Phoebe Palmer.

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paper on the ' Senams or Megalithic Temples
of Tarhuna, Tripoli,' from the East Anglian
Daily Times for September 14. Mr. Cowper's
investigations were conducted, it should be
added, at his own personal cost. The report
of his paper is as follows : " This remarkable
series of sites, which hitherto has been prac-
tically unknown, formed the sole object of
the author's short journey in March. In all,
nearly sixty sites were visited, and photo-
graphs of them taken. The largest number
were found on a green plateau in the Tarhuna
hills, but others exist in the surrounding
wadis. In some places, indeed, they are so
numerous that there are few hilltops which
do not bear traces of one of these temples,
so that the author had to content himself
with an examination of those which seemed
most important. In most cases were found
large rectangular enclosures of excellent
masonry, though generally very ruinous, and
often subdivided by lines of short square
columns, occasionally surmounted by rudely
designed but excellently worked capitals.
Within the enclosure walls, or in line with
them, were always to be found large Mega-
lithic structures, resembling the Stonehenge
trilithons, but the jambs of which are often
formed of two or three stones instead of one.
These (the Senams proper) are carefully
dressed on the side facing the enclosure,
and in the jambs are singular square perfora-
tions and angle-cut holes, which appear to
have been formed to support wooden struc-
tures. The Senams rest on footing-stones,

and vary in height from 6 to 15 feet; but
the average width between the jambs is only
i6 inches. In front of some were found
massive stone altars, carefully grooved, and
flush with the ground. A few sculptures,
the subjects of which are Phallic, and show
Roman influence, were also noticed, in one
case a Senam itself being thus ornamented.
There is, indeed, much evidence to show
that the Romans occupied and utilized these
sites without knocking down the Senams or
destroying the form of worship. Roman
work is mixed up in nearly every case with
the work of Senam builders. A feature worth
notice is the existence of carpentry forms,
which would point to the district having at
one time been densely timbered ; and to the
destruction of these woods (probably by the
Arabs) is no doubt due the waterless and
poverty-stricken condition of the country at
this day. It is to be noticed that if we except
the Stonehenge trilithones, there appear to
be no other Megalithic remains, even in
Mediterranean countries, with which we can
compare the Tripoli series, or which show an
equal mastery in the art of masonry. In
most cases the Senams appear to have stood
free in their enclosures, and were no doubt
symbolical and connected with rites of some
sort. It is remarkable that many Babylonian
seals show a figure exactly like a Senam
placed in the rear of an altar before which
stands an adoring priest. It seems possible,
indeed, that in the Senams we have symbolic
effigies akin to the ' Asherah' so often alluded
to in the Old Testament, and which was
worshipped in connection with Molech and
Baal. Asherah, the symbol of the goddess
of fertility, would probably take some such
form, and from such a worship sprang no
doubt the widely-spread customs of squeezing
between columns and stones to cure diseases.
Further evidence in favour of these being
temples of a form of Baal worship may be
found in their situations, always on hilltops,
essentially 'high places,' and possibly also in
the character of the carvings."
g <$> f$
There seems to be a fate that no issue of the
Antiquary shall appear, without having to
contain a record of some disastrous "resto-
ration " of an ancient church being either
projected, or in progress, or, worse still,



completed. This month it is from Ware-
ham, in Dorset, that the mischief is reported.
Antiquaries owe thanks to Sir J. C. Robinson
and the Society for the Protection of Ancient
Buildings for raising a protest against the
destruction of ancient work, which is being
quite needlessly perpetrated in that town.
From the replies of the Rev. Selwyn Blackett
to his critics, it is obvious that that gentle-
man is wholly ignorant of the mischief he is
doing. We give him every credit for a proper
desire to see his churches put in decent and
seemly order, but that is quite another matter
to destroying their ancient features. Mr.
Blackett, in his attempt to write smart replies
to Sir J. C. Robinson and the Society for
the Protection of Ancient Buildings, shows
how completely he fails to realize the true,
and unscholarly character of what he is doing.
All this points, as we have said before, to the
need for a central, controlling authority which
shall deal with the proposed restoration of
all ancient national buildings, whether secular
or ecclesiastical. Churches suffer most fre-
quently because they are, in most cases, the
only ancient buildings remaining. Secular
buildings, however, stand in just as great
need of some system of national protection
as ecclesiastical edifices.

