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who may read these short Tales to turn to the
original novels themselves. Sir Walter Scott is
often credited with having been the originator of the
modern High Church and aesthetic tastes of the pre-
sent day. We rather think, too, that some of the
interest taken in the study of archaeology is also due
to his novels. In this belief we hope his books will
be more widely read than ever. The Tales form an
excellent introduction to the books themselves.



On the Processes for the Production of Ex-
Li bris. By John Vinycomb. Cloth, 8vo.
Pp. viii, 96. London : A. and C. Black.
Price 3s. 6d.

Quite an extensive literature is rising up on the sub-
ject of book-plates, wholly out of proportion to their
relative importance.

A few years ago there were comparatively few
collectors of book-plates, and they were men of taste
who knew what they were about. At the present time
the outlook suggests, before long, a rivalry with
postage-stamp collecting ; and the worst of it is,
many a fine old binding is injured for the sake of
detaching a book-plate by someone who has taken to
collecting, as one of the latest fashions of the day.
As regards Mr. Vinycomb's book itself, we have
nothing but praise to bestow upon it. He gives a
clear and succinct account of the various methods of
producing book-plates. This is, however, of a much
wider application, and is really a description of the
different methods of book illustration at large, but
written for the instruction of the collector of book-
plates. We should have thought that the two older
methods of copper-plate engraving, or of wood blocks,
ought alone to have been recommended, but we see
that Mr. Vinycomb advocates the use of process
blocks.

The book is nicely printed, and it contains a series
of reproductions of book-plates. We are bound to
say, however, that several of these are examples of
just what a book-plate ought not to be. We refer to
such examples as those opposite pp. 47, 5S, 60, 72,
75, 79, and others, in which the attempt to he original,
or eccentric, threatens to bring the modern book-
plate into utter disrepute. In one of these bastard
designs (we will not say on whose book-plate it
occurs) the legend is ungrammatical Latin.



32



SHORT NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.



(Reviews of the following hooks are held
over : The Tudor Translations, VI. ; Essay Con-
timing the Pygmies of the Ancients ; More Celtic
/'airy 7 ales : Braze Translunary Things : Abstracts
of Protocols of the Town Clerks of Glasgoie, I. ; Old
English Embroidery, etc.)



Corccsponocnce.

THE ELIZABETHAN BATH IN LONDON'S
STRAND.

Mr. Harry Hems writes to us under the above
heading as follows :

Referring to my letter in the current issue of the
Antiquary, relative to the above most interesting bath,
the following appears in the Builder for the 10th inst. :

" The recent appropriation of the old bath, called
1 The Karl of Essex's Bath,' by the pulling down of
the old house in Strat.d Lane, Strand, in which it was
contained (for the site of the Norfolk Hotel), is
likely to deprive London of a relic of the past which
is both interesting and useful. The bath is supplied
by the spring that fills the adjoining Roman bath.
For a while it yet remains beneath the flooring of a
side-kitchen in the basement of the hotel, which has
been erected under a building-lease granted by the
Duke of Norfolk, and will shortly be opened. We
understand, however, that, failing any measures for
its preservation, it is proposed to empty the bath by
diverting the flow of water. In that event it will
probably be filled in, or utilized in some way that
will obliterate its existence altogether. We may here
observe that Essex House, so-named after Robert
Devereux, Earl of Essex, stood on the site of the
Uuter Temple, where are now Devereux Court and
Essex Street, between Middle Temple and Milford
Lane, and was originally built for the Bishops of
Exeter on lease from the Knights of St. John. Be-
tween Milford Lane and Strand Lane was Arundel
Place, formerly the town house of the Bishops of
Bath and Wells, bought for ,41 6s. 8d. by Henry
FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, ob. 1579. Essex House
had belonged for a term to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk,
who parted with it to the Earl of Leicester ; a portion
of it remained until 1777 ; Arundel Place, or House,
was taken down in 1678/'

In this week's numl)er of the same publication is
the following, which, alas ! seems to point a sorrowful
secpiel to my communication to this journal. It reads :

" The Earl of Essex's Bath. In reference to the
note on this subject in our last issue, Messrs. Dorrell
and Co., builders, inform us that the marble linings
of the bath, and the old Purbeck paving, were taken
out last year, and the maible was used as far as it
would go in lining the Roman bath adjoining, which
was also repaved with the old paving of the Essex
bath, under the direction of Mr. Loftus Brock.
Messrs. Dorrell have kindly sent us a photograph
taken of the Essex bath before it was destroyed."

