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been studied by comparatively few. Mr. N. C. H.
Nisbet contributes a good paper on the roof of the
Pilgrim's Hall at Winchester. A palimpsest brass of
Bishop White at Winchester College is described by



Mr. Percy G. Langdon, both papers being illustrated.
The Rev. R. G. Davis contributes M Notes on the
Manors of Merstone and South East Standen in the
Isle of Wight," while the editor (the Rev. G. W.
Minns) writes on the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds
of Lady Betty Delme\ which was recently sold for the
extraordinary sum of .11,000. The part is, as we
have already said, an excellent one, and highly credit-
able to the Hampshire Field Club.

^' +

The first part of the twelfth volume of the Journal of
the Royal Institution of Cornwall has reached
us. It contains what we may term a report of the
society, with an account of the annual meeting of 1893,
besides several papers on different subjects. Of these
paj>ers three are archaeological, viz., a paper on the
" Rude Stone Monuments of Cornwall," by Mr. R.
N. Worth ; "Notes on the Duloe Circular Enclosure,"
by the Rev. W. Iago ; and " Inscribed Stones of
Cornwall," also by Mr. Iago.

iRetotos ano JI3otice0
of Jfteto IBoofes.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

Off the Mill. By the Right Rev. G. F. Browne,
Bishop of Stepney. Smith, Elder and Co.
Crown 8vo., pp. 270. Price 6s.
We scarcely recognise our old friend Professor, and
afterwards Canon Browne, under his new designation
of Bishop. The pages of the Antu/uary have more
than once been enriched by contributions from his pen,
for Bishop Browne has long been known as a most
capable antiquary, particularly in connection with pre-
Norman sculpture. We have long known him as a
many-sided, broad-hearted man, but never knew till
we opened these pages that he was an old member
of the Alpine Club. This is a volume of holiday
essays, and we must acknowledge frankly our dis-
appointment. Most of them are thirty-year-old Alpine
papers, reprinted from the Cortthill, such as " How
we mounted the Oldenhorn," and " How we did
Mount Blanc." They are not old enough to be in
any way curious, and yet sufficiently old to be useless ;
the style is anything but brilliant, and they had far
better have been left in their obscurity. The only
paper of any antiquarian value is " Archaeological
Frauds in Palestine " ; but this appeared in the
National Review more than ten years ago, and
possesses no present interest.

$ * $

Our Rambles in Old London. By E. S. Machell

Smith. Sampson Low, Marston and Co. Pp.170,

nineteen illustrations. Price 2s. 6d.

This little book cannot fail to be of much service

to all those who are interested in the out-of-the-way

nooks and corners of the city of London. It is

written in a pleasant chatty style, and conveys in a

short compass a good deal of carefully-gleaned and
descriptive information. The writer is undoubtedly
one of the fair sex, or there would not be such a lavish
use of italics. Another characteristic that proves the
same fact is the curiously frequent application of the
feminine epithet " dear to the most unlikely things
and persons. What would Dr. Johnson have said if
he had lived to see himself described in print as " the
dear doctor " ? We can readily imagine the indigna-
tion and roughness of his retort.

The italics are really trying, and detract much from
the smartness that would otherwise be a special feature
of this well-printed book. There is no reason or
method in their use. Why, for instance, on p. 103,
should we find Pepys in italics, and " Mrs. Pepys "
in plain type? or, on p. 154 (in a description of the
Drapers' Hall), dining-room and staircase in italics,
but " quadrangle " and " fountain " in ordinary print ?
The capital letters, too, are almost as capricious.
These are blemishes, however, that can readily be
corrected in a future edition, and the book is so good
on the whole that we feel sure the author will not
have to wait very long before there is a pleasant
opportunity for revision.

When that time comes, we also hope that the author
will be a little more careful about some of the details
in her descriptions of the City churches. It would
also be as well to leave out the bits about early
luncheon taken at home, and the elaborate and would-
be funny description of the luncheon kindly provided
for herself and friend at the George Inn, Southwark.
The various caretakers, sextons, and other officials in
charge, who assisted these ladies in their notetaking
excursions, are usually personally described with much
freedom, and placed in ridiculous lights. Has it not
occurred to the author that a cheap book of this kind
is very likely to get into the hands of these officials,
and cannot fail to give pain ? Moreover, almost
every one of her readers would willingly see these
passages erased in order to make way for more sub-
stantial matter.

