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is popularly believed to have obtained the
name of Walkinwoe Well.

spital : st. Anthony's well.

There stood formerly a hospital, which is
said to have been endowed with the lands of
Spittal, Spittal Gill and Mill, Head-dykes
and Langrigs, all in its neighbourhood.
This hospital and a fine well attached to it
were dedicated to St. Anthony, the patron
and protector of the lower animals. Accord-
ing to tradition, this well was famous for its
cure of diseases to which horses are subject,
particularly the staggers. It was customary
in the olden time to take horses to it to
drink of its water, and to carry it away to a
considerable distance for the same purpose.

st. Laurence's well.

In the western end of the same parish
there was a chapel and well whose tutelar
saint was Laurence. There is, however, no
tradition regarding its medicinal or curative

avendale: ST. OSWALD.

In the south-eastern part of the adjacent
parish of Avendale, and in the neighbour-
hood of Bradewood Castle (now Castle-
brocket), there was a chapel and accompany-
ing spring dedicated in honour of St. Oswald.
The well still exists, and at times boils or
bubbles up in a very peculiar manner. It is
now called St. Oissin's Well, or Spring, and
still sends forth a copious supply of clear
pellucid water.


A well in the town of Strathaven, on the
banks of the rivulet Pomilion, opposite the
castle, was dedicated in honour of St. Anne,
and is now called the Tansy Well. It
appears to have been connected with the
old parish church which stood in the grave-
yard not far from it, and was dedicated in
honour of the Virgin Mary.

{To be continued.)



Publications anD proceedings of
arcbrcological Societies.


The third part of the volume for 1894 of the SHROP-
SHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL Transactions, just issued
to members, contains a further portion of the history
of Selattyn, with pedigrees of Stanney and Ireland,
by the Hon. Mrs. Bulkeley - Owen ; a history
of Shelvock, by Mr. K. Lloyd Kcnyon ; " Suit
l>ctween the Abbot of Shrewsbury and the Burgesses
of the Town in the matter of the Mills, 1306-7," by
the Rev. C. H. Drink water ; "Architectural History
of St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury, with ground-plans
of the Church in the Norman period and at the pre-
sent time," by the Venerable Archdeacon Lloyd ;
"Grant by Henry VIII. to Edward Higgyns, of the
Deanery of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, 1513"; and
" History of Shrewsbury Hundred, Leaton and
Longner," by the late Rev. J. B. Blakeway, F.S.A.,
edited by the Rev. W. G. D*. Fletcher, F.S.A. The
part also contains an account of the annual meeting
and excursion, with papers by Dr. Calvert on the
" History of the Old Shrewsbury School Buildings'";
by Mr. George Luff on " Penywern Hill," with
explanatory map ; and also a brief account of the
visit of the Royal Archaeological Institute to Shrews-
bury. The whole volume issued to members during
1894 contains 444 pages. There are twenty papers
in it, and fourteen illustrations.

^ *>$

Vol. III., No. 7, of the Quarterly Journal of the
Berks Archaeological and Architectural
Society has been issued. It contains, besides an
account of the meetings of the society, a continuation
of Lady Russell's paper on " Swallowcliffe and its
Owners"; also a continuation of "Early Berkshire
Wills," with some interesting local information in
them. Mr. Nathaniel Hone also continues his tran-
scripts, or, we should say, translations, of " Berkshire
Court- Rolls," which contain a great deal of valuable
information. Following these papers are several
shorter " notes " relating to Berkshire. The number,
though a thin one, is fully up to the mark. We
presume that it would have been thicker if the society
were composed of more members. Surely the " Royal
County " ought to support its excellent Archaeological
Society better than it does.

^ + +

Vol. XXII., Pt. I, of the Associated Societies Reports
and Papers for 1893 nas been issued. The Lincoln
and Nottingham section contains : " A Ramble
through the Parish of St Margaret within-the-Close,"
by the Rev. A R. Maddison ; "Architectural Notes
on the Churches visited by the Members at their Meet-
ing at Melton Mowbray in 1893," Dv Precentor Ven-
ables (why do they not keep to their own counties,
and endeavour to stir up a little enthusiasm for archae-
ology in Nottinghamshire ?) ; " An Account of Roman
Remains lately found in Lincoln," by Dr. W. O'Neill ;
and " Feudal Castles and their Development into
Mansions," by Mr. G. W. S. Jebb. The Northampton

