the original engine of Morris can be
obtained. This sketch we propose to re-
produce in a following number.



Directions for navigating a Dessel
from IportlanD to 13>lpmoutfj.

[These directions are taken from a sailing-book, which
appears to date from the last year of the seventeenth
century. The frequent topographical reference to
buildings as landmarks is valuable, and will be
noted. In one case, that of the Mill at Plymouth,
the landmark has since conferred a place-name on
what is now well known as Mill Bay.]

BROM Portland to Exmouth, the
Course is West by North twelve
Leagues ; about mid-way betwixt
them lieth a little Island, close by
the Land, before the Haven of Lime, and is
called Lime- Cob, where Vessels lie a ground
at low Water.

Before Exmouth, you may ride at the South
end of the Beach, which lieth before the
Haven, in 7 or 8 fathom ; so that the Rocks




of Tomans-stones do bear South and South
by East from you ; there you will have good
Ground, and lie Land-lockt in Southerly
Winds.

The going into Exmouth is very narrow,
having Rocks on the East side and a Sand
on the West side ; at low Water there is but
six or seven foot upon the Bar, but high
Water sixteen or eighteen foot Water; the
going in is so difficult, that it is best to take
a Pilot, who will always be ready to come off
to you : Being in, there is a place called
Star Cross, where ships may ride a float ; but
they that go to Topsham lie aground at low
Water, and Goods that go to Exon, are
carried up in Lighters.

Tinmouth, or Tingmouth, lieth about five
Miles South West from Exmouth ; it is only
a Tide Haven for small Vessels.

Five Leagues South West from Exmouth
lieth Tor bay, which lieth from Portland,
West 13 Leagues.

For to go into Torbay, you must bring the
West Point or the Berry, S. by E. or SSE.
from you, and anchor there in 7 or 8 fathom ;
there you lie Landlockt for South, and
South-West Winds, here are two Peers in this
Bay, where small Ships lie a ground.

At the North East side of this Bay, is also
a Tide Haven called Tormoune ;* before it is
good Anchor Ground in four or five fathom.

To sail into Dartmouth.

Two leagues to the Westward of Torbay
lieth the Haven of Dartmouth, which hath
a narrow Entrance going in betwixt two high
Lands ; upon each side of the Haven standeth
a little Castle : On the West side on the
high Land is a Church called St. Patrick's A
Its very dangerous going into or out of this
place, except the Wind blow either in or
out.

For to sail in, coming from the Westward,
you must run in along by the Wester Land,
so far to the Eastward, until you bring the
Key of the Town (on the East side of the
Haven) in the midst of the Entry of the
Haven, and so sail in the mid-Channel :
Also you must be ready with your Boat, if
a Gust of Wind should come down from the
high Land, for to row in ; and being come
in, edge over to the West-side before the
* Tor Mohun. + St. Petrock's.



NAVIGATING A VESSEL FROM PORTLAND TO PLYMOUTH. 247



Brew-House, and there Anchor in ten or
twelve Fathom, or before the Town on the
East side where you please.

At the East side lieth a sunken Rock,
the Marks to avoid it are these : steer in
with St. Patrick's Church, and bring not the
Village which standeth on the West side of
the Harbour without the said Church, but
keep the outer House of the said Village, on
the East side of the Chappel, and always in
sight without the Bulwark on the North side
by St. Patrick's Church, and you nead not
fear the Rock.

Betwixt Dartmouth and the Start, nearest
to Dartmouth, standeth a white spire Steeple,
called Tackman, which is a very good Mark
to know Dartmouth by.

The Start lieth from Dartmouth South
West by South, about 3 or 4 Leagues, betwixt
them is a Bay, the shore bold, only a small
Rock half a Mile or more East South East
from the Start. Under the Point of the
Start at the East side is a good Road for
westerly Winds, betwixt the Point and a
Church that standeth on the high Land, in
10 or 11 fathom, so that the Point bears
SW. from you.

About a League to the Eastward of the
Westermost Point of the Start, lieth a Haven
called Salcomb, between the two Points called
the Praul and the Bolt-head, when you come
from the westward, it showeth itself open.
The West side of it is ragged, and the East
side goes sloping down : Close to the West
point lieth a Range of Rocks, therefore you
must give a good Birth, and leave the Rocks
on your Larboard side, you may see them
break, therefore you nead not fear; and
being within, you may Anchor in the Bagg
in three, four, or five Fathom at low Water ;
the shoars on both sides are bold : the Black
Stone (a Rock that lies over against the Old
Castle in the narrowest place going in)
appears at the last quarter Ebb.

Upon the Barr there remaineth at low
Water and Spring Tides no less than eleven
foot, but within it is at least 3 fathom.

To sail into Plymouth.
Seven Leagues to the Westward of the
Start lieth Plymouth Sound ; at the outer-
most or East going into the Sound lieth a
high round Rock, called the Mewstone ;



Between which and Ramhead lieth the Sound
of Plymouth, being round and deep.

About a Mile North West by North from
the Mewstone lieth the Shaggstone ; and West
about three quarters of a Mile from the
Shaggstone lieth the Shagg Rock or Tinker ;
and North by West a large Mile from the
Shagg Rock, lies the Shovel or Cloudsley Rock,
which is now Buoyed ; there is at Low
Water upon it about seventeen foot. The
Mark to know when you are a breast of the
Cloudsley Rock is Maker Steeple, on the
high Land over Casant West North West,
then are you a breast of it.