4f 4p 4p

Most persons who are familiar with "restora-
tions " have heard, too often, that " the walls
were falling out and the roof was falling in,"
to pay much heed to such an excuse urged by
Mr. Blackett for the mischief complained of.
Nor is it any defence to tell us that "a faculty
was publicly applied for." Everybody knows
what a farce the application for a restoration
" faculty " usually is. What occurs is this : A
long legal rigmarole in writing is nailed to one
of the church doors, where it remains for one
Sunday. It generally occupies about twenty
sheets of foolscap, and somewhere, hidden in
its profuse verbiage, is an invitation to people
to appear in the Bishop's Court on a specified
day, and state their objections. The day
comes, the court, consisting of a clerical
surrogate with an apparitor, assembles in an
out-of-the-way corner of the cathedral church ;
a lawyer and the restoring parson also appear,
and the latter formally requests the issue of
the faculty, which is, as a rule, then and
there decreed. The wh,ole affair takes less

than five minutes, and is almost always a
mere form. It provides no safeguard what-
ever against mischief, and its "publicity"
is an utter farce, as no one can know better
than those who have been personally con-
cerned in obtaining such a faculty.

ij? fr r J

The following is Mr. Blackett's reply to the
Society for the Protection of Ancient Build-
ings. It will be seen that he admits the
rebuilding of the chancel. This is a fact
which will scarcely reassure " antiquarians "
(as he calls them) as to the rest of what he
is doing. He says : " Your letter in the
Times to-day (5th inst.) induces me to write
to you about St. Martin's Church, in this
town of Wareham. Whilst thankful to any-
one who will draw attention to our churches
here, I regret that you should have followed
Sir J. C. Robinson's blunders. His letter
would have much more weight if he had not
sneered at ' pious old ladies.' We parsons
are well able to take care of ourselves, but it
was, to put it mildly, an ungentlemanly thing
for Sir J. C. Robinson to write in such terms
of two ladies who are far better known in
this county than Sir J. C. Robinson him-
self. However, putting aside his unfortunate
method of expressing himself (!), he is quite
wrong in his facts. He complains of the
recent rebuilding of the chancel of St. Mary's
and the erection of an organ chamber. The
rebuilding was an absolute necessity if the
chancel was to be used for divine service ;
the walls were falling out and the roof was
falling in. The question remains whether
the work was done with due care to retain
everything of historical interest. A faculty
was publicly applied for ; the subject was
carefully considered by the bishop and by
an antiquarian whom the bishop frequently
consulted upon such matters, and the plans
were approved. The architect was no un-
known 'prentice hand, but the former diocesan
surveyor, G. R. Crickmay, Esq., of West-
minster and Weymouth. You may perhaps
have heard of a fine old Norman church at
Studland, in this neighbourhood, which was
admirably restored a few years ago (1880),
after some suggestions from your society ;
this restoration was carried out under the
superintendence of Mr. Crickmay. To most
people this will be quite sufficient evidence



that we have not been acting in the reckless
manner described so amusingly by Sir J. C.
Robinson. If Sir J. C Robinson had in-
formed me of his visit, I could have pointed
out to him various points of antiquarian
interest brought to light during the seven
years of my residence here. I do not know
of anything of interest that has been removed
from the church, with the exception of an
oak screen which is now in Sir J. C. Robin-
son's house, and which I should be very
glad to see replaced in the church. He has
been entirely misinformed about the effigies,
and has merely guessed that they have been
removed from under canopies. He is also
wrong about the antiquity of Holy Trinity,
which is a hideous recent structure upon a
very ancient base. You state in your letter
that the people of Wareham appear to be
ignorant of the treasure that we have in
St. Martin's. Antiquarians who have paid
us a visit could tell you of the deep interest
which I take in this interesting old building,
but these antiquarians have done me the
honour of letting me know that they were
coming to see the church ; unfortunately,
Sir J. C. Robinson did not do so, and hence
his mistakes. That the people of Wareham
subscribed to put on a new roof to prevent
the rain getting into St. Martin's is a proof
that we do value our antiquarian treasure. I
am not writing to the Times to defend myself
from the slur cast upon me by Sir J. C.
Robinson and yourself. I will leave that to
your own sense of what is fitting, though I
should certainly be glad for the public to
know that I am not the careless trustee of
precious historical buildings that you have
described me. If you will help me to obtain
funds to preserve St. Martin's I shall be
deeply grateful ' both to yourself and to Sir
J. C. Robinson for having called public at-
tention to our churches. You will surely
not be satisfied to tell us our duty and not
help us to do it." The Times of October 15
contains a long and trenchant reply from Sir
J. C. Robinson. We regret that we cannot
find space to insert it in the Antiquary for
this month.

