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4? $? $?
The number of manuscripts and documents
acquired during the year are : General Col-
lections of Manuscripts, 183; Rolls and
Charters, 1,894; Detached Seals and Casts,
395 ; Papyri, 24 ; Egerton Manuscripts, 2 ;
Egerton Charter, 1. These include several
of very great interest and importance, but we
have not space to enumerate them.

i <ft $

In the various departments of antiquities
many notable and valuable acquisitions are
recorded. The Report, which is well worth
the few pence charged for it, shows that the
great national collection is day by day adding



to its treasures in a highly satisfactory manner.
To the zealous care and management of
those who have charge of the different de-
partments, this is largely due. To not a few
of these gentlemen, themselves, the nation is
indebted for many generous gifts. It is a
pleasure, too, to learn from the Report that a
number of valuable presents have been made
to the Museum by private persons, showing
how widely the value of our great national
collection is becoming recognised by the
public. We are sorry that we have not space
in these notes to enter more into detail as to
the various acquisitions recorded in the Re-
port.

& &

By a slip of the pen, we spoke in the Notes
last month of the tomb in Pickering Church,
which Mr. W. H. St. John Hope pointed
out as being that of members of the Roucliffe
family, and not of the Bruces, as being in
the chancel of the church. It should have
been said that the tomb in question is in the
vestry. The tomb in the chancel is a Bruce
tomb.




jFurtber Botes on a^anr
jFoifeiore.

By A. W. Moo re, M.A.

Author of Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man ;
Diocesan History ofSodor and Man ; Folklore of the Isle
of Man, etc.



Chapter V. Magic, Witchcraft, etc
E have already quoted writers of the
thirteenth and fifteenth centuries*
to show what wonderful powers
Manx women had of raising storms
and winds by enchantment and witchcraft.
Since then we have found in the Insular
Records, in the year 1659, the following
curious account of the methods then in
vogue for the same purpose. The court

* Folklore of the Isle of Man, p. 76. Some interest-
ing information on the practices of magic and witch-
craft in the Isle of Man have recently been gleaned
by Professor Rhys, who, while prosecuting his investi-
gations into Manx phonetics, took the opportunity or
picking up some folklore. For this our readers are
referred to the Folklore Jour nal, vol. ii., pp. 284-313 ;
and vol. iii., pp. 74-91.



294



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



having assembled under the presidency of
Governor Chaloner, Elizabeth Black con-
fessed : " That shee took a catt of Alice
Coole's of Ramsey w ,h out her consent ; and
for to obtain a favourable winde shee further
saith shee heard say that the catt must be
stolne, and then buryed in the sand," and,
in reply to a further question, " that the said
catt must be buryed quite head over ears in
the sea-sand." In the case before the court
this was done, " and yett not wth standing the
wind thereupon did not change according to
her expectacon." Elizabeth Black was con-
sequently fined for "such a folly tendinge
to charminge, witchcraft, or sorcery." The
same woman was also asked at the same
time if she had "emptied a springing well
dry for the foresaid purpose " (i.e., for raising
a wind), but this " she utterly denyed."

It is curious that in the Isle of Man the
term butch, or witch, is applied to either sex.
As a proof of this we may mention that a
writer in the Moncts Herald newspaper of
January 24, 1844, in commenting on a famous
witchcraft case which had recently been
adjudicated upon,* remarked : " According
to popular belief, if the witch swears he has
not done it, and does not wish to do it, he
cannot witch again."t Another curious and
novel idea is that it was supposed to be pos-
sible to manufacture a witch. The method
of doing so was given to our informant by an
old man about the year 1875,} who said
that he had it from the victim herself, then
an old woman : An old woman, who had
practised witchcraft and charms during a
great part of her life, had grown very feeble,
and so, being wishful to endow her daughter
with similar powers, made her go through
the following performance : A white sheet
was laid on the floor, and beside it was
placed a tub of clean water. The girl was
made to undress and go into the water, and,
after thoroughly washing herself, to get out
and wrap herself in the sheet While she
stood in the sheet she had to repeat after
her mother a number of words, the exact
nature of which, as she was in an abject
state of terror, she had forgotten, only re-
membering that their general purport was

* Folklore of the Isle of Man, p. 84.

f See also story of Caillagh-ny-Faihieag.

