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birth of Christ." It is by Dr. Oscar Montelius, F.S. A.,
and is very freely illustrated with woodcuts, sections,
and ground-plans. (Pp.80. Price one krona. )

(d) Antiqvarisk Tidskrift, xv., 2. This contains an
account of the cathedral church of Skara, by Dr.
Hans Hildebrand, F.S. A., Antiquary Royal of
Sweden. Dr. Hildebrand describes the architec-
tural history of this very interesting church. It has
unfortunately undergone during the past few years
the scathing ordeal of a " thorough restoration," with
the inevitable result that it has been made to look
like a new building. Dr. Ilildebrand's paper is very
freely illustrated, and forms an admirable handbook
to this interesting but unfortunate cathedral. Among
the illustrations there is a woodcut of a magnificent
chalice of solid gold, set with pearls and precious
stones, which belongs to the cathedral. It was a gift
during the seventeenth century from a former governor
of Riga. (Pp. 112. Price one krona and a half.)

2 S



(e) Antiqvarisk Tidskrift, v., 4, containing the
lives of the Swedish St. Brigit, and St. Nicholas of
Linkbping, both taken from the I larlcian Manuscripts
in the British Museum. These are continued from
the previous number. (This numl>er is paged from
289474. Price two kronor.) [With the exception
of the lives of the two saints, which are in Latin, the
letterpress of the Tidskrift is in Swedish.]

From the Palestine Exploration Fund we have
received the "Quarterly Statement" for July, 1895.
It contains, with other matter, a narrative of an expedi-
tion to Moab and Gilead in March of the present
year, by Dr. F. J. Bliss ; a fifth report on the excava-
tions at Jerusalem, by Mr. Dickie ; reports from Hr.
Baurath von Schick (1) Muristan ; (2) the church at
Deir ez Zeituny ; Aphek in Sharon, by the Rev. Dr.
George Adam Smith ; the stoppage of the Jordan,
A. D. 1267, by Lieut.-Colonel Watson ; the sepulchres
of David on Ophel, and the city of David, by the
Rev. W. F. Birch ; Greek and other inscriptions
collected in the Hauran, by the Rev. W. Ewing
(edited by Messrs. Wright and Souter ; also a journey
in the Hauran, by Mr. Ewing ; and the results of
meteorological observations taken at Jerusalem in
1888, by Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S.). There are
several plans and illustrations, the latter including
a photograph by Dr. Bliss of a remarkable mosaic
pavement at Madeba.

XJ +


The American Journal of Archeology, January
March, 1895, has reached us from the Arch.i;o-
logical Institute ok America. It contains,
l>esides a large number of shorter notes and papers,
a full account of the excavations undertaken by the
University of Pennsylvania at Nippur, in Babylonia,
written by Mr. John P. Peters; also a paper "On
the Discovery of Horizontal Curves in the Maison
Carree at Nimes," written by Mr. William H. Good-
year. The illustrations are very good, and are fairly
numerous. The Journal can be obtained from
Messrs. Triibner.

*> *>$


One of the most vigorous of what, without offence,
may be termed the minor archaeological societies is
the Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society. It
is always at work, either making excursions in the
summer, or in the winter months holding meetings for
the reading of papers and exhibition of antiquities.
We have lately received Part X. of its Journal, The
Bradford Antiquary. It contains the following
papers: "Joseph Lister, the Historian of the Siege
of Bradford," by Mr. T. T. Empsall, the president ;
" Yorkshire Wills" [connected with Bradford]; "Some
old Bradford Artists," by Mr. Butler Wood ; " The
Bibliography of Bradford," by Mr. C. A. Federer ;
" Bradford Churchwardens' Accounts," by Mr. H. E.
Root ; " Burial Registers of Bradford Parish Church,"
by Mr. Empsall ; and "Local Heraldry," by Mr. J.
Thornton. A very complete index of all the personal
names in the two first volumes is added by Mr.