and Oakham Society's portion contains a valuable
paper by Sir Henry Dryden on "Two Sculptures in
Brixworth Church," which are illustrated by plates ;
andoneon "A British Sarcophagus," by the Rev. R. S.
Baker ; while the Worcester portion contains a paper
on "Worcester Doomsday," by Mr. J. Willis-Bund ;
and another on " Worcestershire Place-Names," by
the Rev. Hamilton Kingsford. The Leicestershire
|x>rtion contains transcripts of some valuable " Docu-
ments relating to Leicestershire Churches and Parishes
from the Lincoln Episcopal Registers " ; and also a
paper by the Rev. R. Blakeney on " Melton Mowbray
Church." The Yorkshire Architectural Society, one
of the " Associated Societies," seems to have become
practically moribund, and though two meml>ers were
elected in 1893, the number of subscribing (30)
members scarcely exceeds the number of the society's
rules, and even this short list of members' names and
addresses does not seem to have been corrected
of late. The society has a balance of about ^56 in
the bank. Surely something might be done.


A meeting of the Cambridge Antiquarian Socie 1 y
was held on Noveml>er 26, when

Professor Hughes exhibited and described a collec-
tion of pottery from a new locality near Great Ches-
terford, which proved the extension of the Roman
rubbish pits, a quarter of a mile further to the north
than the large gravel pit near the camp, from which
most of the remains hitherto recorded had been pro-
cured. He had once seen three large amphoras,
which were said to have been found on the hill to the
north-east of Chesterford, but he had no information
as to the circumstances of that find, nor as to any
other objects found associated with. them. The dis-
covery to which he now drew attention was made
somewhat by accident. He had drawn attention to
the hole from which the objects were procured as an
example of an artificial excavation filled with made
earth as distinguished from some natural pipes in the
same gravel pit, and challenged his companions to
put his assertion to the test. A short search dis-
closed the remains of domestic animals and pottery.
The specimens were of such interest, both intrinsi-
cally and on account of their locality, that he had
asked the owners, Messrs. Wale, Joyce, Tod and
Berry, to allow him to exhibit them to the Society,
and record the discovery.

Among the objects found was a portion of a vessel
in soft red paste, with a strong black lustre glaze, on
which was moulded a female figure kneeling. The
drawing was so bad, as compared with that in the
Samian ware, that he felt inclined to suggest that
this must have been the production of an unskilled
native artist imitating better work. There were at
least six drinking cups with pinched sides, some with
ornament in relief and some with more, some with
less, lustre. There was also a red ware vessel in
shape like a flower-pot saucer on a stand, and adapted,
as were several of those previously found at Great
Chesterford, to receive a similar-shaped vessel which
formed its lid. as nowadays the covers of entre'e dishes
are sometimes adapted for independent use. There



were also some good pieces of Samian ware. One
basin had the potter's mark, but this was, unfor-
tunately, illegible, owing to the imperfection of the
stamp. Another piece of Samian is a fragment of
a very fine mortarium in which a portion of the
roughened interior surface is preserved, while a lion's
head, perforated through the mouth, formed the
spout. There was also a portion of the rim of one of
the ordinary mortaria in rough yellow ware, and two
shallow pans in shape like flower- pot saucers. The
fragments of black earthenware belong to common
forms. Professor Hughes remarked that in this case
there was a larger proportion of better class highly
ornamented ware than was generally found in the
pits along the west side of the camp, and he thought
that, whatever the place may originally have been,
and whenever the earthworks were first thrown
up, all the remains found about Great Chesterford
pointed to the existence of a permanent Roman town
rather than to a temporary military station, though
there may have be^n, of course, first of all a camp
thrown up by the advancing legionaries. He had
not as yet found evidence of the occupation of the
area by any pre-Roman people. He believed that
Roman camps, properly so called, were rare, but that
Roman towns, villages, and villas, were common, and
that these were sometimes surrounded by a bank and
moat, as were the granges of later times. The
Romans adopted the rectangular form for their towns,
as they did by rule for their camps, where the natural
features or pre-existing works did not make some
other arrangement more convenient. So also in the
case of the moated granges of later times, the square
form is most common, but is modified wherever the
bend of a watercourse or facility of digging suggested
another outline.