X This man died last year.



that she swore to give up all belief in the
Almighty's power, and to trust in that of the
Evil One instead. The old woman died
soon afterwards, but the girl made no
attempt to practise the attributes with which
she was supposed to have been endowed.
(J. C. Doug/as.)

Still more curious, perhaps, than the above
is the statement of an old man to Professor
Rhys that he remembers four men, who
came from different parishes, meeting very
early on May-day on Ballaugh bridge "to
devise witchcraft " for their parishes for the
rest of the year. (C. Ballaugh.)

As late as the present century Manxmen
related that they had heard with horror of the
tortures inflicted on Sir Hugh Cannell, who
was Vicar of Michael and Vicar-General in
the seventeenth century, by the sorceries of
the Butch Vallirey, the " Witch of Ballirey,*
the name of a farm in the parish of Michael.

Among other powers possessed by witches
was that of the " Evil Eye."t With regard
to this we append the testimony of a writer
who visited the island early in the century :
" If a cow is diseased, or any difficulty
occurs in churning, the operation of the evil
eye is immediately suspected, and a strict
inquiry is made as to who may have been
lately upon the spot, for the power of doing
mischief is by no means confined to a few
malignant individuals, but seems to be gene-
rally ascribed by everyone to an adversary,
or a rival.

Conversing on this subject with a farmer
of good information on general affairs, he
expressed the utmost astonishment, not un-
mixed with terror, at the scepticism with
which I listened to some of these super-
natural histories, in confirmation of which he
related one story, to the truth of which he
offered to bring unquestionable evidence if
my unbelief should yet maintain its ground. \

One of the most popular antidotes to the
effects of the " Evil Eye " was the use of fire.
Thus, to take a red-hot coal from the fire
with the tongs and throw it over the right
shoulder was efficacious. (Roeder.)

If cattle were supposed to be bewitched,
it was customary, till quite recently, to burn

* Manx Sun, July 26, 185 1.

t Folklore of the Isle of Man, pp. 78, 9295.

X Bullock's History of the Isle of Man, 18 16, p. 369.



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



295



one of the herd,* usually a calf, both for the
protection of the others and to detect the
bewitcher. For it was supposed that while
the animal was being burned, hef would be
certain to appear on the spot, and if he could
not get the animal's heart into his possession,
he lost his power in the future. It was be-
lieved that, if cattle which died of disease
were buried, one would be lost for each one
so treated.

Dust was also efficacious in such cases.
Thus, Train remarked that " if a person sup-
posed to have the evil eye passed by a herd
of cattle, and one of them were taken
suddenly ill, the owner of the cattle would
hasten after him and take the dust from his
shoes if possible, or, if not, from the ground
he had just trodden, and apply it to the sick
beast; or, even if an animal were taken ill
without anyone endowed with the evil eye
having passed near it, it would probably be
cured by the dust from the threshold of the
house of a person close by who was noto-
riously a possessor of the evil eye."

To this we may add the testimony of the
Rev. J. G. Cumming, who wrote in 1867 :

'There is still the prevalent belief in the
effect of the evil eye, and when a person
wishes to purchase an animal, but will not
give the price demanded, the owner of the
beast lifts the earth or dust from the foot-
prints of the person trying to make the
bargain, and rubs the creature all over to
prevent the ill effects of ' overlooking.'! A
recent case of this was related to Professor
Rhys : " A man bought a cow at a fair, and
was bringing her home with the neighbours'
cattle, among which was a woman's cow
which he had declined to buy. On the way
his cow fell on the ground, and there was no
putting her feet under her. He declared
that the cow had been 'butched,' and he
required the dust from under the feet of
everyone in the company in order to throw
it over the affected beast. They all readily
consented except the woman with the unsold
cow ; but the owner of the cow did not waste
time in parleying with her as he threw her
down and took off her shoes and scraped the
mould from them, and threw it over his

* Folklore of the Isle of Man, pp. 92, 93.

t Or she.

% Ward and Lock's Isle of Man Guide ; p. 51.



cow; the latter at once got up and walked
home as if nothing had happened." (MS.)

