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ing with sandstone and very inferior workmanship.
The committee have now an able and efficient band of
workers, and would gladly continue their operations
through the month of August, when, no doubt, results
of the utmost interest would be obtained. But the
sum subscribed (chiefly by three or four generous in-
dividuals), and amounting to about .60, is now more
than exhausted. Unless other contributors will come
forward and raise about^o more, the works will have
to be immediately closed." Mr. Blair, the secretary,
reported that several small objects had been dis-
covered at Chesters lately, amongst them being frag-
ments of embossed Samian ware (one piece having
the potter's name alb[invs] in relief on the outside) ;
fragments of plain Samian ware, the potter's name
regvlinvs being on one piece, cale | on another ;
an earthenware bead ; a bow-shaped bronze fibula
minus the pin, and other small objects. Mr. Blair
also exhibited a sheet of drawings, a collection of
masons' marks found at different parts on the inside of
the town wall of Newcastle, on a portion of the wall
in Pink Lane, the wall extending from Westgate
Street to Stowell Street, the wall extending from
Stowell Street to St. Andrew's Street, the wall be-
tween St. Andrew's Street and Newgate Street, the
old tower in Croft Stairs, the wall at Corner Tower,
by John Gibson. He also read the following notes
by him : " Antiquities have been found in taking
down parts of the wall and towers, viz., a Roman
altar from the White Friar Tower, now in the Black
Gate Museum ; two ancient buckles and a leaden
bullet found at the tower ; inscription in plaster from
the White Friar Tower, dated 1614, now in the
library of the castle ; an old musket found on the wall
near the White Friar Tower ; the stone statue of
King James I., and the large stone with the royal
arms cut on it, which stood over the north entrance of
Newgate, now in the guard room of the castle ; six
stone figures or watchmen with which the watchtowers
of the wall were formerly garnished, found at different
parts of the wall, now in the guard-room of the castle ;
a cannon-ball found in the wall at the Pilgrim Street
Gate, a twenty-four pounder, in June, 1802 ; three
cannon-balls, each of twenty-two pounds weight, found
in the wall in New Bridge Street, 181 1 ; several large
cannon-balls found in taking down the Newgate
some of them are in the library of the castle ; an iron
cannon-ball found in 1700 during repairs in the walls
of the Mordon Tower, lately presented to the society.

* + <0

On Tuesday, July 30, the Devonshire Associa-
tion for the Promotion or Literature,
Science, and Art met, for the first time since its

formation, at Okehampton. After a welcome by the
Mayor and Corporation, a general meeting of the
members was held in the Town Hall at four o'clock,
when the Rev. S. Baring-Gould was nominated as
next year's President, and Ashburton was chosen as
the place of meeting. At eight o'clock the company
assembled in the Market Hall for the purpose of
listening to the presidential address. Unfortunately,
the President (Lord Halsbury), having to attend a
Cabinet Council on that day, was unable to be pre-
sent in person ; he, however, forwarded his address,
which was read by the secretary (the Rev. W. Harp-
ley). The Lord Chancellor chose as his subject,
" The Relation of Archaeology to Science, Art, and
Literature." Lord Halsbury maintained that the
value of antiquarian studies did not receive sufficient
recognition, and instanced the tablets of Tel el
Amarna as revealing something like consular reports
between Syria and Egypt at a period in which crude,
superficial, and therefore ignorant, incredulity denied
the existence of written character at all. He granted,
however, that occasionally there might be some justi-
fication for popular scepticism as to the importance
of archaeological discovery, and as a specimen of the
feeling which existed in some quarters in relation to
the pursuit, referred to a favourite French play which
represented an ignorant citizen digging up the broken
relics of his crockery which a servant had buried to
conceal his awkwardness, and claiming them as
Roman remains. All human learning might err, and
research was not knowledge, but it was a clue to the
labyrinth of confused tradition, a light which had no
colour, and which therefore erst no shade of its own
over the facts which it disclosed.