The first two-days' excursion of the Cumberland
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeo-
logical Society was held on August 8 and 9, and
was largely attended, over 100 being present on the
first day, and nearly as many on the second. Among
those present were the President, Chancellor Fer-
guson, F.S.A. ; the Rev. Dr. Magrath, Provost of
Queen's College and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford ; Dr.
Peile, Master of Christ's College, Cambridge ; the
Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness ; Mrs. Ware and party :
the Misses Henderson, the Deanery, Carlisle ; Sir
Wilfrid and Lady Lawson and party ; Sir James
Ramsay, Bart., of Banff; Professor Pelham, F.S.A. ,
Oxford ; Mr. F. Haverfield, F.S.A. ; Mr. M. G.
Neilson, F.S.A. (Scot.); Dr. J. Macdonakl, F.S.A.
(Scot.) ; the Rev. W. Calverley, F.S.A. ; Rev. C. V.
Goddard. The party met at the Citadel Rail-
way Station, Carlisle, and proceeded to the Gilsland
Station, where the crossing of the Roman road over
the Poltross Brook through deep cuttings faced with
ashlar work was pointed out by the President, and
also the King's Stables, a fort which guarded the
bridge over the Poltross. The Rev. A. Wright then
took charge, and exhibited the portions of the wall
which had been bared in his garden and at the school-
house. Carriages were resorted to, and the large
camp at Birdoswald was next visited, under the
guidance of the President and Mr. Wright, while
Mr. Haverfield explained the inscribed stones which,
by the courtesy of Mr. Norman, had been brought
out of the hut in which they are preserved. A halt
was made at Applctree to see the extra or fourth agger
which runs from a field or two west of Birdoswald in
front of the north of the earthen vallum, ultimately
going into the stone wall near Appletree, where the
vallum makes a turn to the south and avoids the wall.
[Excavations made since this visit of the society show
that the core of the extra or fourth agger is a coespiti-
tious wall, while nothing of the kind exists in the
aggeres of the vallum.] Lanercost Priory was reached
about 4 p.m., and after tea in the Dacre Hall, Pro-
fessor Pelham read a valuable paper on " The Roman
Frontier System." He explained this system, and
showed that its real authors were the Flavian and
Antonine emperors. The first step in the construc-
tion of a frontier must have been delimitation, accom-
panied by, or very shortly followed by, defence, and
the line of defence might be in advance of the line of
delimitation, or just to the rear of it, or might cross
and recross it. But in all cases the line of defence
along a Roman frontier was formed by a chain of
military posts, consisting of castella, burgi, and turres,
which we call stations, mile castles, and turrets, thus
obscuring the uniformity of the system, though it is
less misleading than the accident which has given the
name of "vallum" to the nameless earthworks south
of the wall. In two well-known cases at least in
Britain and in Upper Germany the chain of forts
was strengthened by a connecting wall or earthwork.
From the land immediately in front of the line of
defence the natives were cleared out, and the land so
cleared, and a large tract behind the line was the
terra litnitanea of the fourth century ; of this border-
land the Emperor was sole lord. In Britain it prob-



ably extended as far south as Doncaster and Lancaster,
and was defended by frontier troops, who were
stationary in their quarters, and distinct from the
field army of the Romans. Sir James Ramsay, of
Banff, followed with a paper, in which he attributed
the stone wall to Septimius Severus, and the vallum
to Hadrian. On the motion of Mr. Maclnnes, Pro-
fessor Pelham and Sir James Ramsay received the
thanks of the party for their papers. Some of the
members then visited the Priory, which was described
by Mr. C. J. Ferguson, F.S.A., while others inspected
an early British burial-place, which the Rev. \V. S.
Calverley, F.S.A., had that day uncovered. This
finished the day's work, but about sixty attended the
dinner at the Central Hotel, Carlisle, after which the
annual meeting was held, the officers re-elected, and
several papers and reports read: "Report of Con-
gress of Archaeological Societies in London," by the
President ; " Proposed Ethnographical Survey," by
H. Barnes, M.D. ; " Report on Proposed Excava-
tions at Furness Abbey," by W. H. St. J. Hope,
M.A. ; "The Earliest Register of the Parish of
Thursby," by the Rev. J. Wilson; "The Parish
Registers of Brampton Deanery," by the Rev. H.
Whitehead; "Norman Remains at Carlisle Cathe-
dral," by C.J. Ferguson, F.S.A. ; "Sepulchral Slab
from Croglin," by Rev. R. S. G. Green ; " Beacons
in Cumberland and Westmorland," by the President ;
"Beacons in North Lancashire," by H. S. Cowper,
F.S.A. ; " More Notes on Winder of Lorton," by
F. A. Winder ; " The Crosbie Family of Westmor-
land," by F. B. Garnett, C.B. ; "The Postlethwaites
of Pennsylvania," by W. M. Postlethwaite, D.D.,
Professor of History at West Point, New York.

