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and, aided by an experienced clerk of the
works, have made considerable progress and
obtained valuable results. Nothing has been
found of so striking a character as the two



fibula? unearthed in a guard chamber of the
south gateway last September (1894), and
the smaller finds are of an ordinary character :
pottery, many iron fragments, glass, querns,
and the like, with two small fragments of
inscriptions, one apparently on a mill-stone,
and possibly containing the word mo/a. The
larger finds of masonry and buildings are of
the highest interest. The foundations of the
north-west corner, where the Wall joins the
fortress, have been laid bare, and the results
are significant. The Wall, the turret, and
the fortress wall are all " bonded " together
in such a way that their erection may be
attributed to the same date. The annexed
diagram, though not drawn to scale, will

mam.




illustrate the situation. The inference, of
course, is that the Wall and this fortress
were built at the same date. This inference
is not, indeed, quite complete, for if one of
the two had been built before the other, the
builders might have preferred to bond the
new work into the old, just as they might, in
the contrary case, have neglected to bond
two things which were being built about the
same time. But the probability certainly is
that Wall and fortress here arose together.
The west gate is also interesting ; it has been
walled up twice. On the first occasion the
threshold level was raised 2 feet or more,
and the south half of the gateway was
blocked ; on the second occasion the northern
opening was also blocked by a wall of rude
masonry, which can only belong to a late
period. Inside the fortress the most inter-
esting discovery was that of certain ovens or
furnaces not far from the west gateway.
These may be provisionally classed as the
workshops of the place, all the more as
pieces of metal seem to have been dis-
covered near them. Some are circular,
distantly resembling the Silchester furnaces
found last year, more closely resembling a
furnace unearthed lately at Welzheim on the
German limes; one is more like a modern
fireplace, and has a parallel in the north-east



QUARTERLY NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN



301



corner of Chesters. Close to the south gate-
way the excavators found a more puzzling
" oven " (if oven it be) ; I am told that it
resembles a " kiln " for drying corn, and that
a similar object was found at Housesteads,
near the south gateway. It is in itself a
kind of circular pit, about 20 inches deep,
by 50 inches in diameter, faced with stone,
of which three or four courses exist ; its
lowest part is about the old surface level in
that part of the fortress. A stone flue or
channel leads out of it. Altogether the
excavations at ^Esica have produced very
interesting results, and their continuance is
much to be desired.

The Vallum. The excavations of the
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian
Society have been principally concerned
with the Vallum. Though nothing definite
has been discovered as to the age of
this structure, one startling discovery has
been made, which may perhaps rank as one
of the most notable discoveries made along
the line of the Wall. It has been often
noticed, a little west of Birdoswald, that a
deep ditch, more than a mile and a half
long, intervenes between Wall and Vallum,
running roughly parallel to both, but merging
westwards in the Wall, and "dying out"
eastwards as you get near to Birdoswald.
The general situation may be seen from the
annexed diagram, on a scale of an inch to



3&r^os waW







a. mile. Excavations have now shown that
behind, i.e., south of this deep ditch,
there once stood a wall of turves, built very
like the Vallum of Antonine, excavated two
years ago by the Glasgow Society of Anti-
quaries. This sod-dyke has been traced for
about a mile along the ditch, and once
doubtless ran the whole distance. Its origin
and object must be left at present undecided.
A distinguished Northumbrian antiquary,



Mr. C. J. Bates, has suggested that it may
be a remnant of the Wall of Hadrian. We
should then have three lines : (1) the Val-
lum, earlier than Hadrian ; (2) the sod-dyke
of Hadrian ; and (3) the stone wall of some
later builder, standing mostly on the top of
the sod dyke, and therefore obscuring it.
If this were the case, we should expect to
find other traces of our turf-wall in other
places ; until such are pointed out, the evi-
dence is in favour of supposing that the
Appletree turf wall is something exceptional.
Whatever be the truth, the discovery is
plainly one which deserves the fullest atten-
tion.