At eleven o'clock on Wednesday the reading of papers
was commenced, under the presidency of Mr. R. N.
Worth. The fourteenth report of the committee on
" Devonshire Verbal Provincialisms " was read by Mr.
F. T. Elworthy, and the thirteenth report of the com-
mittee on Devonshire folk-lore was also presented.
A lady member of the association supplied the com-
mittee with some charms copied from a book belong-
ing to a Devonshire farmer's wife. Some of the
words were very curious, and of others the spelling
was original. The following is a sample : " Blessing
for strain As Christ was riding over cross a Bridge,
his leg hee took and blessed it, and said these words,
' Bone to Bone, Sinner to Sinner, Vains to Vains.
He blessed it and it come hole againe. In the name
of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.
Amen.'" For erysipelas the prayer runs: "Now
come ye to the Lord of the land, Barney Fire.
Barney Gout shall die away under a black thorn with
red cow's milk and black wool. In the name," etc.
The following sobriquets were given by the inhabi-
tants of certain parishes to their neighbours. The
people of Ashreigney were called "bog-eaters" ; of
Ashwater "taties"; of Barnstaple "bull-dogs"; of
Beaford " blackberries "; of Bishopsnympton " brags"
or " bonepickers " ; of Bradworthy "horniwigs" ; of
Chagford "chuggy pigs" ; of Cheriton "owls" ; of
Copplestone "fagotters"; of Cadbury "cocks"; of
Crediton " Kirton bloody-backs " (in allusion to the
bull-fights, in which the dogs were tossed and the
owners received them on their backs) ; of Cadeleigh
"hens"; of Chawleigh "boars"; of Dowland



"geese"; of High Bickington " pretty maids " ; of
Kennerleigh "candlesticks'"; of kingsnympton
"hogs"; of Mariansleigh and : Morchard "bread-
eaters " ; of Pinhoe "pigs " ; of Ponghill "cuckoos " ;
of Rose-ash " Whit|>ot-caters " ; of South Tawton
" rats " ; of South Molton " molten images " and
"jolly boys"; of South Leal "pretty maidens."
The " Climate of Devon " was the subject of a rep rt
presented on behalf of the committee by Mr. K. N.
Worth. The second report of the Dartmoor Explora-
tion Committee was read by the Rev. S. Baring-
Could. The committee reported considerable pro-
gress in the examination of the prehistoric relics of
Dartmoor. Last year the report dealt exclusively
with Crampound, everyone of the huts within that
area having been carefully excavated. This year the
enclosing wall, which presented very peculiar and
j>erplexing characteristics, had been examined in ten
additional places. Fresh fields have also been ex-
plored, notably the hut circles on the slope of Lang-
stone Moor in Peter Tavy parish. A careful plan
has been taken of the remains near Merivale Bridge,
and the enclosure of King's Oven has l>een sub-
jected to investigation. Interesting details were given
of these spots.

" Okehampton Beginnings " was the title of a

Eaper read by Mr. R. N. Worth, F.C.S. The town,
e said, first found written record eight hundred years
ago in Domesday. It was a somewhat difficult pro-
blem to ascertain what the precise name of the river
was. If it had always been the Ockment, or at least,
if that had been the name before the Saxon planted
his "tun" in the valley, then Okehampton was
simply the " tun," or, as we should now say, the
" town " of the Ockment, just as Tawton was the
town of the Taw. If, however, " ment" was a cor-
ruption of " ing," then they had to deal with a duplex
problem. "Ing "might be the Saxon for meadow,
in which case Ockington would mean the " tun " of
the meadow of the Ock ; or it might represent the
Saxon patronymic "partule," or clan affix signifying
descendants. Then Ockington would be the settle-
ment of the family or tribe of Ock. That the real
name of the town was never Okehampton, and that
the current " Ockington " was probably as near as
they were ever likely to get to its original phonetic
value, did not admit of controversy. Among other
papers were the following : " Sport on Dartmoor,"
by Mr. W. F. Collier ; " Recent Repairs at the
Castle of Exeter," bv Sir John Phear ; " Okehampton
Castle," by Mr. R.'N. Worth ; " Bratton Clovelly,"
by the Rev. T. H. Whale ; " The Devonshire Domes-
day and the Celt Roll," by the Rev. O. J. Reichel,
M.A., B.C. L. ; "An Inquiry into the Cenuineness
of the Parish Accounts of Milton Abbot for the year
1588, as given in the Monthly Magazine or British
Register for the year 1810," by the Rev. C. H.
Taylor, M.A. ; "Samuel Stodden," by Mr. G. M.
Roe ; and " Dartmoor and County Council of Devon,"
by Mr. W. F. Collier.