In reply to a question by the President, Professor
Hughes said that he did not attach much importance
to the name Chester, especially when combined with
a word derived from another language as in Chester-
ford. He thought the Castra of the Romans may
have given rise to the Ceastre of the Saxons, but that
they did not confine the name to places where there
had been a Roman camp. On a matter of this kind,
however, he would refer to Professor Skeat, who he
was glad to say was present. Professor Skeat spoke
in confirmation of the above view. Mr. R. A. S.
Macalister, B. A., read a communication " On some
Antiquities discovered in the Neighbourhood of
Bandy-leg Walk " ; and the Secretary (Mr. Atkin-
son) " On a recently discovered Bridge over the
King's Ditch."

+$ +

At the November meeting of the Newcastle Society
ok Antiquaries the Incorporated Company of the
Plumbers, Glaziers, and Pewterers of Newcastle pre-
sented to the Society's Museum an iron cannon ball
17^ inches in diameter, found in 1700 during repairs
in the walls of Madon Tower, their meeting- place.
Mr. Forster, the secretary of the company, in a letter
to Mr. J. Pliilipson, said that at " a meeting of the
company held some while ago it was unanimously
resolved, in order that this interesting memento might
be preserved, that it should be handed over to the
.Society of Antiquaries." Mackenzie (Newcastle,

p. no) thus speaks of it : "A gilded ball, suspended
from the centre of the meeting-room, probably had
been shot from the cannon of the Scottish army during
the great siege of the town in 1644, and having lodged
in the wall, was discovered on the alteration of the
tower. The outside of the adjoining wall bears marks
of this memorable siege." The ball does not now
bear any trace of gilding. And at the same meeting
the Roman Wall Excavation Committee exhibited the
necklet consisting of four silver chains fastened at the
back and with the oval pendant in front, which had
been so cleverly removed from the back of one of the
fibulae and disentangled by Mr. Gibson, the castle

Dr. Embleton read a paper " On the Quigs' Burial
Ground," which led to a discussion, in which Mr.
Maberly Phillips and Mr. Holmes took part. Mr.
Holmes has since added some particulars as to the
"Nun's Moor" at Newcastle. He says: "It is
curious how the name Nun's Moor should have been
transferred from the original site to where it is now
located by naming the enclosure the ' Nun's Moor
Park.' According to the early records, and down to
the publishing of the Freeman's Pocket Companion in
1817, the Nun's Moor is shown to occupy the angle
made by the North Fenham and Kenton boundaries,
and a line drawn between the Cow Gate and the
Coxlodge boundary, which formed the march between
it and the Town Moor at that time. In 1487 Joan
Baxter, prioress of the nuns of St. Bartholomew of
Newcastle, granted a lease of the Nun's Moor to the
Corporation for 100 years, and the ground is thus
described : ' All that piece or parcel of land called the
Nun's Moor as it lyeth betwixt the fields called the
Castle Moor on the east and south parts, the fields
of Fenham on the west part, and the fields of Kenton
on the north part.' Now on the Free/nail's Pocket
Companion map the Fenham grounds are shown as
extending beyond the Cow Gate northwards, until
they reach the extreme north-west angle of the Moor.
The boundaries of the Castle Moor are described in
an inquisition taken in the reign of King James I., as
' beginning at the Sick Man's House on the south, and
so extending to the fields of Jesmond on the east to
a certain corner there, and from thence turning west-
wards to the gate leading from Newcastle to Morpeth,
and so on westward near the limits of Coxlodge on
the north to the corner of the Nun Moor : on the west
to a certain corner where a hedge was anciently, near
the Cow Gate leading from Newcastle to Hexham ;
by the boundaries of the fields of Elswick on the
south of the gallows. And from thence turning west-
ward and north by the bounds and territories of East-
field on the west to a certain corner of the castle field
and turning south and east by the boundaries of the
castle field on the south to the said house called Sick
Man's House.' These definitions of boundaries are
so complete that no doubt can exist as to the locality
of the nuns' possessions, and how the name came to
be transferred to the angle of ground between the
Ponteland turnpike road and the Elswick and South
Fenham boundaries does not appear. In Oliver's
borough map of 1844 the name is put on this portion
of the moor, but I am not acquainted with any earlier
map that so names it. In 1651 the Nun's Moor was
purchased by the Corporation of Newcastle from



Charles Brandling, and the Newcastle Advertiser of
August 22, 1789, contains an advertisement by the
Corporation to let 100 acres of the Nun's Moor,
which is descril>ed as adjoining the Kenton

The Rev. A. Boot read a paper "On Northern
Monasticism," which the Chairman (Canon Green-
well) characterized as having opened a wide field,
and he trusted that some of the members would give
their attention to that important period in the history
of monasticism in the north of England, which had
been so ably dealt with by Mr. Boot.