On the second day the party resumed on the Roman
Wall, where they had left off on the previous day,
their object being to follow Hadrian's great barrier
to Carlisle ; but owing to its running through enclosed
and cultivated land this cannot be done very closely,
except on foot, and carriages have to make great
detours. The course of the barrier was pointed out
by the President until Walton was reached ; there Mr.
F. P. Johnson took charge, and most of the party
walked from Walton by Sandysike to see where the
wall crosses the river Cambeck. Here, a place devoid
of any shelter, an appalling rain storm burst upon the
antiquaries, and drenched them. Thence they walked
by Castlesteads Camp to Castlesteads House, where
they were cordially received by that fine old English
gentleman, Mr. G. J. Johnson, and from him and his
daughters the ducked and bedraggled party received
every kindness and assistance. The weather mend-
ing, the whole party, after an hour's stay, gaily set
out again, and were conducted by the President to
Irthington Church, where the Rev. W. Dacre held
forth, and to the Anglo-Saxon mound at the Nook,
which was explained by the President, who also
pointed out the Roman roads near the village.
Thence the drive was resumed to Bleatarn, where
several great trenches across the vallum had been
excavated ; a provisional report thereon was read,
but as the experts differ in their views as to whether
the excavations disclose glacial drift or quarry rubbish,
further work is necessary. The mound appears
modern, and is probably the work of neither Roman,
nor Angle, nor Dane, but of one Nabob Richardson,

who built thereon a kind of Belvedere. At the gate-
way the Dyke, known as the Bishop or Baron's Dyke,
which divides the barony of Gilsland from the Bishop's
manors of Crossby and Linstock, was pointed out and
described by Mr. T. H. Hodgson. Between this
point and Stanwix flags indicated in Brunstock Park
the trenches cut in 1 894-. At Stanwix the President
pointed out the limits of the camp, and its suburbs
and roads ; he also showed the foundations of the
wall exposed in Mr. Crowder's garden, and by other
gardens he conducted his flock to the high bank over
Hyssop Holme Well, where he pointed out the
courses taken respectively by wall and vallum in
crossing the Eden, and showed how they deviate
one from another to include between them the Castle
Hill of Carlisle.

^ + *

A very successful meeting of the North Riding sec-
tion of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society
was held in the neighbourhood of Gilling, in Rydale,
on Friday, September 6, when a party of about seventy
assembled at Nunnington Station, whence they drove
to the church, the history of which was given by the
hon. secretary, Mr. William Brown, and the archi-
tecture described by Mr. John Bilson, F.S.A. The
chief object of interest in the church (portions of which
belong to the Geometrical period) is an effigy on the
south side of the nave commemorating Walter de
Teye, governor of Berwick in 1300, who died in 1324.
There are also eighteenth-century monuments to
Viscount Preston and Lord Widdrington. The next
place visited was Stonegrave Church, where the rector,
the Rev. E. A. B. Pitman, met the party, and gave
them an account of the church and its rectors, amongst
whom Bishop Barnes, of Durham, and Dean Comber
are the best known. Mr. C. C. Hodges pointed out
the chief features of interest, including the tower,
possibly pre-Conquest, and three effigies, two, a male
and female, members of the Thornton family, and
the third an anonymous civilian. Canon Greenwell
discoursed on the pre-Conquest crosses, which are of
coarse workmanship, and probably late in date. At
Oswaldkirk only a brief stay was made. The church,
described by Mr. C. C. Hodges, is in itself unin-
teresting, but, as the church where the great antiquary
Roger Dodsworth, was baptized, it will ever be looked
on with affection by all Yorkshire antiquaries. Want
of time prevented an adequate examination of a late
fourteenth-century building on the opposite side of
the road from the church. The base of an oriel
and a couple of shields, probably forming part of the
cresting of the window, are nearly all that remains.
The last place visited was Gilling, where Mr. John
Bilson acted as guide. The church consists of a nave
and aisles, with Transitional nave arcades, curvilinear
chancel, and early sixteenth-century western tower.
An unidentified half-effigy of a knight lies on the
north side of the chancel, and on the floor a small
brass (inscription only) to a rector, Robert Wellyngton,
1503. In the south aisle is the tomb of Sir Nicholas
Fairfax, died 157 1, and his two wives, Jane Palmes
and Alice Harrington. The castle, which was opened
to the society by the kindness of George Wilson, Esq.,
was long the seat of the Fairfaxes, some of whom
bore the title of Viscount Fairfax of Emley, in the