On Thursday Mr. P. Q. Karkeek contributed "A
Short Chapter from the Story of Torbay, 1667," de-
scribing the seizure of a Spanish vessel by two French
men-of-war in English waters at a time when England
was at peace with both countries. Papers were sent
by Mr. W. C. Lake on the " Frosts of 1888 and 1895

as observed at Teignmouth," and by Mr. A. R.
Hunt on " Professional and Amateur Research in
South Devon," but in the absence of the authors were
not read. The titles of the remaining papers were as
follows: "Notes on the Geology of Okehampton,"
by Mr. R. N. Worth; "Devonshire Briefs," by Dr.
Brushfield; "Sydenham, an Error in Lysons's Devon"
by Mrs. Radford ; " A Loose Sheet in the History of
Barnstaple," by Mr. J. Harper; " Hulham Manor,"
by the Rev. O. J. Reichel ; and " Domesday Identi-
fication," by Mr. R. N. Worth.

Eetitetos ana Notices
of Jfteto 150Q&8.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these twtices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers.]

A Handbook to the Ancient Courts of Probate
and Depositories ok Wills. By George W.
Marshall, LL.D., Rouge Croix. Cloth, 8vo.,
pp. vi, 75. London : Horace Cox. Price 6s. 8d.
This is a new edition of a book which needs no
praise from us. It is one of those handbooks which
are indispensable to the student whose work lies in
genealogy, or other researches connected with ancient
wills. Dr. Marshall's name is a sufficient guarantee
for the completeness, (so far as is possible), and accuracy
of the work. Here, at a glance, may be seen from
what period wills have been preserved in different
parts of the country, as well as where they are now
to be seen. The multitude of the ancient courts of
probate is quite extraordinary when catalogued in a
list, as in the index of this book. Modern legislation,
if it has done no other work for which antiquaries are
grateful, has at least endeavoured to gather together
in various centres these ancient records of the past,
and so preserve them from further loss and injury,
and make them more accessible to those who require
to consult them. The plan of the handbook and its
object are thus explained by Dr. Marshall in the
preface :

"The object of these pages is to show at a glance
the date of the earliest known record, will, administra-
tion, or inventory, as the case may be, in each court,
which is indicated by the date in the first column ;
the name of the court, and the localities subject to it,
in the second ; and the present place of deposit of the
records in the third.''''

If all the printed copies of this most useful hand-
book are not yet bound, we would suggest that a few
copies interleaved for notes might be found acceptable
by many who may have occasion to use the book, and
we feel sure that any who make use of it, will readily
give Dr. Marshall information as to additions, or
possible inaccuracies, which they may discover in the
course of their work. It is only in its practice that a
book of this kind can possibly be made absolutely
complete or perfect.



The Student's Chaucer, being a complete edition
of his works. Edited from numerous manuscripts,
with introduction and full glossary, by the Rev.
Walter W. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D., Ph.D., M.A.,
Elrington and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon
in the University of Cambridge. Cloth, crown 8vo.,
pp. 906. Oxford : Clarendon Press. Price 7s. 6d.
We have had occasion, as the different volumes ap-
peared, of welcoming Professor Skeat's large edition
of Chaucer. The book before us may be said to be
an abridged edition of that work. Its price brings it
within the reach of all, and by the publication of this
smaller book, Professor Skeat has conferred a distinct
benefit on all those students of the father of English
poetry, to whom the price of the larger work might be
an obstacle. We have, too, in this book a handy
edition of all Chaucer's works, edited with that pro-
found scholarship and accuracy for which Professor
Skeat is so widely known.. The following are, briefly,
the contents of the book : (1) Introduction (containing
a life of Chaucer, his writings and the early editions
of his work, and a brief account of the grammar,
metre, versification, and pronunciation) ; (2) Romaunt
of the Rose : Fragments A, B, and C ; (3) The
Minor Poems 5 (4) The translation of Boethius "De
Consolatione Philosophic"; (5) Troilus and Criseyde;
(6) The Hous of Fame ; (7) The Legend of Good
Women ; (8) A Treatise on the Astrolabe ; (9) The
Canterbury Tales ; (10) Appendix : Variations and
Emendations. Added to these are two appendixes,
the first of which contains a glossary to Chaucer's
works, and the second a glossary to fragments B and
C of the " Romaunt of the Rose." This will give
a pretty good idea of the scope of this useful, handy,
and excellent edition of Chaucer.

* * *

The Registers of the Parish of,

Lincolnshire. Complete transcript from 1653

to 1837 ; list of the Bishop's transcripts from

1 56 1 ; list of vicars of Horbling from 1222, etc.

Edited and annotated by Henry Peet, F.S.A.

Cloth, demy 8vo. , pp. 208. London : Mitchell

and Hughes. Price 10s.