With reference to this same superstition,
Professor Rhys was told by an old woman
in Ballaugh that "when she was a young
woman she was reaping one morning with
other reapers, and by-and-by she ran into the
house to see what o'clock it was. On the
way back she jumped friskily over a hedge,
and an old Irishwoman she met observed
what a lively jumper she was, and from that
moment she had a pain in her side, and
could reap no more. So her friends asked
her to finish another hour by binding the
sheaves, but she could do nothing at all. One
of the women asked her what she had seen,
and she told her that she had seen such and
such a woman, and what she had said to her.
She was then told to take one of the children
with her to the spot and sweep the mould
together where the woman stood, then she
was to place something over her head, and
the child was to throw the mould over her.
This was done, and she was instantly re-
lieved, and went back to the reaping. She
vouches for the truth of it, and she believes
in witches, though she thinks the Scriptures
have had the effect of making them some-
what fewer."*

Some years ago there was a very pretty
child, upon whom a woman cast an eye to
do him harm. He thereupon began to eat
ashes and lime, and so they had to go to
Ballawhane\ to get herbs for him. He was
soon cured by taking them. This actually
happened, and the names of those concerned
could be given. (C. Graves.)

Evidence has already been given as to the
reliance placed on the fairy or witch-doctors,
and charmers. To such an extent was this
the case that when the cholera broke out in
1832, some of the people who took it called
them in and refused all medical aid from the
regular practitioners, though it was offered
gratuitously. In consequence of this some
of the doctors were without employment,
and, moreover, an absurd report having been
spread abroad that they had poisoned the

* MS. from wife of C. Ballaugh, aged 78.

t Where a notorious witch-doctor lives. The pre-
sent " Ballawhane " is a woman, and the writer knows
several people who have gone to her within the last
two years to get relief from the effects of the "evil
eye/'



296



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



springs, their lives were actually in danger.
In 1837, when the smallpox killed hundreds,
many of the Manx declined to be vaccinated,
preferring to be be treated by the above-
mentioned empirics.* Professor Rhys {Folk-
lore Journal, vol. ii., pp. 297-298) mentions
several cases of cures by witch-doctors or
charmers, and Mr. Roeder records a case in
Michael in which a horse left for dead re-
covered in ten minutes by having a quilt
thrown over it in accordance with the direc-
tions of the witch-doctor.

Even those who were not professed prac-
titioners occasionally possessed wonderful
powers. Thus, Train mentions a servant-
girl who was so skilful that she could " take
a mote out of any person's eye, though at a
distance of many miles from the afflicted
person, and who, by the action of the knife
on the cutting of herbs to be applied to the
cure of any animal, could tell the extent of
the disease by which that animal was
afflicted."! But notwithstanding the skill of
the witch-doctors, the "evil eye" is still sup-
posed to be a potent cause of mischief.
Thus, while this was being revised for the
press, the writer was told that his hens, which
persist in eating the eggs on which they are
supposed to be sitting, must have been
bewitched by some ill-disposed person.

Cases of the punishments inflicted on
witches have already been recorded. The
following is one where a suspected witch
was able to prove her innocence :

" Pat r Corlet having reported y l he saw
Bahee, the wife of John Kaighen of
Skaristal, on May Day, early in the morn-
ing, in the fields, and about the houses of
her neighb", in a suspicious manner, as if
she were practicing charms or sorcery, from
w ch there was conceived an evil opinion in
that neighbourhood, w ch soon grew into a
common ffame thro* the parish of her being
guilty of sorcery, and present"" thereof made,
the said Bahee Kaighen and neighb" were
this day conven'd before us, when, after
examination into the matter, there appeared
no other cause or ground for such a charge
but the said report of Pat r Corlet; where-
upon all parties, excepting Mary Gawne,
being present, the said Bahee was admitted

* See Train, vol. ii., pp. 369, 37a

t History of the Isle of Man , vol. ii., p. 15S.



to her oath, who declared y l she was not that
morning off their own land, and that she
never endeavour'd to procure advantage to
herself or harm to her neighb" by any under-
hand means or practicing charms or sorcery,
or knew anything of such skill. And the
said Patrick Corlet having also asked for-
giveness of her upon his knees, w ch being
granted, and the said parties reconciled in
court, it is therefore hereby order'd y' no
person presume to revive the s d slander, to
the scandal and reproach of the above Bahee
Kaighen or her relations under the severest
penalties, according to law and their demerit.
Dated this 18th day of June, 1730.

" This to be published in as many of the
neighbouring churches as the party injured
shall desire.

"Tho. Sodor and Man.
John Woods."

