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ing and Lastingham, where the programme
provided work for quite a couple of days,
which had to be squeezed into six hours.
We hope such a mistake will not be made
again. As one of the local papers put it,
" When it came to endeavouring to carry out,
within a space of six hours, a programme
which included a drive to Lastingham, with

an exploration of the interesting old church
there as its object, a luncheon at the Black
Swan at Pickering, and a subsequent survey
of the castle ruins and the fine church at that
place, the party found that they had a task
the due performance of which was beyond
their powers. Owing to lack of time their
examination of the various places of interest
to which they were conveyed was of a some-
what hurried character, the visitors having
ever before their eyes the fear, first of being
late for luncheon, and secondly, missing the
return train home." This is very true, and
we would add that, so far as our experience
goes, the big mid-day meal at these Yorkshire
meetings always occupies too prominent a
place in the programme. It would be better
if there were less of the picnic and more of
archaeology at these meetings. The York-
shire Society does so much good work in its
publications that we suppose the summer
meeting is looked upon as more or less of a
piece of well-earned recreation. Nevertheless,
it is a mistake that this should be so, and
certainly the inclusion of an impossible
amount of work to be done ought to be

# <fa $?

Another mistake is that the printed ac-
counts of the history and archaeology of the
places to be visited, are sometimes not so
carefully and accurately prepared as they
should be. This, besides casting an element
of reproach on the work of the particular
society, is disastrous in many other respects.
As many persons like to preserve the annual
programmes, it is all the more necessary that
the information they contain should be as
accurate as possible.

$ 'fr $
Speaking of programmes, that issued by the
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland for
their Galway meeting at the beginning of July
last, strikes us as being in many respects a
model of what such a pamphlet should be
like. It consists of about a hundred pages
of printed matter, carefully compiled from
the best and most trustworthy sources of
information, and profusely illustrated. It
serves the double purpose of forming a guide
for use on the spot, as well as a useful hand-
book for after reference. The same society
has likewise made a new departure, by pub-



lishing, what we presume is to form, an exten-
sive series of antiquarian handbooks to various
parts of Ireland. The idea is excellent, and
the first number of the series is devoted to
Dunsany, Tara, and Glendalough. It is fully
illustrated, and is issued for the small sum of
sixpence. The Galway programme, we may
add, is sold at a shilling. The idea of the
series of antiquarian handbooks might well
be followed by many of the different local
societies in England.

4? & $

At the meeting of the Yorkshire Society, Mr.
W. H. St. John Hope pointed out that Leland,
and others following him, have erroneously
misidentified a tomb in the chancel of Picker-
ing Church as that of members of the Bruce
family. The error is really manifest, as the
arms sculptured on the surcoat of the knight
are those of Roucliffe, and not the Bruce
arms at all. It is curious that no one should
have corrected Leland's mistake long before

<& 4p 4?

We are glad to be able to record the forma-
tion of a new local society. In response to
an appeal from Mr. W. T. Vincent, author of
The Records of the Woolwich District, a
number of persons interested in the study of
archaeology met recently at the Town Hall,
Woolwich, and resolved on founding an
archaeological society to be known as the
Woolwich District Antiquarian Society. Mr.
Vincent was elected the first president of the
society, and Mr. Richard J. Jackson, of 40,
Lee Street, Plumstead, honorary secretary.
Letters of encouragement were received from
Lord Stanhope, president, and Mr. George
Payne, F.S.A., secretary of the Kent Archaeo-
logical Society. It is intended to hold ex
cursions during the summer, and meetings
for the reading and discussion of papers
during the winter months. We wish the
new society a long career of prosperity and
usefulness. Anyone wishing to join it should
communicate with Mr. Jackson. The first
excursion of the new society was to Darenth,
where Mr. Payne conducted the members
over the Roman villa. The pre-Norman
church at Darenth was also inspected.