The best anchoring in Plymouth Sound is
Plymouth Church, upon the West end of the
Cittadel (so that you can but just see the
Church) and St. Nicholas's Island North
West at which time Penlee Point will be
South West, there you will have 7 fathom
clear coarse Sand ; likewise for coming into
Plymouth with ships, from Eastward that are
bound for the Westward, the Mark is to
keep Plymouth Old Church about a Hands-
dike's length to the westward of the Cittadel :
keeping them so you may boldly sail in with-
out fear of the Dangers in the Sound.

A little to the Northward of the Penlee is
a fair sandy Bay called Causon, where you
may Anchor close under the Land in 9 or
10 fathom.

Four Leagues South by West from Ram-
head, lieth a Rock above Water, called the
Eddystone, the Point of Penlee from the
Eddy stone, is N. by E. distant four Leagues,
and N.E. from the Lighthouse, about a
quarter of a Mile, lies a Rock under Water,
except at low Ebb or Spring Tides, and then
shews it self about the bigness of a But ;
there is 6 Fathom all round about within a
Ship's length of it.

In Plymouth Sound, by the Land of
Plymouth, lieth a little Island, called Sir
Francis Drake's Island, which joins to the
West side with a Range of Rocks under
Water, so that you must sail along to the
Eastward of it, whether you are bound either
into Catwater, which is the East Harbour, or
Hamouse, which is the West Harbour.

If you would go into Catwater, then run in
betwixt the Island and Mount Batter (sic) on
the East side, in with the I^and of Plymouth,
until you see Catwater open on your Star-



248 NAVIGATING A VESSEL FROM PORTLAND TO PLYMOUTH.



board side; go then to the Eastward, betwixt
the Point of Plymouth and Mount Batten
Point on your Starboard side, leaving most
part of the Channel on your Larboard side,
till you come within the Point, and there
anchor right against the high steep North
l,and ; there is at low Water, with spring
Tides, four or five fathom.

When you sail into Cutwater, you must
give a good Birth to the Southern Point in
the Entrance, for there lies off from the said
Point a Ledge of Rocks under Water, about
two Cables' length from the shore. Upon the
Point of the Ledge lieth a Buoy, which you
must leave on your Starboard side ; and
when you have Cutwater open, you may run
in to the Eastward, leaving in the Entry of
the Harbour, two-thirds of the Channel on
your Starboard side, because the South shore
is somewhat flat, there lying a Sand Bank,
which reacheth to the second Point of the
South shore of Caiwater.

A little to the Eastward of Drake's or
St. Nicholas's Island lieth a Rock called the
Winter, upon which, at low Water, is not
above two fathom.

For to sail within the Island, you may go
to the eastward or westward of the Rock,
according as occasion shall serve.

If you will sail in at Hamouse, you may
keep to the Westward of the Winters, between
it and St. Nicholas's Island, for to the west-
ward of the Island is all foul Ground, and
sunken Rocks, that the Passage is very
difficult, except for small Vessels, or those
that are well acquainted ; and to go to the
Eastward of the Island, take the Soundings of
the Island in four or five fathom at low Water,
and so run by it, until that Fishers Village
lying to the Northward (a little within the
Land) come on the West side of the Village,
on the N. shoar, then are you to run through
between the Island and the Rock, and to
the Westward of the Rock, upon the Land
of Piimouth, within the Island, standeth a
Wall, when you see it end ways, and the
Chappel of Fisher's Village cometh to the
North side of the Valley, and Catwater open,
then you run over the Rock between the
Island and the Main, and there anchor in
12 or 13 fathom.

Likewise you may sail into Hamouse, be-
tween the Island and the Land of Piimouth ;



and sailing in the midst of the Channel
between the two Lands, until the Entry of
Hamouse be open, then run in to the
Northward as the Channel leadeth, until
you come about the West point, and anchor
in 16, 15, 12, or 10 fathom, in the narrow
it is 16 and 20 fathom deep, between the
Island and the Main 8, 9, and 1 2 fathom.

About half a Cable's length to the East-
ward of the Passage going into Hamouse
lieth a sunken Rock called the German,
about two Ships' length from the shore, which
at Low-water hath not above 4 foot on it :
When you come near this Rock going into
Hamouse, either with the Flood or Ebb (for
the Tide will set you right upon it, if it be
calm) give it a good Birth, until you bring
the Houses of Fishers Village open of the
Eastward point of the Passage, and then run
over to the North shoar, until you have shut
the Island behind the foresaid Eastward
point of the Passage. For to avoid a
sunken Rock that lieth off to the Eastward,
from the North point of the Beach, on the
West side of the Passage, half a Cables
Length off, run a midst the Channel into
Hamouse : Upon the said sunken Rock at
Low Water, is not above 3 or 4 Foot.

On the Sound of Piimouth, not far to the
Northward of the Mewstone, lie two or three
sunken Rocks, on which at Low-Water there
is not above four fathom. The Marks for
them are these, to the Eastward of Piimouth



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