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(which seems to have first appeared in 1740),
"Cupid's Courtesy," "A Fine Old English Gentle-
man," " You Gentlemen of England," " The Leather
Bottle," "The British Grenadiers," " Black -Eyed
Susan," etc. The work promises to be one of great
excellence, thoroughly worthy of the subject of
English minstrelsy, and of the reputation of the
editor and his assistants. It is unnecessary to say
that a large number of comparatively modern songs
are included in the book, but it is rather in the older
pieces, and their history and origin, that the chief
interest of the undertaking lies. The work is admir-
ably done in all its departments, and is deserving of
generous recognition on the part of the public.

* *

Some Ancient English Homes. By Elizabeth
Hodges. Illustrated by S. J. Loxton. Cloth,
pp. 280. London : T. Fisher Unioin. Price
ios. 6d.
This is a nice, pretty book. It contains a series of
descriptions of old country houses in the counties of
Gloucestershire and Warwick, pleasantly written, and
tastefully illustrated by some pretty sketches. The
"ancient English homes " described in the book are
the following: (1) Wooton-under-Edge and Bradley
Court ; (2) Beverston Castle ; (3) Rodway Manor ;
(4) Yate Court 5(5) Caludon Castle ; (6) Kingsbury
and Hurley Hall ; (7) Little Sodbury Manor ; (8)
Horton Court ; (9) Bidford Grange. It will be seen
that none of the houses included in the list are at all
widely known, yet the book introduces the reader to
some charming old buildings with historical connec-
tions of no little interest. We have thus an incidental



3



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



indication of what a wealth of ancient art there is to
be found in quiet English villages, if people only
knew where to look for it, and how to appreciate it.
The space at our disposal precludes the |>ossibility of
entering into detail regarding the particular buildings,
which are so pleasantly brought to our notice, by the
authoress. We would, however, call attention to the
curious shield of arms sculptured at Horton Court,
and illustrated on j>age 220. The shield, which is
that of the celebrated William Knight, Protonotary
Apostolic, is surmounted by a wide-brimmed and
tasselled hat, after the fashion of a cardinal's hat.




It has, (as will be seen by the illustration which we
have been kindly allowed to reproduce from Miss
Hodges's book), a very un-English look, and is, we
imagine, unique of its kind as a specimen of English
heraldry. There is, too, an amusing entry in the
register of Little Sodbury, which may be worth quoting.
It is as follows :

' In the year 1703, after many disputes and hear-
ings before Bishop Fowler, and the Chancellor and
Archdeacon, it was adjudged that there was no
Chancel ; and that the parish and not the Rector
ought to repair it, and my Patron declared the same
to the Bishop.

" Henry Bedford, Rector."

Were it not for the surname of the rector who made
the entry, most persons would certainly have thought
that he must have been of Hibernian extraction.

We take leave of the book with pleasure, for, with-
out being profound, it yet manages to give a good
account of the places described. It is a capital book of
a class which too often grates on the scholar or anti-
quary by an attempt at smart writing. The authoress
has succeeded very well in telling her tale in a popular,
and at the same time in an accurate, manner.

* * *

Stonehenge and its Earthworks. With Plans

and Illustrations. By Edgar Barclay. Cloth,

4to., pp. xii, 142. London : David Nult.

Price 15s.