$ J? ^
The following paragraph from a recent
number of the Local Government Journal
may, we think, be conveniently placed on

record in the pages of the Antiquary. To
most of our readers it will probably be a
surprise to learn how completely the old
obnoxious turnpike system is already a thing
of the past :

" It is an interesting fact, that of all the
turnpike trusts with which this country
abounded in the last generation, there re-
mains only one in existence. Possibly it will
be a surprise to some people to hear that
there is even one survivor of such an un-
popular system of road government, but it
would not be possible to make the assertion
a few weeks hence. The Shrewsbury and
Holyhead turnpike has for the most part been
already thrown open, but the portion of the
road which traverses the island of Anglesey
was continued in existence by a special Act
of 1 890 until November 1 of the present year.
Thirty years ago there were no fewer than
1,047 turnpike trusts in England and Wales,
with 20,189 miles of road supported by tolls."

fa $? 4?
A correspondent in Norfolk writes to us, while
these notes are passing through the press, as
follows :

' The appended cutting from the Lynn
Advertiser of the 12th inst. might, I think,
call for some notice from the Antiquary. I
need not add to what it says, but it seems
deplorable that a site of such peculiar interest,
consecrated to Divine worship for so many
centuries, should be abandoned in such an
off-hand manner. I scarcely understand
whether the existing church, of which the
chancel has long been in ruins, and which is
mostly a fifteenth-century structure, on the
ancient site, seemingly in fair repair other-
wise a few years ago, when I visited it, is to
be demolished, or simply intended to perish
slowly from decay or neglect. One or the
other seems to be intended. It seems regret-
table that the Royal owner and patron
(H.R.H. the Prince of Wales) should not
expend something in keeping this edifice
in repair rather than in providing a ' new and
suitable iron church with a thatched roof,' 1 in
a position which is, I dare say, a good deal
more convenient to Canon Hervey and his
curate ! The population of Babingley, about
whose convenience and 'enjoyment' (!) so
much is said, seem, at the census of 1881, to
have consisted of 'fifty-eight persons all told



" Large sums were spent on the same
royal demesne a few years ago in over-
' restoring ' the church at Wolferton ; but,
then, that is close to the railway-station at
which the numerous stream of illustrious
visitors arrive and depart, while Babingley is
alone in its picturesque isolation, and has
nothing but the memory of St. Felix and
the conversion of East Anglia to plead for

The following is the paragraph in the Lynn
Advertiser referred to :

"Babingley: The Church. What is
likely to be the last of a long series of Sunday
services was conducted in the old church on
Sunday, September 29, and on the following
Sunday the parishioners assembled for the
first time in a new and suitable iron church
with thatched roof, which H.R.H. the Prince
of Wales has graciously caused to be erected
close to the high-road. Here the Rev.
Canon Hervey, rector, conducted the after-
noon service, which was heartily enjoyed by
most of the villagers, and by many of their
friends. The old church stands on a spot
that abounds with memories and associations
of a long distant past. It was there, tradition
asserts, that in 631 a.d. St. Felix landed from
his boat, and preached on the shore to the
people of Babingley. By-and-by a church
arose on the spot, which in course of time
fell to ruins : then another was built on the
same site, and that, too, is now in ruins ; the
houses which it is said once clustered around
it have long since passed to decay, and not a
vestige of them is apparent. The old church
stands alone on the marshes, approached by
no road in rain and snow practically in-
accessible and such worshippers as braved
the elements and attended the services in
winter, had to wade through long, wet grass,
and to slip about in exceedingly moist and
adhesive mire, before they could get there.
Time has been gradually doing its work of
decay and destruction for many a long year,
and the tremendous gale of last March put
the finishing stroke to the process, for the old
church became no longer fit for the purposes
for which it was built, and which it has served
for many a century."