Both liaths, when I saw them last, were in an
excellent state cf preservation, and the Roman bath
certainly required no lining. The marble bath of the



Earl of Essex was much larger (I speak in the past sense,
unfortunately, for it seems it is now really destroyed)
than the Roman bath, so it is hard to understand
the meaning of the expression that the marble was to
be " used as far as it would go."

The whole thing sounds very much as savouring
of the action of the cobra at the Zoo, who recently
swallowed his friend, save that, according to this
story, the smaller has taken in the larger !

Fair Park, Exeter,

November 19, 1894.



WASSAILING THE APPLE-TREES.
Mr. F. J. Snell writes to us as follows :
" Apropos of an article in the March number of the
Antiquary on ' Wassailing the Apple trees,' it appears
that a similar custom obtains in other parts of the
country, as well as in Devonshire and Somerset. In
the neighbourhood of Oswestry, for instance, it was
foimerly, and may still be, the practice for children to
go in parties from house to house, on November 2,
singing :

" Wissel wassel, bread and posset,
An apple or a pear, a plum or a cherry,
Or any good thing to make us merry.
Go down in your cellar and fetch us some beer,
And we won't come here till next year.
" Sol [soul ?] cakes, sol cakes,
I pray you, good mistress, a sol cake,
One for Peter, and two for Paul,
And three for the good man that made us all.
" God bless the master of this house,
God bless the mistress too,
And all the little children

Around the table, too.
" Their pockets lined with silver,
Their barrels filled with beer,
Their pantry filled with pork-pies
I wish I had some here.
"The roads are very dirty,
My shoes are very thin,
I've got a little pocket,
To put a penny in.

Up with the kettle and down with the pan,
Give us an answer and we will be gone.
"It is said that the third verse is still sung in the
West Riding of Yorkshire, when the girls go round
with their 'wassail-tree.'"



Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly
obliged to publishers if they will always state the pt ice
of books sent for review.

To intending Contributors. Unsolicited MSS.
ivill always receive careful attention, but the Editor
cannot return them if not accepted unless a fully
stamped and directed envelope is enclosed. To this
rule no exception will be made.

It would be well if those proposing to submit MSS.
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and
manner of treatment.

letters containing queries can only be inserted in the
" ANTIQUARY " if of general interest, or on some new
subject. The Editor cannot ututertake to reply pri-
vately, or through the " ANTIQUARY," to questions of
the ordinary nature that sometimes reach him. No
attention is paid to attonymous communications or
zuould-be contributions.



NOTES OE THE MONTH.



33




The Antiquary.



FEBRUARY, 1895.

jftotes of t6e 99ont6.

The Roman villa at Darenth, Kent, is as-
suming very extensive proportions, and fifteen
men have been daily engaged upon the
work of excavating for the past six weeks.
The plan of the building, as at present
developed, consists of a series of rooms,
corridors, baths, and other chambers, cover-
ing an unbroken length of 350 feet from
east to west. In front of this long stretch
of apartments is a wide corridor, to the
south of which are two walled courts, one
being 91 feet wide, the other 78 feet, and
both are 92 feet in length. These courts
are divided by a huge building 84 feet in
length, the walls of which at the ground-
level are 4 feet thick, faced on the interior
side with tiles to a depth of seventeen courses.
The tiles on one side have been torn away
for a considerable length, but on the other
they are intact. The head of this building
terminates in a semicircular tank, curving
outwards, with a tiled gutter leading into it,
and an outlet towards the river. This tank
and the channel of its outlet must have been
originally lined with lead, which has since
been misappropriated. Along the outsides
of the courts, rooms and other enclosures
occur for a short distance. In the main
block of the house are three baths, one a
cold bath, another was heated by a hypo-
caust, and a third, being 39J feet long by
10 feet wide, was large enough to swim in.
This great bath has four steps with rounded
edges leading into it ; the bottom is paved
with tiles. During Roman times it was
vol. xxxi.