This book, to which is prefixed a portrait of the

editor, deals with the parish registers of a country

parish in Lincolnshire. So far as it is possible to

express an opinion without comparing the printed

volume with the manuscript registers, the transcribing

seems to have been carefully done. The printing of

parish registers, when accurately transcribed, is a

useful piece of work. We are bound, nevertheless, to

say that there is very little of general interest in the

Horbling registers. Jonathan Cateline, who succeeded

to the incumbency of Horbling in 1653, turned his

hands to a little doggerel rhyming, which he inscribed

in one of the register books. His compendium of

the Decalogue was his best effort ; it is as follows :

" First, thou shalt have no other God but me ;
Unto an Image do not bow thy knee ;
Sweare not ; but Sanctifie God's Name and Day ;
Honour thy Parents ; Do not thy Neighbour slay.
Flee Fornication, and all them that love it,
And see thou never Steale, nor Lye, nor Covet."

The book is clearly printed, but, as we have already
observed, has not much of general interest about it.

The editor would have done better, perhaps, to have
printed these registers in a less costly manner. As it
is, we are afraid he will find himself out of pocket
with the present venture. Only a hundred copies of
the book, we may add, have been printed.

* * *

A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts
IN the Bodleian Library at Oxford, etc.
By Falconer Madan, M.A., sub-librarian. Cloth,
crown 8vo., pp. ix, 651. Oxford: The Clarendon
Press. Price 2 is.
We owe our readers, as well as Mr. Madan and
the publishers, an apology for not having noticed this
book sooner. "The Summary Catalogue," Mr. Madan
tells us in the preface, "of which a first instalment
is now published, is due to a series of resolutions
passed by the curators of the Bodleian Library on
June 7, 1890. . . . The design has been to catalogue,
in a style similar to the Inventaires Sommaires of the
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, such Bodleian MSS.
as are (1) not included in the quarto series of catalogues
instituted by Mr. Coxe, and are (2) not Oriental. . . .
The entire scheme, which is liable to modification,
includes the following volumes : Vol. i. and vol. ii., a
new edition of the old catalogue (Nos. 1 to 8,716) ;
vol. iii., collections acquired from 1697 to 1800 (Nos.
8,717 to 16,996), now issued ; vol. iv. and vol. v.,
collections acquired since 1800, and MSS. acquired
in small groups or singly from 1697 to 1890 ; vol. vi.,
current accessions from July, 1890, with a general
index." This plan will explain how it is that the
present volume, which is the first that is issued, is the
third of the series. The catalogue deals with twenty
collections of manuscripts in the Bodleian Library,
the most important and the largest of which is that
of the Rawlinson Manuscripts, bequeathed to the
University in 1755 by Richard Rawlinson, hon.
D.C.L., and a bishop among the non-jurors. This
collection alone contains nearly six thousand manu-
scripts, covering a wide range of subjects. Besides
the Rawlinson collection, Tanner's, Brown Willis's,
and other important collections, are indexed in this
catalogue, the whole number of manuscripts tabu-
lated, and briefly described by Mr. Madan, numbering
rather more than eight thousand. The catalogue will
be of inestimable value to the student, as it places
before him a survey, with critical notes, of a large
portion of the manuscripts preserved in the library.
It may be pretty safely asserted that there are few
subjects which would not receive elucidation from
some one or other of the manuscripts, now for the
first time made so readily accessible to the student, by
the issue of this painstaking catalogue.

* * *

A History of the Town and Port of Fordwtch,

with a transcription of the fifteenth-century copy

of the costumal. By C. Eveleigh Woodruff,

M.A. Cloth, 8vo., pp. x, 291. Canterbury:

Cross and Jackman.

Quite recently we had occasion to commend very

warmly Mr. J. R. Boyle's History of the Tozon and

Port of Hedon. It is certainly curious that at so short

an interval, a very similar work should appear, dealing

with another decayed, and still more ancient port and

municipal corporation, in the South of England. Mr.

