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Careswall.
Leigh.

Felde Chappell.

Draycott in the Mores.

Alleton.

Chedull.

Grotwiche.

Uttoxator.

8. Grendon.
Oncotte Chapell.
Bromshell.
Oker.
Alstonffelde.



Publications ant) proceetiinrjs of
archaeological Societies.



PUBLICATIONS.
Part III. of the fifth volume (new series) of the
Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society
has been issued. It contains an anonymous paper on
"Some Essex County Families," "The Abbeys of
Coggeshall and Stratford Langthorne," by Mr.
Round, as well as a very useful collection of Essex
field-names by Mr. W. C. Waller. The value of this
list would be greatly enhanced if the dates were given
in brackets with the names. As we see that the list
is to be continued for the other Essex hundreds, we
hope some means of adopting our suggestion may be



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



279



found to be possible. Mr. Waller has been wise
enough to resist the temptation to guess at the mean-
ings and derivations of the names.

*$ $ *>

We have received a copy of the third part of the
Portfolio of the Monumental Brass .Society. It
is a pleasure to be able to commend such a good work
as that done by this new society, which deserves all
the cordial support of antiquaries. The part just
issued contains photo lithographed rubbings of the
brasses of Reynard Alard (matrix only), 1354, at
Winchelsea ; of a priest at Crondall, Hants, c. 1 370 ;
of Sir William de Burgate and his wife Alianora,
at Burgate, Suffolk, 1409 ; of John Lambarde, his
wife Anne, and their family, at Hinxworth, Herts,
1487 ; and of Richard Payton and his wife Mary, at
Isleham, Cambridgeshire, 1574. We hope the
society will receive the support it deserves, until
every known brass has been reproduced in the Port-
folio. The plates measure 17 inches by II inches,
and the photo-lithographs are the work of Mr. Griggs,
which is in itself a sufficient guarantee of their excel-
lence. Mr. O. T. Charlton, 1, Eldon Square, New-
castle-on-Tyne, is the treasurer of the society, and
from him copies of the Portfolio can be obtained.

PROCEEDINGS.

Owing to an accident, the following account of the
excursions of the Cardiff Naturalists' Society
did not reach us in time for insertion in the August
number of the Antitpiary. It contains so much in-
formation worthy of being placed on permanent
record, that we have no hesitation in giving it in full
in the present number, although as a mere piece of
"news it may be a little out of date. On June 11
the Archaeological Section of the society made its first
whole day excursion. Under the leadership of Mr.
W. Riley, an enthusiastic local antiquary, the party
first visited Coity Church, near Bridgend, an aisleless
cruciform building, with central tower, wholly, or
almost wholly, rebuilt during the Decorated period.
This church has several unusual features. The cross-
ing is narrower than the nave, and the wall on each
side of the arch between the latter and the former is
perforated with a small pointed arch, about 2 feet
wide, and 3 feet from the ground, opening into the
transepts. Their probable use was to allow of people
in the north-east and southeast angles of the nave
seeing the high altar. The transepts were used as
chapels, and both contain piscinas and squints into
the chancel. In the north transept is a remarkable
flight of stone steps to a former rood-loft. The stone
steps are supported on a flying recessed arch, the
voussoirs of which are built into the west wall. A
passing glance was then given to the adjacent castle,
one of the chief mediaeval strongholds of Glamorgan.
It was originally built in the Norman period, but the
oldest work noticed was Early English, while the
keep and the gatehouse are still more recent. Thence
the party proceeded to Pen-yr-allt, where were in-
spected the taM base of a pre-Norman cross, and in
the valley hard by a portion of an iron furnace, re-
puted to be mediaeval, or even older, but in the
opinion of many present not older than the last
century. A halt was next made at Llangynwyd