divided by a wall, one-half of it being then
used as a stokehole for the warm bath
adjoining. Contiguous to the baths are the
dilapidated remains of three hypocausts,
indicating that there were warmed rooms
in connection with them. During some
alteration to the house these apartments
were done away with, as the space they
occupied had been filled in with mortar
rubbish, upon the top of which a concrete
floor had been laid at a higher level.
Three of the summer rooms of the house
are paved with red tesserae, the remainder
with white concrete. All of them are divided
by hollow plaster partitions. The 9-inch
space between the plaster may have been
filled up with timber. The walls of all these
rooms were adorned with distemper painting,
many fragments of which have been pre-
served. One room belonging to this suite is
48 feet by 16 feet, with walls still existing,
4 feet in height, covered with paintings in
excellent preservation. The hypocausts of
the heated chambers are especially interesting.
Four floors were laid upon piles of tiles, two
upon low narrow walls of masonry, one upon
thirty-four large flue-tiles, each tile measuring
16 inches in height. Another floor, paved
with red tesserae, was laid upon channels
9 inches apart, built with blocks of chalk.
Two or three of the archways leading from
the stokeholes into the hypocausts are per-
fect. Outside the south-west corner of the
eastern court the foundations of a store or
granary have been laid bare, and beyond the
south-west corner of the western court other
outbuildings are being traced. Along the
entire western side of the villa and its en-
closures is a wall which appears to have been
set up for the protection of the property
against the floods of the river. Some of the
water channels and drains connected with
the establishment are well preserved.
Numerous objects have been found during
the progress of the work, consisting of nails,
knives, a spear-head, many articles in bronze,
bone, and iron for the adornment of the
person, and coins ranging from Domitian to
Valens. The villa will be kept open for in-
spection throughout the year, so that societies
and the public generally may have an oppor-
tunity of visiting the site of these extensive
discoveries.



34



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



The Kent Archaeological Society will, we are
informed, hold its annual meeting this year
at Cranbrook. We take this opportunity of
correcting a slip in the December number of
the Antiquary, where it was said that Canon
Scott Robertson is the hon. secretary of the
society. Mr. Robertson resigned that office
some time ago, when he was succeeded by
Mr. Geo. Payne, F.SA., the present
secretary.

4p 4p 4?

Considerable interest has been excited in
Scotland by the discovery of a supposed
" prehistoric cave " at Oban, which was found
in excavating for the foundations of some
new houses in that town. The cave, which
was revealed in blasting a large rock, is of
considerable size, and contains a very large
amount of human bones with loose sea-shells
and other objects. A further critical examina-
tion of the cave seems to point to a different
explanation of the presence of the bones and
shells from that adopted at first. The Rev.
Dr. Stewart, F.S.A. Scot, has examined the
cave, and he has come to a conclusion re-
garding it which, while denying its archaeo-
logical character, is of scarcely less interest
than that originally assigned to it when first
opened out. Dr. Stewart states that in his
opinion the cave is of the same date and
character as that of another cave which was
discovered behind the Oban Distillery a few
years ago. It never was, he believes, used as
a dwelling-place, nor as a place of burial. All
the shells and bones were, in his opinion,
thrown up into the hollow of the rock by a
marine inundation of very ancient date, or by
some huge tidal wave, which seems to have
overtaken and drowned the people then
dwelling in rude huts close by the foreshores
of the bay. Dr. Stewart made a minute ex-
amination of the shells, a few of which are
not now to be found in the waters of the
western sea-board. The presence of these
shells seems to indicate an Arctic state of
climate at the time of the suggested cata-
clysm. Although there appears to be every
probability that Dr. Stewart's surmise as to
the character of the cave is the correct one
so far as it goes in a negative direction, there
is no doubt that the cave will receive that
attention on the part of experts which it un-



doubtedly seems to call for, and antiquaries
will await further reports as to it with in-
terest.

$ $ $

A workman digging clay recently in a brick-
yard at Driffield, Yorkshire, at a depth of
about four feet came across a vase, or urn,
lying partly on its side, and, with the excep-
tion of chipping a little piece off the flange at
the mouth, succeeded in getting it out entire.
Nothing was found along with the urn.
The urn, though destitute of the least orna-
mentation, has been turned upon a wheel,
and is a fine example of early pottery. It
stands 5 inches high, is 2 inches across the
flange of the mouth, 2 inches across the
mouth, is 4 inches across its greatest circum-
ference, which is nearer the bottom than the
top, and stands upon a circular base 2 inches
across. It is of a blue-gray clay, and is well
baked, apparently having been fired in a kiln.
The urn is probably a Roman cinerary urn,
and if this is the case the discovery is one of
more than passing interest, as no Roman
antiquities have ever been hitherto unearthed
at Driffield.

ifr jj? $?