Scotland. At Birrens, probably the
Roman Blatum Bulgium, the Scottish
Society of Antiquaries have initiated a full
examination of the Roman fortress. The
work is not yet completed, but the dis-
coveries already made are of much interest.
Several large buttressed buildings have been
traced ; they seem to correspond to the
buttressed buildings found at South Shields
and elsewhere. The actual praetorium (or,
as others style it, forum) has not yet, I think,
been discovered, but it can only be a question
of time. The most puzzling features are the
gates and ramparts. Two gates have been
excavated : the north gate shows masonry
which does not in the least resemble a
Roman gate, and is perhaps not Roman at
all ; while the west gate, though less astonish-
ing, is by no means a model specimen. The
ramparts appear to be entirely of earth, at
one place showing a few layers as of piled-up
sods ; at other places containing a stone core
or a rough stone foundation, like that of the
Antonine Vallum ; at other places, again,
composed apparently only of earth. All this
is very strange ; one expects a Roman fort
to have stone walls, at any rate, if it was
occupied as Birrens certainly was in the
second century a.d. Among the lesser finds
may be mentioned a dedication, as it seems,
to Jupiter Dolichenus, and a fragment men-
tioning the sixth legion. It is most desirable
that the excavation of this camp should be
properly carried through, and I understand
that Dr. Macdonald and Dr. Christison, who
have had the principal share in conducting
the work hitherto, will continue their careful
and valuable work.



302



JlfONA, ANGIESEA.



a^ona, anglesca.

By the late Mr. H. H. Lines.
( Concluded from /. 253 )




AVING endeavoured to show the
probability of a connection between
this section of Caer Gwrie and the
ancient British writings, I now
proceed to trace an equally remarkable
correlation between the west section and
other of the triads, and the writings of
Taliesin. As we all know, the triads were
collected by writers of the eleventh century
from more ancient authorities. The Mabino-
gion, to which I shall also refer, is attributed
to Nennius. This was discovered in the
Vatican library, and was assigned to the
tenth century. The MS. is endorsed with
the name Alexandrina, having once belonged
to Alexandrina Christiana of Sweden. The
older Triads, as well as the Mabinogion, dis-
play an originality of style and character
which is unlike that of any of the cognate
Celtic tribes, either of the Irish or Conti-
nental nationalities. The scenery, the locali-
ties, and the ceremonies all entirely belong
to Wales, and most distinctly indicate the
Cymraeg Celts (or the most ancient tribes of
Wales), as the people among whom they
originated, and, like all their traditionary
history, are highly poetic, far more so than
their so-called poetry. They usually em-
body some historical event, clothed by their
wild imagination in a garb of rich poetic
fancies, which has to be drawn aside before
we can discover the truths which thus lie
concealed. With these views I quote from
the " Cadair Ceredwen," or Chair of Cered-
wen, a Celtic goddess whose attributes were
similar to those of Ceres among the Greeks.
The priest of the goddess makes her say :

" I saw a fierce contest in the vale of
Ffrancon on the day of the Sun, at the hour
of dawn, between the wrathful Gwythaint and
Gwydion. On the day of Jove, they (the
birds of wrath) securely went to Mona, to
demand a sudden shower of the sorcerer."

Gwythaint are symbolic winged creatures,
supposed to denote wrath or fury, and these
dragon demons, thus being foiled by
Gwydion, proceed to Mona, where the



Sorcerer dwelt. Gwydion is a beneficent
agent to man. In a song of Taliesin called
the "Marwuad /Kddon-Don," or the "Elegy
of JEddoa of Mona," we find the Sorcerers,
named " Math " and " Eunydd," masters of
the magic wand, controllers of the elements.
Math, according to the Mabinogion, was a
prince of Gwynedd.and the son of Mathonwy.
In Triad ninety-one he is mentioned as
" Math the son of Mathonwy, who taught
his illusion to Gwydion the son of Don,"
which illusion is also called one of the three
primary illusions of Britain. Another Triad
names Math as one of the "three men of
Illusion and Phantasy."

These extracts show us that Mona was the
land of magic, where the magicians dwelt,
and that such was the belief formerly incul-
cated, and handed down by tradition till it
reached the collators of these poems in the
tenth and succeeding centuries. At the end
of the twelfth century we find Cynddelw, the
great presiding Bard, in his ode to Prince
Owen Gwynedd, his friend and patron, men-
tions Gwron, whom the triads name as one
of the founders of Druidism, thus :

"Of the golden protector, the most
courteous prince of Mona, no vain prophecy
did Gwron deliver," and in the forty-second
Triad " Gwron is the son of, or grandson of
Eliver Gosgordvaur, and a prince who
sacrificed his royal prerogatives for bardic
honours. Also in the sixty-second he is one
of the three primary bards who instituted the
privileges and customs of Bardism, and regu-
lated a then existing system.