The plan of the book is excellent ; it is divided
into six " walks," and to each walk is prefixed an
admirable little map, showing the route taken and
the places visited. We have only space to give quite
briefly an outline of the second walk, which may lie
taken as a fair example of the rest. St. Saviour's,
Southwark, is reached by steamer from the Surrey
pier ; the monuments are neatly and concisely de-
scribed. On leaving the church the Clink is visited,
which is still the property of the Bishop of Winchester,
and where, in a miller's warehouse, are some remains
of the old Bishop's palace. The Borough High Street
was in olden times the highway of the pilgrims to the
Beckett shrine at Canterbury. A memorial of these
pilgrimages still exists in a succession of ancient
taverns all close together, but down separate little
turnings on the left-hand side. The first, the White
Hart of Dickens fame, has been quite modernized ;
the next, the George Inn, has a double tier of bedroom
galleries with the original wooden balustrades of the
seventeenth century. The Tabard exists only in name,
the old inn being destroyed by fire in 1873. The
Queen's Head has an old wooden balcony and other
details still extant. A description is then given of
the Marshalsea Prison, which used to stand close by,



and of St. George's church and churchyard, which
was the burial-place of the prisoners. The Mint
(where marriages used to take place, varying in price
from is. 6d. to 5s. 6d.), Lant Street, Southwark
Bridge Road, the locality of many, early theatres, are
all briefly described. Crossing Southwark Bridge,
in Upper Thames Street, the church of St. James,
Garlickhithe, was visited in order to see the skeleton
of a tall man in a narrow cupboard with a glass front.
Who he was, or why he was here, the author fails to
tell us. The hall of the Skinners' Company, in
Dowgate, is next inspected, and the walk concludes
with a description of the far-famed London Stone,
built into St. Swithin's church, and covered with an
iron grille. It is just possible that it may have been
a Roman milliarium, or milestone, but to describe it
as " one of the most perfect historical relics of the
Roman occupation " is an absurdity.

* * *

The Best Plays of the Old Dramatists : Ben
Jonson (2nd series). T. Fisher Unwin.
Post 8vo., pp. 446. Price 2s. 6d.
The last issued volume of the excellent " Mermaid
Series" contains Ben Jonson 's " Bartholomew Fair,"
"Cynthia's Revels," and "Sejanus," which are
literally reproduced from the old text. These three
plays afford a striking proof of the versatility of
Jonson's genius. The first two have no common
feature save that they are both mainly in prose.
" Bartholomew Fair," first produced at the Hope
Theatre in 1614, was always a favourite, owing to
the stinging and singularly coarse ridicule with which
it covers the Puritans. After the Restoration, it was
frequently performed before Charles II. It possesses
singular attractions for the student of manners and
times, as well as for the searcher after obsolete words
and phrases. More of the customs of the common
folk of the time of James I. can be learnt from this
play than from everything else that Jonson wrote.
The very sparse and brief notes might with advantage
have been extended. "Cynthia's Revels" was a
much earlier play. It was printed in quarto in 1601,
and was "frequently acted by the children of Queen
Elizabeth's Chapel." The tragedy of "Sejanus"
was first acted at the Globe in 1603. We are sur-
prised at it being included in selected plays ; the
blank verse is for the most part stilted and in-
harmonious, whilst the plot is involved and puzzling.

* *fc *

George Morland, Painter. By Ralph Richard-
son. Elliot Stock. 8vo., pp. viii, 176. Six
This once - celebrated and still - popular English
painter, who flourished from 1763 to 1S04, has already
been the subject of four brief lives or biographies ;
but as the last of these (written by George Dawe, R.A.)
was issued in 1807, and as all four of them are ex-
ceedingly rare, Mr. Richardson need not in any way
apologize for producing a fifth. He has given us an
attractively - written volume, not hiding Morland's
many faults, but pointing out the many good features
of his character. George Morland still remains a
famous man, and his admirers continue to increase in
number. " His pictures somehow appeal to English
people as no others do perhaps because he was so
thorough an Englishman himself, and because he

painted English subjects in a way no man ever did
before or has done since."