A matter for much congratulation on the
part of antiquaries and others, is the news
that the vandalistic proposal to submerge
the Island of Philae, in Egypt, with its
beautiful temples, has been abandoned.

$? $? $?

We are advised to raise a warning voice
against forged matrices of mediaeval and
later official seals, which are believed to be
somewhat extensively in the market. A very
curious story has reached us, which we have
every reason to know is quite authentic, in
relation to the matrix, or supposed matrix, of
an English episcopal seal. The details of
the story we are not, however, permitted to
give. In another case it would seem that
the method of the forger was to combine
different component parts of impressions
from two, or even three genuine seals, and
then to take an electrotype from this ingenious
combination. The electrotype was worked
up to look like a genuine matrix, and even
silvered over, and partly oxidized. The



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



35



deception was almost complete, and the
motto of every antiquary who receives an
offer of a seal should be caveat emptor.
The interest lately taken in municipal and
ecclesiastical seals in this country is thought
to have something to do with this interesting
enterprise. The forger or forgers (who are
believed to reside in Paris) set a high value
on their productions, and will ask ^50 for a
seal which, if genuine, would be worth ^5.
The old story of the forged seal of the city
of Worcester of fifty years ago (also bought
in France) will be in the recollection of many
antiquaries.

*$? 'k &

The current fashion of celebrating centenaries
and anniversaries has been made use of by
the Vicar of All Hallows, Barking, to com-
memorate, by a series of services and lectures,
the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary, on
January 10, of the execution of Archbishop
Laud. In connection with the celebration of
this anniversary an exhibition of relics con-
nected with the Archbishop and his times
has been brought together, including, as
usual, among many that are highly interesting
and of unquestionable authority, one or two
of a more doubtful character. Among the
latter is, of course, the inevitable cup used as
a chalice, from which Charles I. received
the last sacrament before his execution. It
would be interesting to ascertain how many
of these there are in existence ; certainly
three or four, and perhaps even more.

Probably the most authentic of these cups
is one which is preserved at Welbeck Abbey,
and which bears an inscription stating that
Charles I. received " the communion in this
boule" on January 30, 1649, "the day in
which he was murthered." It is a plain cup,
with a deep bowl, and a thin stem of baluster
shape. Whether it, even, is really the cup
used as a chalice on the occasion of the
King's last communion, is open to doubt ;
but it certainly possesses a greater element of
authenticity than the others for which a
similar claim is made.

4p 4f

Archbishop Laud was one of those men
whose character is so variously appreciated by
different persons that it will always be diffi-



cult to arrive at any unbiased judgment con-
cerning him. That he was a great man, and
that he played a great part in the history of
his time, no fair-minded person will deny.
One point in regard to him is worth clearing
up, if indeed it be possible to do so, and that
is what truth there may be, or not, in the
story that the Pope offered to make him a
cardinal. He relates it as a fact himself,
and we do not, of course, mean to cast any
suspicion on his word, but the question is
whether he was not himself deceived in the
matter, or under some misapprehension. It
is a subject worthy of a little more investiga-
tion than it seems to have received. One
excellent result of the recent commemoration
has been the delivery of some valuable lec-
tures on Laud and his times by the Bishop
of Peterborough, and others.

$? $? $
After a service of no less than forty-three
years, the Rev. C. R. Manning, F.S.A.,
Rector of Diss, has resigned the post of
honorary secretary of the Norfolk and Nor-
wich Archaeological Society, and is succeeded
by the Rev. W. Hudson, M.A., of Norwich,
who has latterly acted as his colleague. It
would be difficult to estimate, how much the
study of archeology in East Anglia owes to
Mr. Manning's patient labours, during his
lengthened period of office as secretary of
the Norfolk Society. His uniform kindness
and courtesy to all with whom he has been
brought in contact, will be long and gratefully
remembered. A few years ago the Council
of the Society of Antiquaries, in order to
show their appreciation of Mr. Manning's
services in the cause of archaeology, exercised
a special right reserved to them by the
statutes in exceptional cases, and elected
Mr. Manning a Fellow of the society without
submitting his name to the ballot, a distinc-
tion as exceptional as it was undoubtedly
merited. Mr. Manning carries with him
the good wishes of all antiquaries in his well-
earned retirement.