4f 4? 4f

What is the origin of the word "dumb-bell" ?
We have no doubt this question has often

crossed the minds of many of our readers.
It would seem as if Chancellor Ferguson has
found the true answer to the question. In a
short paper in the Archceological Journal he
describes a curious object called the " dumb-
bell" at Knole, of which a photograph is
given. The object in question had a rope
attached to it, by means of which, in a lower
room, a person could virtually practise silent
bell-ringing, the weight of the absent bell
being arranged for by short iron bars with
knobs at their ends, which swing round as
a church-bell would. These iron bars and
knobs bear a strong likeness to the modern
dumb-bell, and it seems almost certain that
the latter must have originated in machines
similar to that still fortunately in existence at
Knole. The discovery is highly interesting
and curious, and we cannot do better than
refer our readers to the picture, as well as
to the verbal description by Chancellor Fer-
guson, which are to be found in the Archceo-
logical Journal, vol. lii., p. 45, recently issued.

4p 4p #

A correspondent at Leicester writes to us to
complain that, in spite of the protests raised
against such a piece of vandalism, the Jewry
Wall in that town has passed into the hands
of the Railway Company, and is to be de-
molished in order to enable the company to
build a new station. Cannot anything be
done, even at the eleventh hour, to avert this
disaster ? We should have imagined such a
piece of outrageous vandalism impossible in
England at the present day.

fr 4? 4?

The noteworthy pre - Reformation vicarage
at Alfriston, Sussex, is to be preserved to
the nation, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners
having consented to transfer the building for
a nominal sum to the newly-founded National
Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural
Beauty. The building, which is constructed
of oak framing, filled in with wattle and dab,
has a thatched roof, and is believed to have
been erected in the fourteenth century. It
is one of the few existing parsonages of
mediaeval date remaining in the country.
Thirty years or so ago two other ancient
parsonages were in existence at Chalvington
and Alciston, both villages being near
Alfriston. That at Chalvington was pulled
down and rebuilt ; and the vicarage at




Alciston was, at the time of which we speak,
occupied by a labourer as an ordinary cot-
tage. We are not aware whether it is still
standing or not. It was a low thatched
cottage, without an upper story.

<fr & *k

For several years past there has been arranged
by private enterprise at the annual meetings
of the Church Congress a loan exhibition of
ecclesiastical objects of antiquarian interest.
In more than one instance local archaeological
societies have informally assisted in obtaining
the loan of objects for the exhibition. For
the first time, however, in the history of the
collection, the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeo-
logical Society and the Suffolk Institute of
Arc/urology have jointly issued a circular, in
which they appeal for the loan of articles for
the exhibition at the ensuing Church Con-
gress at Norwich. Both counties (Norfolk
especially) are very rich in the possession of
articles of ecclesiological interest, and the
Loan Exhibition at the Norwich Church
Congress should, therefore, be of quite excep-
tional interest. The date of the Congress is
fixed for October 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11, during
which period the Loan Collection will be

In issuing the joint circular, the committees
of the two societies state that they have in
view the desirability of making the loan col-
lection representative of the Diocese of
Norwich, and on that ground they beg " to
invite clergy, churchwardens, and other cus-
todians or owners of ecclesiastical antiquities,
to co-operate by lending them for exhibition."
The committees draw attention to the special
provisions made by Mr. Hart (the promoter
of the Loan Collection) for the safety of the
articles on loan, which include the employ-
ment of a special watchman day and night.
The committee of the Norfolk and Norwich
Archceological Society undertake to see that
these provisions are duly carried out, and will
employ an additional watchman of their own.
It seems probable, therefore, that on the
present occasion the Loan Collection will be
of a very complete and important character.
The local secretary, it may be convenient to
add, is Mr. W. Heaver, Rampant Horse
Street, Norwich, to whom all communications
should be addressed.

fr C J? %f

While these Notes are passing through the press
the news has reached us of the death of Pro-
fessor George Stephens, of Copenhagen, at



the ripe age of eighty -three. Professor
Stephens's name has been so widely known
throughout Europe for a long period, that
anything more than a passing reference to his
great services to the study of archaeology
would be quite superfluous on the present
occasion. It is not often that a foreigner, (or,
at any rate, that an Englishman in a foreign
country), succeeds in establishing himself so
thoroughly in the country of his adoption as
Dr. Stephens did in Denmark, where, as
politician, poet, prose writer, and, above all,
as a profound antiquary, he gained a reputa-
tion for himself of which Englishmen have
felt a just pride. Of his great and many ser-
vices to the study of archaeology in general,
and of runes in particular, this is hardly the
place to speak, but it would scarcely be
fitting were no reference to be made to the loss
which archaeology has sustained in Professor
Stephens's death.