The problem of Stonehenge is one which we must

make up our minds will remain unsolved to the end



of time. Its fascination, nevertheless, is, in a greater
degree, the same as that afforded by the mystery of
the *' Man in the Iron Mask," and the identity of
Kaspar Hauser ; and for the same reason that we
cannot expect to know the truth concerning the one
or the other. Theories and explanations there will
ever be, and perhaps almost as many opinions as to
Stonehenge as there are minds to ponder on the riddle
it presents. In the present volume we have yet one
more attempt to unlock the mystery, and it is no dis-
paragement to the book to say that the riddle still
remains unopened. It is, indeed, amusing to read in
the latter part of the book the varying and contradic-
tory theories propounded by well-known antiquaries,
living and dead, regarding Stonehenge. The author's
own conclusion is, "That Stonehenge belongs to a
brief transitional period, and was raised by British
chieftains subject to Roman influence ; that the policy
Agricola pursued towards the chieftains accounts for
the presence of this strange structure on the Wiltshire
Downs, whilst the social conditions which rendered
its construction possible can have endured but a few
years." We do not say that Mr. Barclay is wrong in
his supposition, but he can scarcely suppose that he
has finally solved the problem which Stonehenge pre-
sents. We should be sorry, however, in saying this,
were it supposed that we did not recognise the merits
of this book, which has evidently been written after a
careful study of Stonehenge and of the little that is
really certain. The book contains a number of useful
plans, drawings, and other illustrations, and is in itself
a very attractive volume. Mr. Barclay must not be
disappointed if, like other writers on Stonehenge, he
fails to carry conviction that his theory of its origin
and object is the true one. He is himself absolutely
impartial, and while advocating his own theory, he
has collected and printed, at the end of the volume, a
brief account of the conclusions arrived at by previous
writers on Stonehenge. This is a merit not too
common in works of this kind, and Mr. Barclay
deserves credit for his impartial fairness in the
matter. So far as outward form goes, this is one of
the most attractive books that have yet been published
on Stonehenge, and it is one which shows much
thought, and careful work in its production. Without
accepting the author's conclusions, we yet recognise
in his book an acceptable addition to what has previ-
ously appeared concerning Stonehenge, and the
mystery it enshrouds.

* * *

St. Multose Church, Kinsai.e : As it was, As it
is, and As it ought to be. With numerous plans
and illustrations. By John Lindsey Darling,
M.A., Rector of Kinsale. Large 8vo., pp. 51.
Cork : Guy and Co.
This is a praiseworthy brochure by the Rector of
Kinsale on the interesting and, (for Ireland), stately
church of which he is the incumbent. We have little
criticism to offer in regard to the two first portions of
the extended title of the book ; when it comes, how-
ever, to the account of the proposed restoration of the
building "as it ought to be, we can only say that
the suggested alterations will destroy nearly all its
past architectural history, and will change the
picturesque appearance of the church into one of stiff



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.



3*9



and staring ugliness. The good rector evidently
takes much interest in his church, and, without in-
tending to do mischief, his proposed " restoration "
will be the greatest misfortune from which the build-
ing has as yet suffered. Let him content himself
with such necessary repairs as may be absolutely
needed for the stability of the building, and leave his
proposed " restoration " severely alone. We should
like to call the attention of the Society for the Pro-
tection of Ancient Buildings to this case, in which
their advice may possible save an ancient church of
undoubted interest from destruction. Mr. Darling's
book is otherwise an acceptable account of Kinsale
Church, and it is fully illustrated with a number of
pictures of the church, and several of its details.

* * *
History of Middlewich and Neighbourhood.
By C. Frederick Lawrence. Boards, 8vo., pp.
100. Published by the Author. Price 2s. 6d.

This is an unpretentious little book on the history
of the town of Middlewich in Cheshire. It lays no
claim to be more than a compilation from other
sources already in print, but, as a handy compendium
of the history of the town, it may be welcome to
many persons who are connected with Middlewich,
and who have not access to the larger county histories
from which it has been largely compiled. Those,
however, who look for sterner work, or original
research, will be disappointed ; but the book is,
perhaps, hardly intended for them. Some of the
discoveries of Roman antiquities (especially those
mentioned on pp. 98, 99) have not, we believe, been
hitherto recorded. In many country churches a bell
is rung at the conclusion of divine service. The fol-
lowing (p. 77) from the Middlewich Churchwardens'
Accounts in 1701 may be taken as giving the inter-
pretation of the practice at Middlewich :

"Oct. the 16, 1701. By the earnest request of
several of the inhabitants of the Parish of Middlewich
we the Vicar and Church Wardens with others whose
names are subscribed do consent and agree that there
shall be one peal according to the usual custom of
their place rung on the bells for a quarter or half an
hour immediately after Divine Service in the after-
noon to give notice to those persons who could not
conveniently come to Church that prayers and sermon
is ended and that they may go about their lawful and
necessary occasions." (In passing, we would say that
it is a pity that Mr. Lawrence has modernized the
spelling of this and other extracts.) There is a curious
statement on p. 73, regarding the church bells, that
"the chimes were set by Rousseau." Can it be that
the chimes play, as chimes often do, " Rousseau's
Dream," and that Mr. Lawrence supposes Rousseau
to be the name of the person who arranged the
mechanism of the Middlewich chimes ?