Woodruff's book on Fordwich is quite worthy of taking



its place on the library shelves with Mr. Boyle's book
on Hedon. 1 loth books belong to the best class of local
history, and are both of them valuable additions to
this department of antiquarian literature. Probably

1883. In former times, too, it was a member of the
Cinque Ports confederacy. Situated less than three
miles from the city of Canterbury, it was overshadowed
by its big neighbour, of which, in fact, it was really

few persons have even heard of Fordwich, yet in the
Domesday Survey it was a "burgh," while it only
lost its corporation in 1885 on the passing of
the " Unreformed Municipal Corporations Act of

the port. Like Hedon, its decadence began with the
silting up of the mud, and the gradual closing of the

Perhaps as interesting a feature as any, in regard to



Fordwich at the present day, is the quaint old "Court
House " of the now defunct borough, and of which
we are enabled, by the kindness of the author and
publishers, to reproduce an illustration. It probably
represents a class of humble structures of a kind, at
one time not uncommon in the smaller towns, but of
which it is now, perhaps, the only survivor. There
is a quaint and not unpleasing simplicity about it,
which ought to ensure its careful preservation in the
future. Of the borough seals we are also kindly
enabled to reproduce the illustrations given in Mr.
Woodruffs book.


Mr. Woodruff's work is divided into ten chapters,
to five of which there are important appendixes. The
scope of the book may be gained from the titles of
the chapters, which are as follow: (1) Early History
and Derivation of the Name [of Fordwich] ; (2) The
Connection with St. Augustine's Monastery at Canter-
bury ; (3) Cinque Port History and the Connection
with Fordwich ; (4) Municipal History ; (5) Per-
ambulation of the Liberty ; (6) Ecclesiastical History;
(7) Fordwich Wills and Feet of Fines ; (8) The
Fishery and the Trout ; (9) The Custumal ; (10) Table
of Contents of the Custumal, and Transcription of the

Probably the most valuable portion of the book is
that which contains the Custumal ; but from begin-
ning to end, the book is full of highly-interesting and
important information, the value of which is much
enhanced by the frequent use made of documentary
evidence supplied by the records of the extinct cor-

poration. One cannot help feeling that so venerable
a corporation ought to have been dealt with more
leniently, and if some of its powers had become
inconvenient, and other of its privileges abused, that
some other fate should have been in store for it than
that of suppression. Of one fact we may be glad,
and that is that it should have found so competent a
person as Mr. Woodruff to record its ancient history
before its documents become dispersed, or are in any
other way damaged or lost.

The book, we may add, contains several excellent
illustrations, including three of the exceedingly simple
and quaint "Court House" of the municipality, one
of which is reproduced in our pages. We have
nothing but praise to bestow on this book, and we
congratulate the author very cordially on his woik,
of which he quite unnecessarily speaks with much
diffidence in the preface.

* * *
The History of Northumberland (Popular

County Histories Series). By Cadwallader T.

Bates. Cloth, demy 8vo., pp. vi, 303. London :

Elliot Stock.
This, which is the latest issued of the series of
Popular County Histories, deals with a county the
history of which, more, perhaps, than that of any
other, is difficult to compress within the limits assigned
for it. Much of the earlier history of Northumberland
bristles with controversial matter, and many of the
problems to be solved are burning questions at the
present day. The author, therefore, of such a history
as this is at once placed at a disadvantage, for he has
to state what he believes to be the fact, without having
room to explain the reasons for his belief, or to give
the arguments by which he would endeavour to com-
mend his opinions to the acceptance of the reader.
We call attention to this because, in commending
Mr. Bates's work, we do not wish in all cases to be
supposed to accept his conclusions, while, on the
other . hand, it would be scarcely fair to gainsay a
writer whose limited space has deprived him of the
opportunity of stating his reasons for arriving at this
or that conclusion. With this reservation, we are
willing to admit that Mr. Bates's History of Northum-
berland is a very good book, and among the best of
the series yet published. The author knows his subject
thoroughly, and writes with the full confidence of one
who feels that he has a right to speak authoritatively
on the subject with which he is dealing. This is
always an advantage, even when, as in the case of
Northumberland, there are important points on which
scholars are not at present agreed. The work is
divided into eleven chapters, viz. : (1) Introductory
the Four Dykes ; (2) The Wall ; (3) The Kingdom :
Bamburgh ; (4) The Kingdom : Corbridge ; (5) The
Earldom ; (6) Tyndale ; (7) The Great Wars ; (8) The
Percies ; (9) The East and Middle Marches ; (10) The
Radcliffes ; (n) Newcastle-upon-Tyne. It is neces-
sarily with the earlier portion that the author is on
more debatable ground. When later periods are under
review surer ground is reached, and there will be less
disposition shown to dispute Mr. Bates's conclusions.
We look upon the book as a thoroughly satisfactory
survey of the History of Northumberland, and, as we
have already said, it is quite one of the best of the
series of Popular County Histories yet published, one
or two only of which have been a disappointment.



Mr. Bates's book is one on the production of which

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