The biography covers eighty pages, the remainder
of the book being taken up with a valuable series of
appendixes. Their titles are : " Paintings by George
Morland exhibited publicly in Great Britain ;"
"How Morland signed his Pictures;" "Critical
Remarks on the Works of George Morland ;" " List
of Oil Paintings and Drawings by Morland, sold by
Messrs. Christie from 1888 to 1892, with the Prices
obtained ;" " Engravings after Paintings or Sketches
by Morland in the British Museum ;" ' ' Chronological
Catalogue of Engravings, Etchings, etc., after Mor-
land, and bearing the Years of their Publication ;"
" Engravings sold by Messrs. Sotheby, December 20,
1894, with the Prices obtained ;" and " Index to
the Engravers of the Works of George Morland."

The reproductions of five of Morland's best pictures
are remarkably good.

* * *

Scottish Poetry of the Seventeenth Century.
Edited by George Eyre-Todd. Glasgow : William
Hodge and Co. Crown 8vo., pp. viii, 296. Price
3s. 6d.
This is the first anthology of the Scottish poetry of
the Stuart period. Mr. Eyre-Todd shows much
wisdom in his selections, and has produced a book of
value and interest to all students of pc etry, and which
is sure to be appreciated by patriotic Scotchmen.
The contributing poets are Sir Robert Aytoun, Sir
David Murray, Sir Robert Ker, Sir William Alex-
ander, William Drummond, the Marquis of Montrose,
and the Semples of Beltrees, of each of whom a brief
biography is given.

* * *

The World's Own Book, or The Treasury of

A Kempis. By Percy Fitzgerald. Elliot Stock.

Pp. 98.
The bibliography of the Imitation seems inex-
haustible. Mr. Elliot Stock has recently done good
service by publishing three works on this subject
namely, (1) the faithful rendering of the great book
into English rhythm, after the manner in which it
was originally written ; (2) the facsimile reproduction
of the Augsburg edition of 1470 ; and more especially
(3) The Story of the Imitatione Christi by Mr.
Leonard Wheatley. We should have thought that
the issue of Mr. Wheatley's admirable little volume
had rendered Mr. Fitzgerald's disquisitions quite
superfluous. The secondary title to this book, which
appears as the head-line of every page, is "Thoughts
on 'The Imitation of Christ.' " Every English lover
of the Imitation should possess Mr. Wheatley's
book, but Mr. Fitzgerald's meditations on the subject
are neither novel nor attractive.

* * *
Studies in Folk-Song and Popular Poetry.

By Alfred M. Williams. Elliot Stock. 8vo.,

pp. viii, 396. Price not stated.
Mr. Edward Clodd has written a brief com-
mendatory preface to this volume of American essays.
To our mind the best in the book, and certainly those
which will have the most interest for English readers,
are the two opening chapters on "American Sea-
Songs" and "Folk-Songs of the Civil War." Mr.
Williams is much to be commended for having



rescued the ballads of the great Slave War from
oblivion. His essay on "English and Scottish
Popular Ballads " is perforce, considering the extent
of the subject, far too sketchy. There are also
chapters on the folk-songs of Brittany, Poitou,
Portugal, Hungary, and Koumania.

* *
FEUDAL England: Historical Studies on the
Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. By J. H.
Round. Swan Sontunschcin. 8vo., pp. xvi,
587. Price 12s. 6d.

There is no doubt that Mr. J. II. Round is an
historical scholar of no mean ability, more particularly
in connection with the period treated of in this book,
but it is also equally beyond doubt that Mr. Round
adly mars his repute by the fierceness and bitterness
<>f his attacks upon others in the same field. It
really seems to be a greater pleasure to Mr. Round
to convict his predecessors and contemporaries of
blunders than to establish fre. c h facts. Mr. Round is
a past-master of chastened vituperation and thinly-
veiled contempt with regard to historians who will
live when he is altogether forgotten.

The first half of this work is, however, less spoilt
than usual by this characteristic fault. This division
is termed "Territorial Studies," as opposed to the
" Historical Studies " of the latter part of the volume.
It comprises chapters on the Domesday Book, the
Northamptonshire Geld-Roll, the Knights of Peter-
l>orough, the Worcestershire Survey, the Lindsey
Survey, the Northamptonshire Survey, together with
a praiseworthy essay on the Introduction of Knight
Service into England. The Domesday chapter, which
covers about 150 pages, is of much value, and we are
disposed to agree with the author's conclusions on the
carucate and hide. He also establishes the fact that
the word soluanda meant an estate such as a prebend,
and was not a unit of measurement.