* * *
We have received from Messrs. Andrew Reid and Co.,
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a copy of the fourth edition
of the late Dr. Bruce's Handbook to the Roman
Wall. The Handbook is so well known that we need
hardly say more than that the new edition has been
edited by Mr. R. Blair, F.S.A., one of the honorary
secretaries of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries.



The Handbook, although it contains ten plates and
plans, as well as a hundred and forty woodcuts in the
letter-press, is of a convenient size for the pocket.
Appropriately prefixed to the new edition, is a steel
engraving of the venerable author. As the book has
been out of print for some little time, our readers may
be glad to hear of the issue of the new edition.

V & *

We have received " Historical Notices of Caversham,"
by Mr. M. T. Pearman, an octavo pamphlet contain-
ing fifty-four pages of carefully compiled notes on the
history of the manor of Caversham, the church,
rectory, etc. The pamphlet might, we think, with
advantage be extended into a complete history of the
parish. Mr. Pearman has proved himself quite com-
petent to write such a history by these "notes" which
he has put together, and we hope that he will be
induced to follow them up by performing the task
suggested. The pamphlet is published by Messrs.
Mitchell and Hughes, of Wardour Street, London.

From Messrs. Marlborough and Co., of Old Bailey,
we have received a pamphlet of 24 pp. (price is.), by
Mr. J. C. Gould, entitled, The Site of Camulodununi,
temperately written in reply to Mr. Beaumont.

The Canadian Government has sent us a thick
octavo book of 573 pp., containing the " Report on
Canadian Archives," by Dr. Brymmer, the Archivist
of Canada. The archives range in date from 1603 to
the present century. The publication is a very careful
piece of work, which will be of much service to the
future historian of Canada.

Byegones, which is a reprint in a convenient form,
of the more important of the notes which appear
weekly in the Oswestry and Border Counties Ad-
vertiser, strike us as an admirable method of pre-
serving such notes. The idea might with advantage
be copied by other provincial papers, many of which
now have their weekly supplement. Byegones forms
a valuable local magazine.

The Essex Review is a quarterly publication with
papers of very considerable merit. It will be remem-
bered that the fine knocker at Lindsell was first
brought into notice in the Essex Review. Each
number, besides other excellent matter, contains care-
fully-written papers on the Essex churches. We note
in the number for April last, an account of St. Nicholas's
Church at Chignal Smealey, in which there is a draw-
ing of a most curious mediaeval font, built of bricks.
It is, we imagine, absolutely unique. The editor may
pride himself on the Review having, thus early in its
career, brought to light two such interesting objects
as the Lindsell knocker, and the brick font at Chignal
Smealey.

The Berks, Bucks, and Oxon Arclucological Journal,
edited by the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, has taken the
place of the former Quarterly Journal of the Berkshire
Archaeological and Architectural Society. The new
magazine represents the different local antiquarian
societies in the three counties named, and has before
it, we trust, a career of useful prosperity.

Scots Lore has been commended by us on a pre-
vious occasion. It also is a new venture, and so far
continues to promise well.

The later numbers of Gloucestershire Notes ami
Queries, edited by Mr. W. P. W. Phillimore, con-



320



SHORT NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.



tain papers on a very varied series of subjects, which
seem to us likely to add to its wider circulation.

Northamptonshire Notes and Queries is well illus-
trated, and has some excellent papers and notes on a
number of subjects. The same may be said of Notes
and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, which is ad-
mirably edited by the Rev. F. W. Weaver (Somerset),
and the Rev. C. II. Mayo (Dorset).

Last, but not least, we must congratulate the editor
and publishers of the Reliquary and Illustrated Arefut-
ologist for the production of an antiquarian magazine
;jf high merit, with first class illustrations. We hope
that it will meet with the support on the part of anti-

5|uaries which it undoubtedly merits. The number
or July contains a carefully written account of the
discovery of an ancient burial-place, and a symbol-
bearing slab at Roseisle in Elginshire.



^boct Jftote.s ano
Corresponoence.



LASTINGHAM.

Unfortunately much the same mistake occurs in the
text of the introduction to the IVhiteby Cartularies
(p. lxix. ) regarding Lastingham Church as it was pointed
out by the late Precentor Venables, a few years before
his death, affected the date of the two pre-Norman
towers at Lincoln. Mere, however, words had been
introduced, in a quotation from Domesday Book, by
a high authority, that had no existence ; whilst in the
introduction to the Cartularies an important quali-
fying expression in the MS. History of St. Mary's
Abbey, York, given correctly in the original Latin on
an earlier page of the Introduction, is entirely ignored ;
and so we are told that Abbot Stephen and his monks
on receiving the gift of the place (Lastingham) from
the Conqueror, " began to build there," when in
reality it was the habitations required for the monks
that Abbot Stephen alluded to: " Qu?e habitationi
monachica: erant necessaria; caepimus redificare."