Church. This church (which has recently been over-
restored, as unfortunately seems to be the rule in
Glamorgan) is smaller and architecturally inferior to
that of Coity. The rood-loft steps are still intact
within a broad external projection of the north wall
of the nave. The piscina takes the form of a short
pillar, the engaged capital containing the basin, and
the octagonal disengaged shaft the drain. Until the
recent restoration, a large portion of the basin had
long been preserved in the church, and its former use
was unknown. It is probable, however, that origin-
ally the shaft was engaged, having a semi- octagonal
section. On the west wall of the nave are two fine
sepulchral slabs, probably of thirteenth-century date.
On each is incised a plain calvary. On the smaller
may be faintly traced crossed keys, twice repeated on
the shaft of the cross, and in the space on the left, a
chalice. The larger stone is quite 7 feet high, and is
remarkable in having the central cross flanked with
two smaller crosses, growing, as it were, out of the
foot of the shaft. This church contains several
massive oak seats, coeval, apparently, with the present
building (Perpendicular) ; one was removed, with
very doubtful taste, to the Cardiff Museum during the
restoration. On each side of the apex of the chancel
arch is a deeply- recessed quatrefoil. During the drive
several barrows, rectangular intrenched spaces, and
many curious trenches were observed on Mynydd
Baidan. The latter reappeared at widely distant
points during the drive round this elevated tract, and
the most feasible conjecture was that they related to
one prehistoric fortress on a very large scale.

On the 26th the society made their annual field-
meeting. Arriving at Abergavenny, the castle and the
priory church were briefly inspected, the latter under
the guidance of the vicar, Rev. Canon Capel, who
described the interior before the restoration, about
twenty years ago. The nave had been rebuilt early in
the century, and so very few vestiges of the older
fabric remained, that the present nave has little in
common with it, beyond standing on the old founda-
tions. The choir with its chapels exhibits work of
various periods, beginning with late Norman. The
Herbert Chapel contains a remarkably fine series of
altar tombs, but they all stand in need of judicious
restoration ; and there is some excellent Perpendicular
oak screen-work and stalls, including the base of a
huge Jesse-tree. A halt was next made at the ex-
tremely interesting church of Llantillio rertholey,
which has recently been restored, judiciously on the
whole. This church has a very irregular plan, and
contains work ranging from Early English to late
Perpendicular. On the north side of the chance! is
a small chamber, about 10 feet long, with groined
roof, known as the Neville Chapel. Across its
eastern end is an altar, the slab of which was found a
few years ago, and is now restored to its former
place ; and immediately on the right is an arched
recess in the chancel wall, about 6 feet long and 2
wide. As this recess penetrates into the east wall, it
has given rise to a belief that formerly it was con-
tinued to the exterior, and served as the opening
through which " dole - bread was given to poor
persons, possibly lepers, who were not permitted to
enter the church.' There is, however, a large
buttress of Early English character on the external



z8o



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



face, exactly where the hypothetical opening should
be ; if, therefore, it ever existed, it must have pre-
ceded the erection of the buttress, but this chapel is
certainly of much later dale. There is no reason to
doubt that the recess was for a tomb, and a very
slight insjiection is sufficient to show that, in order to
gam the requisite length, it had to be extended into
the east wall. A very remarkable perhaps unique
feature of this church are the elaborately carved
timber arches with their jambs into the Wernddu and
the Friley Chapels. They are shallow, Tudor in
character, and with bold enriched cusps. The Vicar,
Rev. A. F. Hogan, has compiled a little brochure,
illustrated with two lithographic plates, upon the
history and architecture of this church, an example
which might be followed with advantage in the case
of many other village churches. The next halt was
at the unfrequented and very inaccessible church of
St. Ishow the Martyr, at Patrirhow. The main
structure is small, and has few architectural features.
It seems to have been wholly rebuilt late in the Per-
pendicular period, since which time it has undergone
few alterations, a matter to be thankful for, as also
that it has not yet come under the restorer's hand.
The glory of this little fane is its almost perfect rood-
screen and loft (4 feet wide), a delicate and rich
specimen of carved wood, probably contemporary
with the building. It is entered by a flight of stone
steps within a projection of the north wall, precisely
as that of Llangynwyd. On each side of the doorway
of the rood-screen is a stone altar, with the original
slabs, the one 4 feet 4 inches, by 1 foot 7 inches, and
the other 5 feet 5 inches, by 2 feet 4 inches. In the
porch, and on the right-hand side of the doorway into
the church, is a holy-water stoup of simple form.
The font is probably of the twelfth century, and bears
an inscription : " Menhir me fecit I tepore Genillin."
Both the font and its inscription have been a matter
of some controversy, as may be readily seen by a
reference to past volumes of Arcfuiologia Cambrcnsis.
Genyllin Voel (Genyllin the Bald) was lord of
Ystradwy and Powis (in the former of which is Patris-
how) in the middle of the eleventh century. On
the walls are some quaint post- Reformation paintings
and inscriptions Of equal interest with the rood-
screen is a western appendage to the nave, known as
the Old Chapel. It has its own doorway (on the
south side), and has no traces of communication with
the nave, beyond a small square opening (now
stopped) above its altar. This altar, which is still
intact, is not in the centre of the east wall, but at the
south end, while the space between it and the oppo-
site end is occupied by a large cinquefoil - headed
niche, apparently for the figure of a saint. At the
opposite end of the chamber is a modern fireplace,
which possibly may have replaced an ancient one.
Sir Richard Glynne, however, who visited the place
in 1836, makes no mention of a fireplace. The roof
is lofty and prettily constructed, and the general
architecture is of somewhat earlier type than that of
the church. Various conjectures have been made as
to the purpose of this chamber, but that of the late
Mr. Bloxam is the most probable. He regarded it as
a reclusorium (Anhirologia Cambrensis). Close by
the church is a brook, known as Nant Mair (Mary's
Brook), and on its bank is St. Ishow's Well, enclosed