In the following case a witch owed her
release to the good sense of the judge. It is
said that an old woman suspected of the prac-
tice of witchcraft and sorcery was brought
before the Rev. Patrick Thompson, Vicar-
General, and Vicar of Braddan from 1633-89.
One of the witnesses deposed that the old
witch had said : " Give me a pair of new
pewter dishes, which have never been used,
and I will convert them into wings and fly
across the Channel from the Isle of Man to
Scotland." " Pooh !" said the Vicar-General,
" there is no law against the woman flying
from the Isle of Man to Scotland." And so
he dismissed the case.*

(To be continued.)



Cbe ID Cfmrcf) of ^elmeston,



BOUT seven miles east of the county

town of Lewes lies the small village

of Selmeston, of the old church

of which, (now pulled down), the

accompanying illustrations are given. There

was nothing remarkable about the exterior

of the church, which consisted of nave and

* Manx Sun, July 26, 1 851.




SELMESTON OLD CHURCH.



297



chancel, with a south aisle to the nave, a
north-west porch, and a dovecote turret at
the west, with a tapering spire covered with
shingles. It was a simple, though picturesque
building, but with no external characteristics
which might not have been found in almost
any of its immediate neighbours. The in-
terior, however, possessed two features which
are uncommon, and as the church was pulled
down thirty years ago, it may not be amiss



the church a portion of the vicarage house
is to be seen. To the south of the chancel
an altar-tomb is shown. The lid of this was
formerly loose, and could be removed without
much difficulty. Village tradition explained
as the reason for this, that the tomb had
been used as a receptacle for contraband
merchandise in the old days, when, it is
to be feared, smuggling formed the staple
employment of a large proportion of the




SELMEbTON OLD CHURCH, FROM THE EAST.



to place on permanent record what it was
like. This, fortunately, is still possible, as
some very fair, though small, photographs
of it have been preserved. Two of them
show the exterior of the church, and the
other two portions of the interior. The
larger of the external views shows the church
as seen at a little distance from the east.
There is no need to say much about the
picture, which speaks for irself. Beyond

VOL. XXXI.



inhabitants of Sussex. A tub of cognac
was occasionally left by the smugglers at
the door of the vicarage as a rough rental
for the use of the tomb. The other exterior
view of the church is taken from the north-
east, and shows in the foreground a sand-
pit. Of the interior views the more remark-
able is, perhaps, that which shows an arcade
of wooden piers which divided the south
aisle from the nave. They were apparently

2 o.



298



SELAfESTON OLD CHURCH.




SELMESTON OLD CHURCH, FROM THE
NORTH-EAST.



SELMESTON OLD CHURCH: THE WOODEN PILLARS.



of the end of the fifteenth, or the beginning
of the sixteenth century, and of the same
date as the window at the east end
of the aisle, which was of late Perpen-
dicular character. An idea seems to have
been entertained by some persons that these
curious wooden pillars were of very early
date. This was certainly not the case, but
the late Mr. M. A. Lower, in repudiating the
theory, spoke in unduly disparaging terms
of them as "certain unsightly posts"* which
certain people had supposed to be remnants
of a pre-Norman church. Whether they
were " unsightly " or not was perhaps a
matter of taste ; but that they were of a
respectable age, although, of course, not pre-
Norman, seems certain, and it was a matter
for general regret, that when the church was
reconstructed in 1865, they were found to be
so rotten that it was impossible to use them
again, and their place had to be taken by
* Compendious History of Sussex, vol. ii., p. 150



some new pillars of oak. Thus, happily, the
interesting feature of the wooden arcade was
perpetuated.

The other interesting, and unusual feature
in the interior of the church, was the reten-
tion in situ of the old stone mensa of the
high altar, marked with five crosses. This
was supported on a stout frame of wood,
as, indeed, it may very possibly have been
before the Reformation. We are glad to say
that it still occupies its old position, and forms
the altar in the present church. The Rev.
W. 1). Parish, chancellor of the cathedral
church of Chichester, and vicar of Selmeston
with Alciston, says that when he became
vicar in 1863 the church was pronounced
to be unsafe, and after two years he had it
reconstructed. It was, Mr. Parish states,
" pulled to the ground by four sailors in one
day !" Every stone was kept, and was care-
fully replaced in the new building, which was
completed in 1867. The main features of



SELMESTON OLD CHURCH.