And so Tanner (Notilia, ed. Nasmyth, lxx.) ap-
pears to have understood the case : " The monastery
being destroyed in the Danish wars, Abbot Stephen,
temp. Will., began to repair it."



The happy recognition of the English style of
Romanesque architecture at Lastingham, and the
description of the later growth of the church by Mr. St.
John Hope and Mr. Hilson, on the occasion of the
successive visits to the church this autumn by the
members of the Royal Archaeological Institute and the
Yorkshire Archaeological Society, remains unaffected
by the above correction.

J. Park Harrison.

September 7.



DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION.

I see in the Antiquary report of the proceedings of
the Devonshire Association at its recent meeting at
Okehampton three errors in place-names which have
probably escaped the eye of the proof-reader from
lack of local knowledge. They occur on page 284 in
the left-hand column in lines 4, 7 and 15. "Pong-
hill" should l^e ' Poughill," " South Leal " should
be "South Zeal," and " Grampound " should be
"Grimspound."

The latter misprint, if it goes uncorrected, is likely
to cause confusion, as there is a Grampound in the
adjoining county of Cornwall.

Fred. C. Frost.

5, Regent Street, Teignmouth,
September 6, 1895.



Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly
obliged So publishers if they will always state the price
of books tent for review.

To intending Contributors. Unsolicited MSS.
will always receive careful attention, but the Editor
cannot return them if not accepted unless a fully
stamped and directed envelope is enclosed. To this
rule no exception will be made.

It would be well if those proposing to submit MSS.
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and
manner of treatment.

Letters containing queries can only be inserted in the
" Antiquary " if of general interest, or on some new
subject. The Editor cannot undertake to reply pri-
vately, or through the " Antiquary," to questions of
the ordinary nature that sometimes reach him. No
attention is paid to anonymous communications or
would-be contributions.



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



321




The Antiquary.



NOVEMBER, 1895.



jftotes of tfje a^ontf).

With the month of November the winter
session of the various societies may be said
to commence. We have received a notice
of the meetings of the Society of Antiquaries,
and of the Archaeological Institute for the
session 1895-96. The meetings of the
Society of Antiquaries are arranged for
November 21 and 28, December 5 and 12, in
the present year; and on January 9, 16, 23,
30; February 6, 13, 20, 27; March 5, 12,
19, 26; April 16, 30; May 7, 21, and June
4, n, and 18 in 1896. Half past eight in
the evening is the hour of meeting. The
ballots for the election of new fellows will
take place on January 9, March 5, and
June 4. The Anniversary Meeting on St.
George's Day (April 23), is at two o'clock in
the afternoon.

$ )& $
The meetings of the Institute are arranged
to be held at 20, Hanover Square, at four
o'clock in the afternoon on the first Wednes-
days in the months of November, December,
February, March, April, May, June, and
July. A new feature in regard to them, is
the announcement that a postcard, intimat-
ing the agenda for each meeting, will be sent
to those members who subscribe a shilling
a year for the same. The Institute is doing
so much excellent work that it deserves the
support of all antiquaries. Anyone wishing
to join should communicate with the honorary
secretary, Mr. Arthur H. Lyell, M.A., F.S.A.,
at 20, Hanover Square, W.

4f 4r. *fr

The Report of the Historical Manuscripts
Commission on the manuscripts of the city

VOL. XXXI.



of Lincoln, and the towns of Bury, Grimsby,
and Hertford, as well as on those of the
cathedral chapters of Lichfield and Worcester,
has just been issued. It is in one respect
rather disappointing as regards the Lincoln
city manuscripts, which might have been ex-
pected to contain more regarding the ordi-
nances of the trade-guilds of that city. The
Bury records are largely ecclesiastical, as, of
course, are those of the chapters of Lich-
field and Worcester. The Hertford town
records are singularly meagre and deficient,
while those of Great Grimsby do not con-
tain very much either. It appears from the
Report, that the Worcester Records are very
carelessly kept, and are exposed to the risk
of fire. Many of them are of extreme value
and importance, and the implied censure
passed on their unsafe condition, calls for
immediate and imperative attention to ensure
their proper safe-keeping.