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales
is patron of the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeo-
logical Society, as well as a Fellow of the

Society of Antiquaries. We cannot believe
that the matter has been placed before him
in its true light

OateMtiarfes on paper.

By Miss E. E. Thoyts.

IN these days of universal research
it is quite a surprise to find any
unexplored subject. Curiously
enough, however, the subject of
water-marks on paper has received very little
attention. Yet, as an article of commerce,
paper has been made in many parts of Europe
from a comparatively early period, and it has
borne distinguishing water-marks for many
centuries. Probably these marks were at
first used to prevent, or check illicit paper-
making, for in most countries the manufac-
ture of paper was a royal monopoly. How-
ever, within the last two centuries paper-marks
have gradually changed their character, and
from being badges and trade-marks, they have
come to be the means of distinguishing the
different sizes of the sheets of paper.

With the history of paper-making proper
I do not intend to deal at any length. Paper
is believed to have had its origin in the East,
and it is said that the earliest papers were
manufactured from silk. My intention is to
give a short description of such marks as I
have myself found on paper, and trace in
some measure the manufacture of paper in the
past in England.

There is very little information to be found
in print on the subject. Encyclopaedias
blindly follow one another in their state-
ments, and quickly leave the unexplored and
historical part of the subject, to plunge
into descriptions of the methods of modern
paper-making, and the particular machines
made use of in the process.

Paper, as everyone knows, is an artificial
substance, ingeniously invented by man to
supply economically the place of parchment,
or the older papyrus leaf, from which it
derives its name. When paper was first in-
vented is not exactly known, and no specified



date can be truly assigned for it. However,
this much is certain, the need of some such
material made itself rapidly felt with the
advance of learning. Paper followed in the
wake of learning, and as early as the four-
teenth century it had come into comparatively
general use in Europe. As has been already
mentioned, the earlier paper is believed to
have been made of silk, but this was a
rare and costly substance, so that it is
no cause for surprise to learn that soon
afterwards flax was used for paper. At
the present time almost any fibrous sub-
stance can be made into paper. Rather more
than a hundred years ago (in 1772) a German
named Schaffers, or Scheoffers, wrote a
voluminous work on the subject, in which
he named, and described more than sixty
different substances from which paper could
be made. The animal, the vegetable, and
the mineral kingdoms were all brought into
requisition, and such diverse substances as
silk, spiders' webs, flax and other plants, and
asbestos, are each named by him.

The earliest paper used in England was
undoubtedly imported hither from the Conti-
nent, and it has been asserted that little or
no paper was manufactured in England until
late in the seventeenth century. This, how-
ever, is a statement which is open to a con-
siderable element of doubt. The chief homes
of the paper-making industry were the German
States and the Netherlands. Between those
countries and England, a brisk trade was
carried on, especially in the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries. Although water-marks
originated as badges, they eventually came
(as I have already observed), to be used for
the purpose of distinguishing between the
different kinds of paper, and the sizes in
which the sheets were to fold.

All paper was at first made by hand in
frames, and the old water marks were devices
formed of brass wire, which were woven into
the wires of the frames. The older kinds of
paper are coarse, and dark in colour, from
not having been thoroughly sized. The tex-
ture is more that of modern " blotting-

Paper has been found as early as 1301
with the mark of an orb and cross. A small
black letter p by itself was used from the
time of Duke Philip de Romiere in 1349,

and it is of interest to know that the paper
of the first books printed in England, by
Caxton, bore this mark.