Irish peerage. The Fairfaxes inherited the property
from the Ettons, to whom the earliest portions of the
present building are due. The original house, erected
in the latter half of the fourteenth century, was an
example of the tower-house on an unusually large
scale, but of this only the basement remains, consisting
of rooms and cellars divided by a central passage, all
with barrel vaults. Very considerable changes were
made in the castle by Sir William Fairfax, to whom is
due the beautiful dining-room, perhaps the finest
Elizabethan room in the country. The magnificent
glass with which the windows of this room are filled,
partly the work of Bernard Dininckhoff, is enriched
with Fairfax heraldry ; that in the bay-window em-
blazons the arms and descents of the Fairfaxes ; that
in the south window those of Sir William's wife, Jane
Stapleton. In the last light will be found the sig-
nature of the artist and the date 1585. The glass in
the remaining window is of rather later date, and con-
tains the arms and descents of the Constables of Burton
Constable. In the frieze are painted the arms of the
gentlemen of Yorkshire living at the close of the
sixteenth century, arranged in Wapentakes, the
shields, 449 in all, being represented on trees with
animals beneath. In this frieze are also six figures
playing on musical instruments. Three ladies play
lutes and three gentlemen viols. The ceiling is of
plaster, ribbed, with pendants. The only other im-
portant object of interest is the fireplace, with its
wealth of heraldry. Besides the royal arms there are
depicted the bearings of Fairfax and those of Sir
William Fairfax's four brothers-in-law, Bellasis, of
Newburgh ; Curwen, of Workington ; Vavasour, of
Hazlewood ; and Roos, of Ingmanthorpe, each im-
paling Fairfax.

^>S ^ ^

[Information intended for the " Proceedings of So-
cieties" should reach the editor by the 12th of the
month. It may otherwise be too late for insertion in
the ensuing issue of the Antiquary, after which it is
likely to be out of date for publication.]

iRetnetos and Notices
of Jfteto I6OO&.0.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

" Chui.akantamancala " ; or, The Tonsure Cere-
mony in Siam. By[G. E. Gerini. Cloth, 8vo.,
pp. x, 1 88. Bangkok.
Captain Gerini, Director of the Royal Military
College at Bangkok, Siam, has produced in this work
a very complete and painstaking account of the Top-
knot ceremonies as practised in Siam. The book
contains an account of the origin and symbolism of
the ancient rites observed in connection with the
Topknot cutting in that country, and the information,

which is carefully brought together by the author, is of
quite peculiar and exceptional interest, and, so far as
we are aware, has never before been made accessible
to the English reader. The book itself, independently
of its contents, is an interesting specimen of Eastern
production. It is clearly printed on cream - laid
paper, and is copiously illustrated by a number of
excellent plates, illustrating the ceremonies them-
selves, and the vessels and utensils employed in their

The author says in the preface, " In sending
forth through the press this new study on Siamese
manners and customs, I have little to remark that will
not present itself to every reader in this country.
The ceremony treated of is undoubtedly one of the
most characteristic of Siamese domestic life, and
hitherto one of the least understood, and perhaps
most often misrepresented. In these pages I have
endeavoured to faithfully and minutely describe the
many complex rites which the ceremony entails, and
to explain both their origin and symbolism, now for
centuries almost completely lost even to the very
people among whom they are solemnized. That I
have invariably succeeded, or ensured exactness in
every instance, I do not pretend, although it will, I
trust, easily be seen that, of all the matter brought
forward, a good nine-tenths is distinctly original, and
has nowhere been dealt with in former works on
Siam. On the form and arrangement of the book I
crave more leniency, for no one better than myself
recognises its shortcomings. Having been compiled
and written during short intervals of leisure, discon-
tinuity was one of the disadvantages under which I
had to labour, not to mention the difficulties of re-
search, which in Siam are serious and almost insur-
mountable drawbacks to literary labours."

We have very great pleasure is speaking of this
work as one of much value and interest, although we
cannot accept the particular conclusions at which the
author arrives regarding the sacraments and rites of
the Christian church, the intention, and true origin of
which he has failed to grasp. In other respects,
when dealing with his own proper subject of the
Siamese ceremonies, the book possesses a value en-
tirely its own. It is not published in Europe, but
may, we understand, be procured from Mr. Quaritch.