jfr 4f 4p

The Rev. Ed. H. Goddard writes to us re-
garding some Saxon saucer-shaped fibulas
lately found at Basset Down, Wilts. Mr.
Goddard says : " Many years ago a number
of Saxon articles were discovered at Basset
Down near Swindon, in Wiltshire. Two
skeletons were unearthed, and with them
were shield-bosses, spear-heads, and knives
of iron, a spoon of tinned metal, pins and ear-
pick of bronze, beads of glass, crystal, and
amber, a spindle-whorl and two pairs of
fibulae, one of each of which is here illus-
trated. These fibulae are of well-known
Saxon type saucer-shaped, of bronze or
copper-gilt, one of them having in a central
raised boss a bit of greenish-white glass set
as a jewel. The ornamentation upon them
is sufficiently shown by the illustrations, which
are of the actual size of the objects them-
selves. The gilding which covers their inner
face is still fresh and bright. The pins were
probably of iron, and in all four cases have
disappeared. A number of fibulae similar
to these occurred in the extensive series of
Saxon interments found at Fairford, and
illustrated in Akerman's I'agan Saxondotn,
many of which are to be seen in the admirable
museum of archaeology now growing up under
Mr. Evans's fostering care in the new galleries
of the Taylor Buildings at Oxford. There is
no record as to the exact position that these

2 T



322



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



particular brooches occupied with respect to
the skeletons with which they were found ;
but in the Fairford graves these pairs of




brooches were found on the bieasts of the
dead, whilst at the Saxon interment at Harn-
ham, near Salisbury, they seem to have been




placed just below the shoulders." We are
indebted to the Wiltshire Archaeological
Society for the loan of the illustrations which
accompany this note.



Mr. W. H. St. John Hope's large work on
the Insignia of the Corporate Cities and Tmvns
of England and Wales has appeared too late
to save a generous donor from making a
serious mistake, in regard to his gift of a
mace and sword of state to the city of
Durham. The device adopted for the mace-
head, that of an episcopal mitre, is wholly
devoid of precedent, and what must have
been a costly gift is, unfortunately, a very
inappropriate one ; while the presentation of
a sword of state by a private individual to a
city, which, we believe, possesses no authority
for using such an emblem of regal power, is
a curious illustration of the way in which the
original significance of such insignia has
become completely lost sight of. The old
mace belonging to the city of Durham was
stolen about thirty years ago, since which
time the city has been without one.

& 3p $
The law regarding "Treasure Trove "is in
an obscure and unsatisfactory state, and it
calls for elucidation and revision. We are
informed that, quite recently, a hoard of
ancient coins was discovered in, or near
London, but the fact was hushed up, for fear
that the Crown should seize the coins as
" Treasure Trove." The coins were disposed
of, on the sly, in batches, and so became
dispersed, no expert having had an oppor-
tunity of examining them. This sort of thing
is bound to go on, until the law is so altered
as to secure to the finder of "Treasure
Trove " such full marketable value for his
" find," as shall make it no longer necessary
for him to protect himself in this sort of way
from the Crown claims. The disappearance,
and practical loss of the Dolgelly pieces of
plate, a year or two ago, ought to have led to
a change in the law, or at least in its applica-
tion.

$ <$? $

Considerable interest has been evinced in
France by the recent discovery, during the
progress of some repairs, of the grave of
King Rene, of Anjou, in Angers Cathedral.
The tomb itself was demolished during the
Revolution, and it was thought that the grave,
the exact position of which has since been
unknown, had been rifled and its contents
dispersed. This, fortunately, proves not to
have been the case, and the coffin, with the



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



323



remains of the king, has been found to be
intact.

)& $ $
The Anthropological Section of the British
Association is closely allied with archae-
ology, and it tends to become more and
more so at each annual meeting. We have
briefly recorded elsewhere, some of the papers
which were read this year at the Ipswich
meeting, in the month of September. Our
object in alluding to the subject in these
notes is to draw attention to some highly
interesting and valuable researches in which
Mr. H. Swainson Cowper, F.S.A., has been
engaged, and which deserve to be more
widely known than, we believe, is the case.

4? 4p #

We take the following epitome of Mr. Cowper's



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