Towards the end of the sixth century there
existed one of the corrupted forms of the old
idolatry in a certain spot in the woods of
Caledonia. We learn from the triads that
this establishment was destroyed at the battle
of Arderydd, about the year 593 a.d., and
that the last of its presiding Bards was the
celebrated Merddyn, or Merlin. This place
of idolatry was probably a resuscitation or
revival, which either developed itself after
the Romans withdrew their protectorate, or
had eluded their observation among the
dark recesses of the Caledonian forest, and
then resumed its former influence under the
fostering patronage of the native princes.
From the accounts of Merddyn we learn
that he was chief ruler of the initiated, and



MONA, ANGLESEA.



33



that his patron and champion was Gwend-
dolau, a prince of North Clydesdale, who lost
his life in the battle of Arderydd, defending
the Pagan institution against its enemies.
Merddyn, referring to this prince, says : " I
have seen Gwenddolau adorned with the
precious gifts of princes, gathering his con-
tributions from every extremity of the land,
now also the red turf has covered the most
gentle chief of the northern sovereigns."
Gwenddolau's uncle Eliver (the Luminary)
was a priest of the Sun, to whom the battle
of Arderydd was so far disastrous that he
had to emigrate with his family from the
north of Mona where the Triads tell us he
landed at Llech Eliver, a stone probably
erected to commemorate the event. A son
of this Eliver, named Gwgon Gwron, be-
came a ruling prince, a Bard, and hostile
Ovate of the island, his name stands out as
one to be remembered, the great magician
prince.

We thus find that Gwgon Gwron was one
of a triad of the early Bards whom tradition
has handed down to the historic times, and
that the locality and scene of his prophetic
utterances was Mona. Also we find Math
and Eunydd were masters of the magic
wand, who set the elements at large, and
were dwelling and exorcising as magicians in
Mona. Have we here any warrant to con-
nect these magicians with the singular Pagan
remains of Caer Gwrie? Contemporary
history fails us, and we have only tradition to
help us, but what is tradition but the parent
of all early history ? We may even trace the
name of Gwron in that of Caer Gwrie. Gwr,
according to the first Welsh lexicographers,
consisting of " Gw " and " wr," signifies what
is above, superior, strong. Gwron is said to
be of " the race of eagles," and the dragon of
the " city of Bards."

Some may say that these are mere tradi-
tions, wild, fanciful, and shadowy. I freely
admit all that, and claim nothing more than
to show that this weird-looking structure of
past ages has its counterpart in the enigmatical
writings of former times, and that those
writings name Mona as the land of mystery
and magic, and the abode of sorcerers, as
recently as the sixth century. They mention
also a name of might and power, Gwron,
which name these remains still bear.




ffi)n (KHapstOe Crosses on tbe

CGoiOs, Cast iRiOing,

gorksfnre.

By the Rev. E. Maui.e Cole, F.G.S., Vicar of
Wetwang.

HE object of this paper is to call
attention to a class of antiquities
on the Wolds, in the East Riding
of Yorkshire, hitherto unnoticed,
and whose very significance has wholly faded
away. They are commonly known under the
various appellations of stone chairs, fonts,
troughs, heads of stone coffins, stone mounts,
etc. In reality, they are the sockets of
ancient wayside crosses, as will be evident
from the accompanying illustrations and
description.

No. 1 stands against the wall of a small
farmhouse at the top of Garrowby Hill.
It is known as the stone chair, and tradi-
tion asserts that a British king sat in it to
view a battle which was going on below in
the plain of York. It was found buried, as
reported, in an adjacent field, called on the
ordnance map "Stone Chair Close," and
removed some years ago to its present posi-
tion. It consists of a solid block of free-
stone, probably lower calc grit, measuring
36 inches by 26 inches, and 24 inches in
height, with a square hole in the centre for the
shaft, i6| inches in diameter. Evidently, at
the destruction of the cross, one side was
knocked out, which accounts for its present
likeness to a chair, and for the different
dimensions of width and breadth. Originally,
it would be 3 feet square. It doubtless
stood on the roadside from York to Bridling-
ton, where, centuries before the Wolds were
enclosed, a road, attributed to the Romans,
and known as the High Street, was the
precursor of the modern road, and, in all
probability, at an adjacent point, where a
road to Malton diverges from the main road.
No. 2 is also known as the stone chair,
though by some it has been called the head
of a coffin, by others a trough, and, by others
a sanctuary chair. It stands on Settrington
High Street, but is not in its original position
in fact, very few of these ancient bases are.
It consists, like all the others, of a single
block and of a similar kind of stone a



304 WA YSIDE CROSSES ON THE WOLDS, EAST RIDING, YORKSHIRE.



stone not met with on the chalk hills, but
occurring in the lower ground at Birdsall.
It measures 28 inches by 29 inches, and is
18 inches high. The hole for the shaft is
14 inches by 12 inches. Here, again, a side
has been knocked off, which gives it its
present appearance.