While speaking of Mr. Manning's long period
of service we may, perhaps, conveniently
place on record at the same time, the state-
ment, which appears to be made on good
authority, that in the whole history of the



36



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



House of Commons, no member has con-
tinuously represented the same constituency
for so long a period as Mr. C. P. Villiers,
who has recently completed his sixtieth year
as Member of Parliament for Wolverhampton.
Such an event in the history of the House of
Commons seems to be worthy of record in
the pages of the Antiquary.

ifc r J> ty
Mr. Arthur G. Langdon announces for pub-
lication by subscription an illustrated work
on the " Old Cornish Crosses." The book
is to be a quarto volume of 400 pages, and
will be published by Mr. Pollard of Truro at
30s. net, or to subscribers at 25s. The
prospectus draws attention to the fact that in
1858 Mr. J. T. Blight's book on Ancient
Crosses and Antiquities of Cornwall (which
illustrated about 120 examples) did much to
dispel the ignorance with which the whole
subject had been surrounded. In Mr. Lang-
don's book about three times the number of
crosses will be included as compared with
those in Mr. Blight's book. There is evi-
dently plenty of room for a new work on the
subject, and our readers will be glad to learn
that it is to be dealt with by so competent a
person as Mr. Langdon.

ij? ifc ^
The fine, though incomplete church of St.
Wulfran at Abbeville is no doubt familiar to
many readers of the Antiquary, lying, as it
does, on the highway from London to Paris.
We regret to learn that it is in a serious con-
dition of insecurity, and needs considerable
reparation. Judging, however, from other
instances of " restoration " as carried out in
France, we fear that the church is in almost
as much danger of being destroyed in the
process, as it would be if left to fall to pieces.
France, of all countries, probably carries off
the palm for destructive " restoration " of
churches.

'J? '$? *if
We desire to greet with a word of cordial
welcome the first number of Middlesex and
Hertfordshire Notes and Queries. When we
say that it is edited by Mr. W. J. Hardy,
F.S.A , we have indicated, we believe, quite
sufficiently the excellent character of the
new magazine. So much good work can
be done, and is being done, by magazines
dealing exclusively with local antiquities,



that it is almost a wonder Middlesex and
Hertfordshire have not hitherto had some
magazine of the kind. At any rate, the
omission has now been amply supplied, and
we have every confidence in the success of
the new magazine. It is published by
Messrs. Hardy and Page, Lincoln's Inn.
The first number just issued contains, as an
admirable frontispiece, a copy of the " Rain-
bow Picture " of Queen Elizabeth at Hat-
field. There are papers on the Parliament
Hill tumulus by Mr. G. H. Read and
Professor Hales, as well as papers by the
editor, Mr. J. J. Cartrighr, and others. We
welcome the new magazine with much plea-
sure and satisfaction.

$ $ $

We learn with satisfaction that the Benchers
of the Inner Temple have decided to print
the manuscript records of their Society.
These records date, we believe, from quite
the beginning of the sixteenth century, and
are full of important matter. Mr. Inder-
wick, Q.C., has undertaken to edit them.
Their publication will be awaited with much
interest.

4p 4p

The following is a list of the communications
to the Society of Antiquaries so far pro-
mised during the remainder of the present
session :

"On an Inventory of Relics in the Abbey
of St. Bertin at St. Omer, 1465," by
Edw. Peacock, Esq., F.S.A. ;

' On the Plan of a Roman Villa at Titsey,
Surrey, with special reference to a
Hypocaust lately discovered there," by
Granville Leveson-Gower, Esq., M.A.,
V.P., and George E. Fox, Esq., F.S.A. ;

" The Accounts of the Reeve of the Manor
of Appleby, co. Leicester, 1367-68," by
W. Paley Baildon, Esq., F.S.A. ;

" Notes upon an Ancient Egyptian Bronze
Incense-holder," by F. G. Hilton Price,
Esq., director ;

"Further Explorations on High Down
Hill, Sussex," by C. H. Read, Esq.,
secretary ;

" Recent Excavations at ;sica," by Robert
Blair, Esq., F.S.A., local secretary for
Northumberland ;



QUARTERLY NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN



37



* The Municipal Seals of England and

Wales," by W. H. St. John Hope, Esq.,

M.A., assistant secretary ;
'On a Mithraic Temple discovered at



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