299



the old church appeared to be of late Per-
pendicular character, but Mr. Lower speaks
of it as having been of Early English date.
Probably he did so on the ground, that when
the old church was being pulled down, a
window of Early English date was discovered.
This, Mr. Parish tells us, has been placed in
the east wall of the chancel aisle, which was
added to the new building. The measurements
of the reconstructed church, which (except
the added chancel aisle), stands on the line of




SELMESTON OLD CHURCH : THE CHANCEL
LOOKING EAST.

foundation of the old one, are as follow :
From west wall to the chancel steps, 33 feet
6 inches ; chancel step to altar step, 1 1 feet
6 inches ; altar step to the east wall, 8 feet
6 inches. Total length, 53 feet 6 inches.
In the north wall of the chancel there is a
mural tomb to Dame Beatrice Pray. It is
figured, after a fashion, in Horsfield's History
of Sussex, where he gives a meagre account
of the parish of Selmeston, and an incorrect
reading of the inscription on the tomb. W'c
are indebted to Mr. Parish for the following



corrected version of the inscription, which
reads as follows :

1532-

Here lyeth Dam Betris Bray
Sumtym the wyffe of Sur Edward Bray
and Daugter of Raffe Shirley
of Wyston and wyffe of
Edward Elderton.
Verniibus esca jaces saxo hoc signata Beatrix.
Quicquid agas omnia in gloriam Dei facito.
Vos mihi defunctre vivi implorate salutem
Flecti namque pia numina mente volunt.

(For an account of Sir Edward Bray see Bray's History
of Surtey.)

To Mr. Parish we are also under obliga-
tions for much of the information given in
these notes.



duatterlp Jftotes on IRoman
I5ritam,

By F. Haverfield, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.

XVIII.

HE discoveries made during the
past summer have been encour-
aging and almost exciting. The
excavations in progress at Sil-
chester, on the Roman Wall, and just north
of it at Birrens, have yielded results of
which it is too early to estimate the whole
significance, but which are plainly valuable
additions to our knowledge. Except at these
excavations, curiously enough, little has been
found.

Silchester. The main work of the
summer, up to the interval allowed for har-
vest, has been the unearthing of two houses,
which are of unusual interest from their size
and the excellence of their mosaics. These
consist of fine figure work let into rather
coarse, plain ground, the finer work being
really remarkable in its way. Mosaic pave-
ments are, of course, not uncommon in
Britain, but they cannot compare in number
or quality with those found abroad, and an
addition to the list of our better examples is
a distinct gain. The mosaics from Silchester
will, I understand, be taken up and preserved
with the other Silchester remains in the
Reading Museum.

Bath. The examination of the Roman
baths at Bath has been proceeding. Among




3



QUARTER L Y NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN.



other things, a large duct or drain, 3 feet
wide, has been traced for some 300 or 400
feet. Part of it consists of extraordinary
massive masonry, the faces of the blocks
measuring as much as 16 feet by 3 feet. A
curiosity in the course of the drain is a
pointed arch. The duct is, it is thought,
connected with the old Roman well in the
King's bath. I regret to add that trouble
seems to have arisen with respect to the new
buildings now being erected over the site of
part of the Roman baths, and it is alleged
that the Roman work has been, or was in
danger of being, unduly interfered with.
The complaint has been heard before in
connection with Bath. It is a great pity
that a city which possesses such splendid
remains of Roman work should be so often
the scene of controversy respecting the pre-
servation of them. It is a greater pity that
% the citizens of Bath should allow even the
faintest suspicion of vandalism to attach to
the considerable efforts which they have made.

(Gloucestershire. A large find of Roman
coins has been made on the Bishopswood
estate, in the forest of Dean. The find is
stated to weigh \\ cwt., and to contain
17,226 "third brass" coins of Constantius
Chlorus, Constantine, and his successors,
stored in three earthen jars ; they will, I
understand, be reported on in full by Mrs.
Bagnall Oakeley. Large hoards of Constan-
tinian money are not uncommonly unearthed
both in England and on the Continent,
though few are so large as the Bishopswood
hoard. It will be interesting to learn the
mint-marks, etc., of this large collection,
and to see how they compare, for instance,
with the results published by Dr. Hettner, in
the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift, in his valuable
articles on similar German hoards.

Hadrian's Walt. (iEsiCA). Apart from
some masonry, of somewhat uncertain date,
found at Wallsend, the principal discoveries
on the Wall have been made at Great-
chesters (.-Esica) and near Birdoswald. At
^sica the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries,
under Dr. Hodgkin's lead, have continued
their excavations commenced last summer,



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