on three sides by walls, in which are niches to receive
offerings. Well may the programme for the expedi-
tion remark, " Such a museum of antiquities of every
age as Patrishow should be scheduled as a national
monument, and so left untouched ; and if a new
church be required, it should be built thereby !"
+$ *$ +$

The annual meeting of the General Committee of the
Palestine Exploration Fund was held in
July. The report of the year's work includes an
account of the excavations at Jerusalem, which have
resulted in the discovery of an ancient wall running
south of the present city wall down towards the
eastern valley, where at a point south of the Pool of
Siloam it turns towards the north. In this wall
several towers and two gateways of great interest were
found. It is yet too early to say with any degree of
certainty what is the age of this wall, and it is hoped
that the excavations now being carried on will throw
more light upon it. Herr Baurath von Schick also
reports the discovery of a stair and postern in the old
north wall of Jerusalem, between Damascus Gate and
the north-western corner of the city. Another dis-
covery of importance is that of a Latin inscription of
the period of Trajan built into the wall of Neby Dafld.
In the spring of the year Dr. Bliss, who is in charge
of the work of the Fund, made a journey to the
country of Moab, visiting Madeba, Kerak, and other
places of historical interest, in the course of which he
discovered remains of an ancient Roman fort and
a Roman town, the existence of which does not appear
to have been previously observed. Thus the year has
been remarkably fruitful in discoveries and observa-
tions of importance, affording proof, if any were
needed, of the continued usefulness of the Fund, and
the desirability of prosecuting its further labours with
energy and zeal.

+ *

The annual summer excursion of the Yorkshire
Archaeological Society took place on August 1,
Lastingham and Pickering being the places visited.
At Lastingham the members were met by the Vicar,
the Rev. J. S. Salman, and within the church an
interesting description of the history of the edifice
was given by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A.,
assistant secretary of the Society of Antiquaries,
London, who acted as guide during the day. Mr.
Hope indicated that Lastingham is one of the earliest
centres of Christianity in the north of England. It
was known to the monks of Iona and Lindisfarne,
and according to Bede a church of stone was in exist-
ence at the end of the seventh century. The site of
this ancient building is to the west of the present
church, the erection of which was begun with the
advent of certain monks from Whitby in the year
1078. The intention of the Whitby monks was to
erect a monastery, and they began to build on the
usual system of providing a monastic church in which
the parish should have an altar. They first built a
crypt, over which they raised the eastern part of the
church. After completing the presbytery, however,
and building the four pillars for the tower, they were
called away to York, leaving their work incomplete.
This was in 1088, and the parishioners, taking pos-
session of the unfinished church, converted it into a