* * *
The Architectural History of Harrow
Church. By Samuel Gardner. Crown 8vo.,
boards, pp. xii, 95. Harrow : /. C. Wilbee.
This, without being a very profound work, is one
of very real merit, and it is a pleasure to meet with
such a minute and painstaking account of an old
parish church. We learn from the preface that the
book originated in a paper read before the Clapton
Architectural Club at Harrow in the summer of 1893.
and, like many other papers, it has since been ex-
panded till it has formed a goodly volume. It was
the headmaster of Harrow School who suggested to
the author the idea of thus expanding his paper, and
antiquaries will feel grateful to Mr. Welldon for the
advice which he then gave, and which the author took.
Harrow Church has, in its time, suffered on the one
hand from disgraceful neglect, and on the other from
injudicious "restoration"; yet much of interest has



been left, and Mr. Gardner has very carefully placed on
record the present state of the church, as well as its
former condition at various periods. The book is
freely illustrated by photographs and drawings, and is
one of which we wish there were a more numerous
class. A weak point in the book is the glossary at the
end. Many of the terms are not explained with that
exactitude which is desirable, such, for instance, as
aisle, rood, etc., while in the case of others (piscina,
etc. ) the explanation is wholly wrong.

* * *

London and the Kingdom. By Reginald R.

Sharpe, D.C.L. Vol. III. 8vo., cloth, pp. 578.

London : Longmans^ Green and Co. Price

ios. 6d.
As we have already dealt with the two preceding
volumes of this work, it is unnecessary for us to say
much regarding the third and last volume which has
just been published. It covers the period of the
reigns of the four Georges, and ends with the enter-
tainment at the Guildhall on the passing of the Re-
form Bill. We have thus brought before us at the
end, events which are well within the memory of
living men. The interest of this volume, if therefore
as great as that of its two predecessors, is so, for other
reasons than was the case with them. The history is
modern, rather than ancient ; but in the appendices
we get again more ancient history, which, if not so
vividly real to the reader as the later history in the
body of the volume, is of greater intrinsic value.
The manner in which Dr. Sharpe has interwoven
the history of London with that of the kingdom
at large throughout the three volumes is deserv-
ing of much commendation, and although we are
aware that exception has been taken to the plan of
the work on this very account, we by no means par-
ticipate in the adverse criticism. It seems to us that
mutual light is thrown on events by this method of
dealing with them, which would otherwise not have
been the case. We hail the completion of the work
with much pleasure.

* * *
The Life and Times of Ralt-h Allen, of Prior
Park, Bath. By R. E. M. Peach. Small 4to.,
pp. xvi, 247. London : D. Nutt. Price 7s. 6d.
The fault of this book lies in the earlier part. A
history of Bath is one thing, an account of Ralph
Allen and his times another ; and it was a mistake to
combine the two. In other respects no exception
can be taken to the book, which gives a full and
interesting account of Ralph Allen and his contem-
poraries and times, well put together, pleasantly
written, and freely illustrated. We could wish that,
instead of the early history of the city, when it could
have nothing to do with Ralph Allen, Mr. Peach had
recapitulated more as to Bath during the eighteenth
century, when the fashionable life of the country may
be said to have centred there. Ralph Allen amassed
a large fortune early in the century by his connec-
tion with the carrying of the mails, and by the pur-
chase of stone quarries near Bath. His life was spent
at Bath, where as a wealthy citizen his house became
the centre of much of the fashionable life of England.
His fortune was largely expended in charitable gifts

to needy persons, and we have in him the example
of a man of humble origin, rapidly rising to wealth
and a certain amount of fame in early manhood, yet
retaining throughout, the unaffected simplicity of his
early training. His friendship with Bishop War-
burton and with Pope is well known, and it was of
him that the latter wrote the often-quoted lines :

" Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame,
Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame."

Although we think that Mr. Peach would have
done well to have left out the earlier part of his book,
and to have enlarged on the social life and gaieties of
Bath rather more than he has done, we recognise in
this work a very pleasant and well-drawn account of
one whose connection with Bath added, as it were,
fresh honour on one of the most ancient cities of
England. The book is nicely got up, and is clearly
printed. The illustrations add considerably to its

* $ *

English Minstrelsy. Edited by S. Baring-Gould.

Cloth, 4to., pp. xvii, 128. Edinburgh: T. C.

and E. G.Jack. Price 10s. net.
We welcomed a short time ago the first volume
of this excellent work, and we are very glad to be
able to say that the second volume fully maintains
the high character attained by its predecessor. Ft
is needless to say more. The second volume con-
tains, among many others, the following well-known
songs, the history of each of which is fully dealt
with in the introductory notes : " Rule, Britannia "

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