No. 3 is complete, so far as the socket is
concerned, and occupies its original position
at the junction of former cross-roads, and
the boundary between Wharramle- Street
and Duggleby. It was almost completely
buried a few years ago, but the writer
obtained permission from Lord Middleton's



of the farmers at the beginning of the present
century, and is said to have been brought
from the township of Holme Episcopi, in the
parish of Wetwang, which returns a prebend
to York Minster, but, with the exception of
a solitary farmhouse, contains no inhabitants.
This is a fine example, with some pretence to
ornamentation. The base of the socket is
a square of 3 1 inches. At the four corners
are small shafts, with indications of bases
and capitals, though much worn. They rise
to a height of 16 inches; above them the
corners are chamfered to a depth of
4 inches. The total height is 25 inches.




NO. I. GARKOWBY CXOSS.



agent to raise it. A stone, lying by its
side on the ground, is not a portion of the
ancient shaft, but a modern boundary-stone.
The dimensions of the base are 27 inches by
28 inches, with a height of 18 inches. The
central hole is 12 inches by 13 inches.

No. 4 stands in the new churchyard of
Wetwang, where it was placed for protec-
tion by the vicar a year ago. It formerly
stood in the village street, and was known as
the font Of course, there was no truth in
the tale, but it might seem to derive some
corroboration from the fact that most of the
villagers have as children sat in it.

It was placed in the village street by one



The central shaft-hole is 12 inches by
13 inches.

No. 5 is at Carnaby, three miles from
Bridlington. It is lying by the roadside
against a foldyard. It stood formerly, though
not in its original position, against a house
corner, and, being turned on its side, was
used as a stepping-stone for persons to mount
on their horses, for in this case a part of the
shaft, about a foot long, had been left in the
socket, and this helped to form a step.

The way in which the shaft has been worn
away by friction is evident from the photo-
graph, which shows the leadwork adhering to
the original mortise.



WAYSIDE CROSSES ON THE WOLDS, EAST RIDING, YORKSHIRE. 305



The base forms a square of 30 inches, and is
28 inches in height. No one in the village
has the least idea of its true nature.

No. 6, unfortunately a little beyond the
limits of the East Riding, brings us within
nearer view of the complete structure. The
cross is probably in its original position,
though in the middle of a hedge, for it is not
likely that those who mutilated it would take
it to pieces and rebuild it, step and all.

The site is on the road to Lastingham from
Appleton-le-Moor, a quarter of a mile from
the latter place.



They agree remarkably in their dimensions,
especially in the size of the mortise, or
dowell-hole, which is almost invariably 1 2 or
13 inches in diameter, and from 6 to 7
inches in depth. In only one instance has a
step been discovered, but perhaps this excep-
tion proves the rule, viz., that a complete
cross had at least two steps, if not more.
There is nothing whatever to indicate how
the shafts terminated at their apex, and, as a
great landowner proposes to restore one or
more, the writer would feel much obliged to
any antiquaries who would kindly offer sug-







NO. 2. SETTRINGTON CROSS.



The socket measures 36 inches at the base,
and only 25 inches at the top. It stands upon
a step 5 feet long, and 6 inches deep. There
is no visible indication of any other step. The
remains of the shaft are 38 inches in height.
Its proportions are somewhat octagonal, from
having the edges bevelled off.

The above are all wayside crosses, and are
taken as specimens from the most defaced up
to the least injured ; there are others like
them at Ruston Parva, Fimber, Millington
High Street, Huggate, Bainton, and Westow,
and perhaps at North Newbald and Dun-
ningtOn, and there used to be one at Filey.

VOL. XXXI.



gestions. As to the use of these wayside
crosses, it must be remembered that the
Wolds, at the time of their erection, were
open downs, with few, if any, trees, and no
distinguishing landmarks, and that the roads
were simply tracts on the hard chalk subsoil,
easily overgrown with grass, and therefore the
writer, considering that the remains originally
stood, for the most part, at cross-roads, apart
from villages, is of opinion that, while some
of them may have marked boundaries of
manors or parishes, the general use was to
indicate the path to be followed by the
traveller over the dreary waste, much as

2 R



3 o6 IVA YS/DE CROSSES ON THE WOLDS, EAST RIDING, YORKSHIRE.





