Eetneto0 anD Notices
of Jfteto 15ook0.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

Old English Plate, Ecclesiastical, Decora-
tive, and Domestic: Its Makers and
Marks. By Wilfred Cripps, C.B., F.S.A.
Cloth, 8vo., pp. xvi, 462. London : John
Murray. Price 1 8s.
Mr. Cripps's work is so well known and has so
thoroughly established itself as the standard work
on old Plate, that it is quite unnecessary to enter into
detail as to its contents. We believe that its success
is quite unparalleled in the history of antiquarian litera-
ture. The work originally appeared in 1878, and the
fourth edition about three years ago. It says much,
indeed, for the high estimation in which Old English
Plate is held, that already a fifth edition should be
in demand. These repeated re-issues have enabled
the author to keep the information given in the book
up to date. In the present instance there is very
little change from what appeared in the fourth edition
except by way of added matter ; but a few years ago,
when the third edition was published, that edition
partook much more of a revolutionary character.

It was then that the historic Pudsey Spoon had to
descend from its high pinnacle of fame and take a
humble position among other spoons of respectable
antiquity. The Gatcombe cup, too, had to renounce
its claim to the special antiquity which it had pre-
viously assumed, while other changes in that edition
showed that critical and surer knowledge had qualified,
in some particulars, earlier opinions. There is no-
thing of this now, and the fifth edition merely adds
confirmation to what there was in the fourth. It is
interesting, too, to note how far fewer the discoveries
of importance are now than used to be the case, and
this, too, in spite of the larger number of workers in
a field which formerly was occupied by only three or
four at the most. It seems as if in some departments
of the subject the yield has been exhausted. No fresh
discoveries of pieces of secular plate of importance are
recorded, and no fresh town marks. Even as regards
ecclesiastical plate, only two pre-Reformation chalices

have been added to the list given in the fourth edition,
bringing up the total, so far, to thirty-four ; while
only one additional hall-marked paten has come to

Several Edwardian communion cups have, how-
ever, been found by Mr. E. II. Freshfield, and are
given in Mr. Cripps's list. We are able to add from
our own note-l>ook the fact that R. D., who made
one of these cups at St. Peter's, Cornhill, was Robert
Danl>e. The wardens of that church dealt with him
according to their accounts preserved at the Record
Office. We mention this because R. D.'s mark is
found on plate all over the kingdom, and his actual
identification is a matter of some interest. Several
new illustrations are given, and a good many addi-
tional goldsmiths' marks are added. We welcome the
fifth edition with much pleasure, and now begin to
look out for the sixth.

* * *
Tiik Brehon Laws. By Laurence Ginnell. Cloth,
8vo., pp. vii, 249. London : T. Fisher Ufiwin.
Price 6s.

In a brief dedicatory introduction Mr. Ginnell
relates that when he mentioned to one friend that he
had undertaken to lecture before the Irish Literary
Society of London on the " Brehon Laws," his friend
congratulated him on having chosen a subject full of
interest, and on the same day another friend upbraided
him with having selected so uninteresting a subject.
To both these friends, and to all who agree with
them, the book is facetiously dedicated. The Brehon
laws are undoubtedly among some of the most ancient
laws of western Europe, and their study is full of
interest, not to say of present-day importance, if some
of the problems of to-day are to be clearly understood.
Unfortunately, too, it is possible to introduce a good
deal of modern political bias, or even of an anti-
English animus, in dealing with them. This is a
defect which runs through too many of Mr. Ginnell's
pages. It is quite natural, and, indeed, quite proper,
that he should express in no halting terms his indig-
nation at the manner in which Ireland has been mis-
ruled in the past by the English. No one will blame
him for this ; but it is a great mistake in so doing to
use irritative language ; sneering at Trinity College,
Dublin, for instance, as " that bitterly anti-Irish
institution," or speaking of English writers on the
Brehon laws as " aliens. ' Such language is beneath
the dignity of the author of a book like this, and
should be left for the stump orator or professional
politician. Leaving out this blemish, the book is one
which is a very solid contribution to the study of the
ancient Irish people, their clans, their customs, and
their laws. We know, indeed, of no better book on
these subjects, nor any written in a clearer style, or
with greater perception and insight.