In the Low Countries, from 14 19 to 1467,
the letters " p . y," sometimes conjoined and


sometimes separate, were used. They stand
for Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and
Isabella his wife. She was a daughter of



John, King of Portugal, and was married to
Philip in 1429. According to the spelling of
those days her name began with " y."

to be found on paper in use as late as the
seventeenth century. Indeed, the fleur-
de-lys, and perhaps some of the others,
lasted even later than this.

fool's cap mark. 1656.

fool's cap mark. 1704.

The bull's-head, sometimes with a star or
flower between the horns, is the mark on the
paper of some of Faust's early printed books.


fool's cap mark, circa 1700.

The House of Burgundy also used other
marks, such as the fleur-de-lys, the anchor,
the unicorn, the bull's head, all of which are


As the marks came to distinguish various
kinds and sizes of paper, so they soon gave
their names to the kinds of paper, as " fools-


3 2 9

cap," "pot," "post," "hand," and other
designations, more or less familiar at the
present day. Of these none is better known


than " foolscap." This water-mark has been
traced back to 1479, and the marks are, as a
rule, vigorously designed and clearly out-

pot-mark. 1660.

lined. In the middle of the eighteenth
century a figure of Britannia was substituted
for the fool's cap, at least in our own country.


The post-horn mark is found as far back
as 1370, the earlier instances of the mark
being rudely outlined. At a late period,
(perhaps the middle of the seventeenth
century), the post-horn was enclosed in a
shield, varying somewhat in design. No
doubt each manufacturer shaped it to suit his
own ideas. The only examples I have found
with names attached are distinctly foreign.

Older than post-paper for English writings
is pot-paper, a paper which bears a mark
distinctive of Dutch-made paper. No two
of these marks are ever quite alike ; some are
plain, others bear the word " pott " or
" pot " on the centre band. This was after-
wards replaced by the maker's initials.


Many pot-marks have the cover of the pot
formed of a crown (often imperfect), sur-
mounted by a quatrefoil or a crescent.

There are two types of the pot-mark. One
is formed of a single-handed jug, the other is
a two - handled narrow - necked vase, sur-
mounted by a pyramid of balls. Pot-marks
are not found after the seventeenth century ;
they were then replaced by the Dutch, or
English coats-of-arms. Hand-paper was so
called from the open hand it bore. This is one
of the oldest marks, and was constantly used
by the presses of Germany and the Nether-
lands in the early days of printing.

Sometimes the hand is clothed in an iron
gauntlet, and in others it looks as if it were

2 u



covered by a glove or mitten. The initials
of the maker's name are often shown on a
band round the wrist. Always above the
middle finger is a star. This water-mark was
used in 1568 by N. Grimaldi, but it was well



known for more than a hundred years before
his time.

In a subsequent article I shall have occa-
sion to speak of other water-marks, and also
say something as to the history of paper-
making in England.

Cratiitions ant) Customs

delating to Deatb ann I5urtal in


By Miss Florence Peacock.

HERE are many deeply - rooted,
though for the most part seldom -
mentioned, beliefs and observances
touching upon death and its im-
mediate surroundings prevalent all over
Britain ; and unfortunately year by year these
traditionary customs are becoming less and
less practised. It is not that they are for-
gotten, for it takes centuries to root out
beliefs of this nature amongst the uneducated;

but the people who yet hold, and in secret
cling closely to them, have become con-
scious that they are looked upon as super-
stitious, silly, or wicked, and so they shrink
from doing what might bring ridicule upon
themselves or the dead. They do not
realize that the educated classes only a few
generations ago believed in these rites, forms,
ceremonies, and traditions as firmly as they
themselves do now.

The great difficulty to be overcome in
endeavouring to obtain information upon
these and kindred subjects, is the reluctance
the English peasant evinces in speaking of
them to anyone whom he regards, either by
reason of education, position, or any other
cause, as superior to himself. But if only he
can be got to express himself naturally, he is
capable of putting his knowledge into clear
and at times even artistic or pathetic lan-
guage : yet if you inadvertently disturb or
hurry the flow of his ideas by an injudicious
question, he at once either stops talking to
you altogether, or professes to know nothing
more upon the subject, and for that time at
least no more can be obtained from him.

Online LibraryPhoebe PalmerThe Antiquary (Volume 31) → online text (page 57 of 67)