The latter part of the book is a more or less
elaborated attack upon the late Professor Freeman,
but the greater part has already appeared in various
magazines and reviews. The attack is conducted
with considerable ingenuity and much persistence.
In sections where the reader would expect to be quite
safe from anti-Freeman assaults, Mr. Round, with
misplaced cunning, contrives to strike at his literary
foe. In view of the great Professor's death, some of
these attacks almost verge on the malignant. No one
will contend that Mr. Freeman was immaculate ; no
historian has yet been found whose accuracy in every-
thing was beyond all gainsaying, and unless a pheno-
menal being appears, it is hopeless to expect it. But
we are entirely in accord with a recent statement of
Mr. Herbert Fisher, one of the ablest representatives
of the Oxford school of history, that Mr. Freeman
reached "the highest standard of scholarly ex-

Mr. Round's chief and most elaborate attack is on
Mr. Freeman's fine account of the battle of Hastings,
especially "the palisade" episode. The great
majority of scholars are, however, abundantly satisfied
with the defence of Mr. Freeman's descriptions and
contentions by the Dean of Winchester and other
competent men. The defence has also proved that
Mr. Round's attack actually bristles with blundering
e rrors, including an astonishing mistranslation of the
, crucial passage " in Wace.



A writer in the current number of the Antiquary
(p. 208), in an interesting paper entitled " Some
Medieval Closing Rings and Knockers," referring to
the word hagotlay, or as I have always heard it pro-
nounced, haggaday, says : " Whether there is ancient
authority for this name, or whether it is merely a
modern invention like that of hagioscope for a squint,
we do not know. It sounds as if it were a modern

Sounds are sometimes misleading in philology as in
other matters. Haggaday certainly did not come into
being with the revival of Gothic architecture. I well
remember hearing it used upwards of half a century
ago by illiterate Lincolnshire peasants who had never
heard of the Cambridge Camden Society, to whom, as
it is averred, we owe the word " hagioscope," and
some other terms of the same sort.

In Lincolnshire the word is still in general use for
the latch of a door or gate, especially for the old-
fashioned fall latches. Haggadays are often put on
cottage doors on the inside, without anything project-
ing on the outside by which the latch can be lifted.
A little slit is made in the door, and the latch can
only be lifted by passing through this slit a nail, or
thin slip of wood or metal. Words of this kind are
seldom written down, and still seldomer get into print,
so that dictionary-makers may become aware of them.
I have, however, been fortunate enough to come across
an example of the use of this word in days when
James I. was king. It is doubtless, however, very much
older. In the churchwardens' accounts of Louth (a
market-town in Lincolnshire) for the year 1610, we
read that there was paid

" To John fflower for hespes, staples, a hoope, a
pycke, a sneck, a haggaday, a catch & a Ringe
for the west gate ijs. vjd."

I dare not make a guess as to the derivation of
"haggaday," but I feel well assured that unlike the
modern word "hagioscope," it has no connection with

Edward Peacock.

Dunstan House, Kirtonin-Lindsey.

To intending Contributors. Unsolicited MSS.
will always receive careful attention, but the Editor
cannot return them if not accepted unless a fully
stamped and directed envelope is enclosed. To this
rule no exception will be made.

It would be well if those proposing to submit MSS.
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and
manner of treatment.

Letters containing queries can only be inserted in the
" Antiquary " */ of general interest, or on some new
subject. The Editor cannot under tale to reply pri-
vately, or through the " Antiquary," to questions of
the ordinary nature that sometimes reach him. No
attention is paid to anonymous communications or
would-be contributions.

Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly
obliged to publishers if they will ahvays state the price
of books sent for review.



The Antiquary.


jftotes of tbe ^ontb.

From a paragraph which has been supplied
by one of the Press Agencies to the news-
papers, it would seem that one of our
"Notes" for August has been misunder-
stood, or twisted to bear a meaning which
was disclaimed in its first sentence. It is
scarcely necessary to repudiate once more any
desire on our part to favour one political
party or the other. The Antiquary knows
nothing of party politics, and in expressing
our regret that the change of Government
should have necessitated the removal of Mr.
Herbert Gladstone from being First Com-
missioner of Public Works, we were careful
to disclaim any political bias whatever. Yet
the newspaper paragraph which has appeared
in several " Liberal " papers, assigns to us an
expression of regret at the defeat of the late
Government at the General Election. We
feel, of course, highly flattered at being quoted
on such a subject, but we wish those who
were so ready to claim our partizanship for
their cause had been careful to read what we
really did say. Antiquaries may be Liberals,
Home Rulers, Tories, or anything or nothing,
but the Antiquary is, and always must be,
wholly neutral in all such matters.

fr 'J? 4?