4? 4f 4

At a meeting of the Corporation of Bury St.
Edmunds, held on August 1 3, a petition was
presented by a number of representative
Jews in London and elsewhere, including
Dr. Adler (the chief rabbi), Messrs. Roths-
child, and others, praying the Corporation
to rescind their previous resolution to turn
Moyses Hall into a fire-engine station. The
building, which dates from the twelfth cen-
tury, is one of two or three ancient " Jews'
houses " remaining in England, and the best
preserved of all.

4f 4? 4?

We quote the following concerning Moyses
Hall from Mr. Murray's Handbook to Essex,
etc. (edit. 1875), P- T 34 :

" The Police station in the market-place,
known as Moyses Hall, seems to have been a
Jew's House, like that at Lincoln, which is
earlier. This is Trans. Norm, of the twelfth
century, and has an upper story, resting on
a vaulted substructure. The windows are
deeply recessed, and have seats. There seem
to have been no windows on the ground-
floor, and the upper part of the house has
been too much altered to allow of any cer-
tainty as to its plan. It may have been a
tower, of which the upper part has been

In a recent letter to the Daily Graphic
Mr. H. W. Brewer suggests, with much

probability, that Moyses Hall was originally a
synagogue, and if so, it is, as such, a building
of the very highest interest. We are glad to
learn that the Corporation decided to refer
the matter back to the committee, whose re-
port had been previously adopted.

JlSotes on tfje lonDon IBriDge

By E. Wyndham IIulme and Rhys Jenkins.


iHE sketch of Morris's engine as
given in the second edition of
John Bates' Mysteries of Nature
and Art, 1635, is here reproduced,
It will be seen that the undershot
waterwheel imparts, by means of a crank and
connecting-rod, a rocking motion to a disc by
which the pump rods are actuated. John
Bates' own description is, however, sufficiently
quaint and interesting to bear quotation in
full. He states : " Divers rivers there are,
which according unto their propinquity or
remoteness from their mother sea, run and
returne (I meane ebbe and flow) more or
lesse ; whose force and stream in some is of
its own accord, sufficient to mount its proper
water, as may be seene at the watermill or
engine neare the north end of London
Bridge ; which engine by the ebbing and
flowing of the Thames, doth mount the said
water unto the top of a Turret, and by that
meanes it is conveighed above two miles in
compasse for the use and service of that city.
Which engine I circumspectively viewed, as
I accidentally passed by, immediately after
the late fire that was upon the bridge Anno
1633, and the device seeming very good
when I came home I drew a modell thereof
and have here presented it to the view, a,
b, c, d, e, f, g, h, 1, k, l, m, doe signifie a
frame strongly made of timber, x, x. signifie
the water wheele, the gudgins of this wheele
must be set to turne in strong brasse sockets,
firmly set in the two middle beames of the
frame 1 K l m. The ends of the said gudgins
must be made to reach a good way over the



beames, and they must be made square
towards their ends, and have each a handle
pinned fast on. Then in the middle beames
j K L M must be likewise fastened another
strong wheele as p, which must have as it
were a spoak, reaching out from it upon the
lower side. There must also be another half
or 3 quarter wheele as < v >, placed directly
above it, whose Diameters must be of one
si/e or proportion ; directly under the utmost
edges of these wheeles must be firmly set two

an iron band, that must compasse the circum-
ference of the uppermost wheele noted Q : a
long and strong wooden barre must come
over the handle of the maine wheele, and
upon the spoake of the wheele P, the barre is
noted with r. n n n signifie the pipes where-
into the water is forced. These pipes carry
the water to the top of a turret neare adjoyn-
ing unto the engin, and there being strayned,
thorow a close wyer grate, it descendeth into
the main wooden pipe, which is laid along

strong barrels of brasse or iron, which is of
more durance, as w w having each of them
a succur cast with the barrels, these barrels
must be bound fast unto two posts of the
frame, with two strong yron bands as t t to
the end they may not stirre; unto each of
these must be fitted a force well leathered, ,
and in the tops of the forces must be set two
pieces of wood, two foot long, and about
two inches thick, and to the tops of them
must be linked two chaines of iron : which
must be linked straight up to the two ends of

the streets and into it are grafted divers
smaller pipes of lead, serving each of them to
the use and service of particular persons."