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



281



parish church by walling in three sides of the large
square which marks the site of the centre tower. So
that, said Mr. Hope, the monastic church was never
finished, and the story that it had been destroyed soon
after its erection by some terrible visitation was un-
true. In the next century the church was enlarged,
arches being thrown through the side wall of the
presbytery and the aisles built, and in the fifteenth
century the tower was added, the remainder of the
work having been carried out in recent times. Mr.
Hope stated that documentary history definitely fixed
the date of the building of the presbytery as between
1078 and 1088, so that the church was exceedingly
valuable as a dated specimen of English architecture.
Among other things to which he drew the attention
of the visitors were the capitals of the short stumpy
pillars that support the crown of the roof. Two of
these strongly resemble a very rude and debased sort
of Corinthian capital, and this fact, he urged, went to
prove that far from having been an importation from
the Continent, Norman architecture was a lineal de-
scendant of the Saxon, just as the Saxon was a de-
scendant of the Roman architecture. The Saxon
architects and builders took as their models the
Roman remains which they found in this country, and
this accounted for the presence in their work of so
many classical details. Before leaving the church
the visitors explored the crypt, which is reached by a
flight of steps from the nave, and consists of nave,
aisle, and apse, lighted by lancets from the east.
The return journey to Pickering was accomplished by
way of Appleton and Sinnington, and after luncheon
an adjournment was made to the castle ground, where
a full and luminous description of the old fortress was
given by Mr. Hope. He stated that Pickering Castle
represents that type of Anglo Saxon fortress which is
of Norman masonry upon an English earthwork. It
consists of a great mound, with a shell-keep on the
top, and earthworks joined on to it, and one pecu-
liarity about the mound is that it stands in the centre
of the castle, instead of at the side, or in some more
commanding position. In the time of Edward the
Confessor Pickering belonged to Earl Morcar, and
was afterwards held by the King. King John visited
it three times, and Richard II. was imprisoned in it
before his removal to Pontefract. The castle was
dismantled during the Civil Wars. The party then
proceeded to the church of St. Peter, which was
reached only about half an hour before the time for
the departure of the special train which was to convey
the party to Malton. Mr. Hope's remarks, conse-
quently, had to be considerably curtailed. After
giving a brief description of the architectural history
of the church, which, although Norman style, had, he
said, evidently had a Saxon predecessor, he drew
attention to the effigies which lie in the chancel. One
is that of a knight, who is proved by the arms on his
surcoat to be of the Bruce family, and close by is an
alabaster bust of another fine effigy of an unknown
knight of later date, wearing a collar of s s. In the
vestry are a fine pair of figures a knight and his wife
lying on a tomb of alabaster of a date about 1380
or 1390. Mr. Hope pointed out that Iceland had
represented these to be persons of the family of Bruce,
and that his mistake had been perpetuated by a
printed label on the effigies. The figure of the knight,
VOL. XXXI.



however, has his arms sculptured upon his surcoat,
and these show unquestionably, as Mr. Hope pointed
out, that he was one of the family of Roucliffe, which
flourished in the fourteenth century, and was not a
Bruce at all. The Rev. G. H. Lightfoot, the Rector
of Pickering, then briefly described the series of wall-
paintings, which were originally discovered some
years ago during a " restoration " of the church, but
were subsequently covered up. During Mr. Light-
foot's incumbency they have been carefully uncovered
again and repaired.



*$ +$



**



On July 23 the Archaeological Institute had
previously visited Lastingham and Pickering, and on
that occasion Mr. J. Bilson of Hull took the oppor-
tunity of dispelling a good deal of erroneous miscon-
ception as to the history, character, and date of
Lastingham Church. An idea prevails in the locality
that it is "a church built upon a church"; that one
day, ever so many centuries ago, the whole church
bodily subsided, and that as it was impossible to raise
it, the good church-folk of those times erected a new
building over it. It is a pity to destroy so pretty a
legend, which, however, is based solely upon the fact
that undtr the church is a very fine crypt. As was
explained by Mr. Bilson, a monastery, according to
Bede, was founded at Lastingham by Bishop Cedd
about the year 660. Cedd was succeeded by his
brother Chad, who became Bishop of York, and
afterwards Bishop of Lichfield. Before Bede wrote,
the earliest church had been replaced by a stone
church, and the body of the founder, Cedd, was buried
on the right side of the altar. No remains whatever
of either Cedd's church or of any pre - Conquest
church now exists. In nearly all the printed accounts
the history of the structure has been entirely mis-
understood or misrepresented, the only exception
being a hint of the real story contained in Professor
Freeman's Notes in the North Riding. A " terrible
visitation " has been conjectured in order to account
for the twelfth-century alterations, but this " terrible
visitation " is a fiction which may be relegated to the
same category as the alleged underground passage
from this church to Rosedale a distance of eight
miles. The real story of the structure must be looked
for in the building itself as explained by the account
of the foundation of St. Mary's Abbey, York,
attributed to Stephen of Whitby. This account tells
us that Stephen left or seceded from Whitby with a
following of monks, and began to erect the buildings
of a monastery at Lastingham, which was formerly
the habitation of monks, though then vacant. This
happened after 1078, and it is clear that the works at
Lastingham were abandoned when Stephen founded
the Abbey of St. Mary, York, in 1088. The plan of
the church begun by the monks consisted of an aisle-
less presbytery of one square bay, with a narrower
bay and an apse to the east, a central tower over the
crossing, north and south transepts without aisles, but
probably 'with an apsidal chapel on the eastern side of
each, and a nave with north and south aisles. A
crypt extended under the whole of the presbytery in-
cluding' the apse. Of this plan Mr. Bilson suggested
that little more was completed beyond what now re-
mains, viz., the presbytery and apse with the cryp