We are sorry to learn that the tower and spire
of Salisbury Cathedral are reported to show
dangerous signs of weakness. We hope we
may take it as an indication of the improved
knowledge in such matters that the Dean,
in issuing an appeal for .5,000 to secure
the spire, is careful to state that nothing of
the nature of a " restoration " is contemplated.


We feel confident that under these circum-
stances whatever sum may be really required
will be easily raised. The difficulty and hesi-
tation which antiquaries feel in these cases is
the dread that, in subscribing to such a fund,
they may be helping to destroy, and not to
preserve, the original features and history of
an ancient building. In the case of Salisbury
all danger of this appears to be avoided.

)& $? $?
To the cathedral churches of Salisbury and
Peterborough we regret to hear that Win-
chester must be added as showing signs of
partial insecurity. At Winchester it is the
external roof of the nave which is in a bad
way. Mr. John B. Colson, the architect to
the Dean and Chapter, has recently reported
that " the time has now arrived when some-
thing must be done to the leads, even if the
timbers are allowed to remain in their present
condition. On the south side, where sub-
sidences have taken place, three places to the
extent of 12 feet 6 inches, 16 feet 6 inches,
and 17 feet 6 inches wide respectively, and
on the north one place 9 feet wide, the whole
length, from gutter to ridge, require relaying ;
and I unhesitatingly say that, unless this
receives immediate attention, there is danger
of the whole slipping, perhaps forcing the
parapet, and falling on to the lower roofs,
with an effect to the timber and vaulting that
must at least be disastrous and expensive to
remedy. Other parts of the leads being in a
bad condition will be a constant expense to
patch and repair; and, as I said in my 1893
report, nothing less than one-half of the north
side and the whole of the south side requires
absolute relaying."

& 4f 4p

From a paragraph in the Hampshire Chronicle,
we see that Mr. Colson's report, together
with a previous one made by him, and also
one by the late Mr. Ewan Christian, have
been forwarded to the Ecclesiastical Com-
missioners, who, we are told, suggest " that
either a call should be made on a fund which
the Commissioners have, belonging to the
Dean and Chapter, to meet the expenses of
temporary repair (about 200), or that an
appeal should be made to the public to raise
the estimated amount of the entire cost of
the renovation of the fabric (about 6,000)."
The newspaper adds that it believes that "it

2 L



is the present intention of the Dean and
Chapter to deal with the smaller amount.
Here, surely, is a suggestive comment on the
" restoration " panacea proposed whenever a
church needs repair. A " restoration " at a
cost of ^6,000 is suggested, while repairs to
cost j,2co will suffice. Are we to apply the
same principle to the appeal for ,12,000 for
the restoration of the west front of Peter-
borough, and say that ^400 will be enough ?
We are inclined to believe that we may do
so, moFe especially as it could scarcely cost
more than ,12,000 to build a modern copy
of the west front of Peterborough from the
ground. The Dean of Winchester is an
antiquary, which his brother of Peterborough
is not. In this latter fact, perhaps, lies the
explanation of the matter.

'fr $ $
The summer months have, as usual, been
taken advantage of for the annual meetings
and outdoor excursions of the different anti-
quarian societies. The Royal Archaeological
Institute met under adverse circumstances in
the midst of the General Election at Scar-
borough. The British Archaeological Asso-
ciation was more fortunate in this respect, as
it met at Stoke-on-Trent after the election
had been finished. In spite of the General
Election, the Scarborough meeting of the
Institute was an instructive and successful
meeting, although several of those who had
promised to take part in it were unable to
fulfil their obligations.

With regard to these summer excursions one
or two mistakes are wont to be made, which
it would be well if those having charge of the
arrangements would endeavour to avoid. In
the first place there is a tendency to attempt
too much, and so in the end the result is that
the programme has to be hurried through in
a very cursory and unsatisfactory manner.
This was the case with the excursion of the
Yorkshire Archaeological Society to Picker-

Online LibraryPhoebe PalmerThe Antiquary (Volume 31) → online text (page 45 of 67)