In 1666 the whole of these works were
again destroyed by fire down to the water
level, and from an Act passed in 1670 we
gather that the Water Tower still remained
unbuilt in spite of the express permission
contained in the Statute of 1667. It is pro-
bable that for some years at least the supply
was continued on a limited scale only.

We know that in addition to the first arch



of the bridge leased to Morris in 1582, the
Corporation had in 1584 granted a lease for
the second arch. In 1701 a lease for the
fourth arch was granted to the grandson of
the proprietor, who sold the concern to
Richard Soames for ,38,000 ; the latter
thereupon formed a company with a capital
of ,1 50,000. Probably it was at this time
that the next important step in the mechanical
engineering of the works, i.e., the installation
of Sorocold's machinery, was undertaken.
Very little is known of Mr. Sorocold, but he
appears to have been an engineer of some

Hatton's A New View of London, 1708,
vol. ii., p. 791, contains the following account
of the undertaking in its then state :

"London Bridge Water-work. The con-
trivance of that great English engineer, Mr.
Sorocold, whereby the Thames water is
raised from the N. end of the bridge to a
very great altitude, by which means many
parts of the City, etc., are served with Thames
water. The Plux and Reflux of the water
worketh the Engine. Here are several pro-
prietors who serve houses for the most part
at 20s. per ann., paid quarterly, and they

consequence in those days. Switzer in
describing the London Bridge machinery
{Hydrostatics and Hydraulics, 1729) speaks
of him as a good engineer, and Thoresby
tells us that at Leeds, in the year 1695, " tne
ingenious Mr. George Sorocold, the great
English engineer, constructed a water-engine
by means of which water was conveyed
through lead pipes to the several parts of the
town," and that he had done the like at
Macclesfield, Worksworth, Yarmouth, Ports-
mouth, Norwich, King's Lynn, London
Bridge, Deal, Bridgenorth, Islington new
works, and Bristol.

have proportionably more from Brewhouses,
etc., according to what they consume. To
this Company also belongs the works at
Broken Wharf, and the City Conduit Water.
The chief proprietors are Mr. Somes, Mr.
Jenkins, Mr. Stafford, Mr. Dunwell, Mr.
Gold, Mr. Dearing, etc. The old stock was
500 shares, and valued at 500/. per share,
since which those shares were divided into
1,500 shares, each valued at about 100/.
per share. They pay the City 700/. per
ann. for the Conduit Water, and about 10/.
per ann. for the Bridge : Also 300/. to Sir
Benj. Ayloff or his Assignees for the Broken



Wharf,* to which place 2 of the engines at
the bridge do work, and there are also at
that wharf 2 Horse- works. It is managed by
a Committee of 3 or upward, a Treasurer,
Supervisor, book - keeper, 4 Collectors, be-
sides that of the Conduits and 3 Turncocks.

"And besides the Old Work erected by
Mr. Morris, the new placed in the 4th arch
of the bridge consists of 2 wheels with 7
engines set up about the year 1702, so there
are in all 13 engines. They chiefly serve
Goodman's Fields, Minories, Houndsditch,
White Chapel, and Birchin Lane."

A very complete description and drawing
of the new plant by Henry Beighton is
to be found in vol. xxxvii. of the Philosophical
Transactions (1731)5 ft > s reproduced in
Pesagulier's Experimental Philosophy, 1744.
Altogether there appear at that time to have
been fifty-two pumps worked by four water-
wheels, one in the first, and three in the
third arch. The particular wheel described
by Beighton, and shown in Fig. 2, worked
sixteen pumps of 7 inches in diameter,
arranged in sets of four, through the inter-
vention of cog wheels and crank shafts having
four throws each. It was mounted so as to
be movable vertically upon a contrivance
invented by Hadley, of quadrant fame, by
whom it was patented in 1693, and which
had prior to this been applied at Worcester.
This device is stated by Beighton to have
been but seldom used, as the wheel would
run in almost any depth of water, and in any
direction according to the current.