2 O



282



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.




THE CRYPT, LASTINGHAM CHRUCH (1879).
From a Photograph by the Rev. R. Y. Whytehead.



beneath, the piers of the crossing, and so much of the
transept walls and nave arcades as was necessary to
provide abutment for these piers. After the monks
'eft, three sides of the crossing were walled in to con-
vert this fragment of a monastic church into a parish
church. Its subsequent alterations are those usual in
a parish church. Late in the twelfth century aisles
were added to what had become the nave of the parish
church, with arcades inserted in the side walls. In
the fourteenth century the south aisle was widened,
and in the Perpendicular period the western tower
was built and windows inserted in the north aisle.
* *

Speaking of the crypt, Mr. Bilson said that these
early crypts must not be confounded with the class of
ossuaries or bone-holes to which most later church
crypts belong. This crypt is a confessio of the type
to which the early crypts of Canterbury, Hexham,
Kipon, and others belong, as also the great Norman
crypts of Winchester, Gloucester, and Worcester.
They were intended originally to receive the bodies of
martyrs or saints, the tomb being placed immediately
under the high altar of the church. The western part
of the crypts at Lastingham is divided into three aisles
by low piers, the shafts of which taper slightly, and
the capitals of which are of very interesting design.
The whole crypt is vaulted, the western part being
groined with square transverse arches, but without



ribs. The crypt contains several fragments of pre-
Conquest crosses, a sixteenth-century bier, and other
objects of interest.

* + +

At the monthly meeting of the Newcastle Society
of Antiquaries, held on July 31, the discovery of
two early gravestones at Castle Eden Church, during
restoration, was announced in letters from the vicar
and from Mr. C. Hodgson Fowler, F.S.A., the archi-
tect, after which Dr. Hodgkin read an interim report
of the excavations at Aesica as follows : " The opera-
tions of this season at Aesica)have been very successful,
though the resources of the fund have been slender.
The committee, acting on the advice of Mr. Mackay,
decided to entrust the superintendence of the excava-
tions to Mr. Thomas Smith, of Sunniside, who lives
within a mile of Great Chesters, and who was often
over the ground with Dr. Bruce. Their selection has
been abundantly justified by the result. In the eight
weeks that the excavations have been in progress, the
guard-chamber on the east of the sunken gateway, the
whole line of the western wall, and its junction with
the wall at the north-west corner of the camp have
been laid bare. The most interesting feature in the
camp as yet disclosed is the magnificent western gate-
way which had been in Roman times so effectually
walled up that both Dr. Bruce and Captain Mac-
laughlan even doubted its existence. It is now clear,



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



2S3



however, that there was a gateway here with that
massive masonry which we have learned to associate
with the works of the Antonine Emperors. This gate-
way has been destroyed, doubtless at the time of some
incursion of the barbarians. Later on, probably
about the time of Severus, another has been erected,
some 8 or 10 feet above the original one. The
primary and secondary strata of the camp are here
marked with unusual distinctness by the pivot-holes of
the gates which are found at the two different levels
mentioned above. There has, then, apparently been
another destruction of the camp and another rebuild-



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