* * *

A History of the Church of the Cymry.

Part I. By the Rev. William Hughes. Paper

cover, pp. viii, 1 26. London : Elliot Stock. Price

2s. 6d.

The question of the Welsh Church is so much to

the front at the present day, owing to the mischievous

influence of English party politics, that any concise

history of the Church in Wales, written in an impartial

spirit, is sure to be welcome. This book by Mr.



Hughes, the first portion of which has just been issued,
may, we think, be commended as absolutely devoid
of bias or party feeling. It has, however, some defects
which ought to be removed, for they detract from
its value. First of all, the account of the Druids
given in chapter i. will not pass muster at the present
day, and the confident language used by the author
regarding Stonehenge is calculated to raise a smile, to
say the least. Secondly, the book is injured by the
illustrations it contains. They are all of them either
out of date, or are printed from old and blurred
blocks, which have been worn by long and over-much
use. The book would be better without them.

The author's plan is to divide his subject into five
sections. The two first of these sections, those which
cover the Roman period from 200-450, and the Anglo-
Saxon period from 450681, are contained in the part
before us. Of course, in the early period dealt with in
this first part, so much is uncertain and obscure, and
so much is purely legendary, that it is difficult for any-
one to speak at all confidently on many points which
arise. Mr. Hughes seems careful to set aside what-
ever is plainly legendary or undoubtedly spurious. As
an introduction to the earlier history of the Welsh
Church the first part of this book will be found to be of
considerable use, but we are not sure that the more
profound scholar will always accept every statement
made, in spite of Mr. Hughes's obvious desire to be
judicially impartial in what he says. The most useful
part to the antiquary is the list of Welsh saints and
the churches dedicated to them.

* *


Tales from Scott. By Sir Edward Sullivan, Bart.
With an Introduction by Professor Dowden.
Cloth, crown 8vo. Pp. xvi, 351. London :
Elliot Stock. Price 6s.

This book will be looked upon by many persons as
a doubtful experiment. Not a few of Scott's admirers
will consider it little short of sacrilege on the part of
anyone to attempt to compile a set of tales founded
on his inimitable novels, in spite of the precedent set
by Lamb in his Tales from Shakespeare. It must
be confessed that objections are not groundless, for
one of the greatest charms of Scott's novels lies in the
manner in which he tells his tales. To attempt to
re-tell them is, it will be thought, to court failure
if not, indeed, something worse. It is evident that
Professor Dowden appreciated to the full such diffi-
culties when he wrote the Introduction to Sir
E. Sullivan's Tales.

One of the objects of the attempt is explained in
the original prospectus of the work, where the neglect
on the part of the younger generation to read Scott's
novels is lamented, and it is said with truth that :

"Some excuse for this neglect, in the case of the
rising generation at least, may possibly be found
in the lengthy and often prolix introductions which
so frequently form the commencement of Scott's
Romances a species of writing of which young
people are peculiarly intolerant ; not to mention the
protracted dialogues, in a language more or less in-
comprehensible, in which Sir Walter's characters
occasionally indulge.

" It is, primarily, with a view to get over objections
of this kind that the Tales from Scott have been com-

piled ; as well as in the hope that a perusal of the
work may be in some measure the means of recalling
the taste of our clay into a purer and healthier domain,
by supplying a glimpse at least of what should be a
source of delight to many who are now wilfully content
to remain in ignorance."

In this laudable effort all will agree. It is, how-
ever, not very easy for anyone who is at all familiar
with the novels themselves to estimate these Tales
quite fairly. We are bound to say, however, that
opening the book with a certain amount of prejudice
against it, we were speedily convinced that Sir
Edward Sullivan had really succeeded, in a very
notable degree, in reproducing the stories, with much
of their original charm, in this abbreviated form. It
is extraordinary how much of the interest and vivacity
of the various stories is retained. The work is ad-
mirably done, and we hope that it may lead any

Online LibraryPhoebe PalmerThe Antiquary (Volume 31) → online text (page 5 of 67)