Towards the end of the last century the
affairs of the company seem to have fallen
into a bad way. They suffered severely from
the competition of the New River Company,
their plant was becoming worn out, and the
power of their machinery was falling off partly
in consequence of the loss of head caused by
the removal of the centre pier of the bridge
in 1763. It was to compensate for this that
in 1767 a lease of the fifth arch was granted
to them ; they had obtained the third in
1 76 1. In this arch they erected machinery
designed by Smeaton and described in his

* The works at Broken Wharf had been started by
Sir Itevis Bulwer, who in 1593 had obtained a lease
for 500 years from the City authorities. He employed
chain-pumps worked by horses. Hatton also men-
tions the Millbank Waterworks and Merchants' Water-

reports as consisting of a water-wheel 32 feet
diameter by 15 feet 6 inches wide, and six
10-inch pumps of 4 feet 6 inches stroke.
They were also granted a lease of the second
arch on the south side of the bridge so that
they might supply the Borough without the
necessity of carrying pipes across the bridge,
which was found to suffer from the leakage
thereof. Just before this date there appear
to have been at least seven wheels and a
steam-engine at work.

In 1S17 a new iron water-wheel was
erected in place of one of the wooden ones,
and in 1822 the whole concern was de-
molished with old London Bridge, the New
River Company buying up the undertaking.
In excavating for the piers of the new bridge
various pieces of old pump work, which
somewhat resemble the plant described by
Bate, were brought to light. They are de-
scribed by a correspondent in the Mechanic's
Magazine in 1828 as consisting of two pump
barrels 5I inches in diameter, each furnished
with trunnions similar to a cannon for the
purpose of securing them in their places, and
with the valves seated in separate chambers.
With the barrels was found a large square
iron shaft which appeared to have carried a
cross-arm, to each end of which one of the
pump-rods was attached, the journals of which
were much worn on the under side as if
from having performed a reciprocating move-
ment in an arc of about 90 . It would be
interesting to know what became of these
relics, which, even if they did not belong to
the original engine of Morris, were certainly
examples of very early mechanical construc-
tion. Morris's success in pumping up the
river water soon led to many imitations.
Bevis Bulwer, at Broken Wharf, between
Blackfriars and Southwark Bridges, erected
in 1594 chain pumps worked by horse-gear.
Later on there were other pumping plants
worked by horse-gear near Somerset House
and at Millbank. The York Buildings works
also pumped from the river, and it is there
that the first steam-engine introduced into
London appears to have been erected.

[It should have been stated in the preceding
article that the illustration accompanying it is a re-
production of a part of a drawing in the I'epys Collec-
tion at Magdalen College, Cambridge, taken from an
engraving in Thomson's Chronicles of London Bridge.
The original drawing dates from about the year 1600 ;



it is in pen and ink, with colouring, on vellum.
It will be found reproduced in its entirety, from a
photo-chromo-lithograph made for the New Shakspere
Society, in the illustrated edition of Green's Short
History of the English People. ]

jFurtfcer H3ote0 on a^anr

By A. W. Moore, M.A.

Author of Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man ;
Diocesan History o/Sodor and Man ; Folklore 0/ the Isle
of Man, etc.

Chapter IV. {continued). Mermaids and


The Mermaids' Jewels.

]T was supposed that the sunlight
flashes on the ripples of the wave-
lets, as they broke on the pebbly
beach, were the jewels of the
mermaids, and that when the ripples
thus sparkled the shore could not be ap-
proached by any marauder who intended
to injure the inhabitants, as the mermaids
had protected it by their spells. It is the
sense of protection conveyed by this spell
that is referred to in the verse "Ben
Varry* hath bound the broad beach with a
chain," in the poem of Cutlar Macculloch.
Let us not suppose from the story of the
" Mermaid's Revenge "t that the loves of
mortals and mermaids always ended un-
happily, as near the Niarbyl there still lives
an old fisherman who told people that he
used to meet a mermaid who sang to him
"most beautiful " when she visited him, and
that she had told him that she had married
a man she had taken a fancy to. He did
not, however, know the man. (C. Roeder.)

The Bloody Sea.

The following story, taken from the lips of
an old Dalby man not long dead, also treats
of the affectionof a mermaid for a man which
ended beneficifrry :

" They're sayin' that there's things takin' in
the say as well as on Ian' ! Meermaids they're
callin' them mostly. Tho' there's odds of
men among them too I've hard. I've a mind
of a story about them, an oul' story that you're

* " Woman of the Sea," or Mermaid.
+ Folklore of the Isle 0/ Man, pp. 68, 69.

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