^5


1


^


















TP


1








B9B ">/






wF'$


jL > J& '


r ,


















$ '<$










^8*


?








B*dA
































j Y










ial










v'3^^^l






































? . wSK


* rvf^ff







NO. 4. WETWANG CROSS.



modern sign-posts do now; at the
same time, they offered him a place
of rest, and an opportunity, if devout,
of offering prayer or thanks for safety.

The antiquity of these ancient bases
is undeniable. Their rudeness sug-
gests an age dating back to the
eleventh century, or even before.
They are probably the oldest me-
morials of Christianity existing in the
East Riding, and are of the same
time type as the crosses erected to
mark the limits of the sanctuary of
Beverley Minster, granted by King
Athels!an. Their demolition may
be attributed to the time of the
Commonwealth, say a.d. 1650, or
thereabouts.

For the above admirable photo-
graphs the writer is indebted to
Mr. E. Thelwell, of Sledmere, who,




NO. 5. CARNABY CROSS.



WAYSIDE CROSSES ON THE WOLDS, EAST RIDING, YORKSHIRE. 307




NO. 6. APPLETON-LE-MOOR CRCXS.



at the request of SirTatton Sykes, Bart., kindly
undertook to illustrate this paper.




NO. 7. LECON FIELD CROSS.

No. 7 is of a different type from the fore-
going, and the illustration is from the facile



pencil ot Miss Agnes Mortimer, a distin-
guished student in the Art and Science
Department, South Kensington, and a
daughter of the well-known antiquary,
Mr. J. R. Mortimer, formerly a parishioner of
Wetwang cum-Fimber, now of Driffield. It
is introduced for the sake of showing the
advance in art in bases of crosses from the
time of the Norman Conquest to the four-
teenth century, and also for the fact that it
has never before been figured. Its present
position is just outside the south entrance of
the churchyard of Leconfield, near Beverley,
whither it was removed from an adjacent
ancient causeway. It seems to have been
well preserved, owing to the incident that it
was buried for some two centuries upside



308 WA YSIDE CROSSES ON THE WOLDS, EAST RIDING, YORKSHIRE.



down. The base is square at the bottom,
but develops into an octagon, with moulded
convex broaches at the top at the seveial
angles, as shown in the illustration. The
shaft, a slight portion of which still remains,
was mortised with lead, as was usual.



As a market was granted to Henry Percy,
Earl of Northumberland, at Leconfield, by
Richard II. in the fourteenth century, this
base may be the remains of a market cross,
and not of a wayside cross, though nothing
certain is known concerning it.



Locality.






Measurements in Inches.


SOCKET.


MORTISE. remarks.


East Riding.


Width.


Breadth.


Height.






Garrowby High Street ...


36


26


24


i6J sq.


One side knocked out.


Seltrington High Street...


28


29


18


12 by 14


One side knocked out.


VVharram-le-Street


27


28


18


12 by 13




Wetwang


31


31


25


12 by 13




Carnaby


30


30


28





1 foot of shaft left.


Millington High Street ...


26


24


18


14 by n




Fimber


25


27








A side knocked out, and top gone.


Huggate


32


32


21*


I2jby 13


One side knocked out.


Ruston Parva


25


25


16


12 by 14J




Bain ton


29


27


19


12 by 13




Westow


30


30


?







Filey ... '


42


42


24





Shaft i\ feet, destroyed recently.


Leconfield


30


3C


"{


IOJ sq.
Octagonal.


Possibly market-cross ; base of shaft
in mortise.


North Newbald
















Dunnington
















North Riding.












Appleton lc-Moor


36


34


28


13 by 11


Shaft 3 feet 2 inches.



3 Literary 'Bequest in tbe %ix-
teentf) Centura :

A MS. "BOOK OF WISDOM."
By Basil Anderton, B.A. (Lond.),

Pud tic Librarian of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

"... Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes
Emollunt mores, nee sinuisse feros."

O our worthy friend Colonel New-
come. In the latter half of the
sixteenth century there was living
in Holland a certain William
Diert, whom we may conjecture to have
been in some ways a counterpart to
Thackeray's hero, yet who had read more
widely in Latin, possibly also in Greek. He
had passed his life in troublous times, and
his love for the litera human/ores, though
genuine and earnest, had not had the fullest




scope for development. He had, we gather,
been obliged to take his part in what Motley
calls " the great agony through which the
Republic of Holland was ushered into life,"



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