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A curious song, called " Berrey D/ione"
(" Brown Berrey "), from one of her victims,
a brown ox of that name, though it speaks of
her as a witch, represents her as a thief.
There is a pool in the Cornaa River, to this
day called Pooyll-Berrey-Dhone, which is
pointed out as the place where she drowned
the ox before flaying it.

Under the title "The Effigy "t we have
given a story about a practitioner of the
" black art." This is the only story we know
which illustrates the use of sympathetic magic
by a native practitioner. There is, however,
a curious account of an imported practitioner
of this kind, Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of
Gloucester, who is said to have been confined
in the island, and it is certain that Sir Thomas
Stanley received an order from the King, in
1446, to convey her there. The following
account of her crime is given in Falgaris
Chronicle : " In the reign of Henry VI.,
among other friends of Humphrey, Duke of
Gloucester, his Duchess, Dame Eleanor, was
arrested. Roger Bolynbroke, a man expert
in necromancye, and a woman called Margery
Jourdemain, surnamed the Witch of Eye,
were charged with having, at the request of
the Duchess of Gloucester, devysed an ymage
of wax lyke unto the Kynge, the whych
ymage theye dealt so with that, by theyr

* Neither, f " Dirts," a contemptuous expression.

t Folk-lore of the Isle of Man, p. 90.

Nicholas's "Proceedings and Ordinances of the
Privy Council," quoted in Manx Soc, vol. ix., p. 19.
There is, however, no proof that this order was carried
out.

VOL. XXXI.



devyllish sorcery, they intended to brynge the
Kynge out of lyfe, for the which reason they
were adjudicated to die."* Keightly's His-
tory of England has also the following refer-
ence to the same subject : " The Duchess of
Gloucester was accused of treason and
sorcery. The charge was that, with the aid
of Roger Bolingbroke, one of the Duke's
chaplains who was said to deal with the black
art, and Margery Jourdemain, the Witch of
Eye, she had made a waxen image of the
King, to whom the Duke was next heir ; for,
according to the rules of magic, as it melted
away the King's health and strength would
decline. She owned to having directed
Bolingbroke to calculate the duration of the
King's life. The result was that Bolingbroke
was found guilty of treason and executed ; the
witch was burnt; the Duchess, after being
made to walk several times through the city
without a hood, and bearing a lighted taper,
was consigned for life to the custody of Sir
John Stanley, in the Isle of Man."f

Shakespeare's account of this transaction is
well known. J

We will conclude this chapter by append-
ing some additional charms which have been
recently collected.

For Quinsey. Take dust from the floor of
the room where the patient is, moisten it with
spittle, and rub it on the neck. (S. Douglas.)

The writer knows a woman who stated that
her son had been cured of quinsey in this
way, in 1893, when the doctor had failed.

For Warts. When the moon is full, take
a dish, put no water in it, take it outside the
door, and go through the motion of washing,
look to the moon, and say, " In the name of
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, I wash this
wart away." (C. Roeder, Rushen.)

For Nightmare. Get a holed shell or
stone, and put a string through the hole, and
tie it to the bed, and the nightmare will go
away. (C. Roeder, Rushen.)

For Whooping-cough. Pass the children
through the hopper of a corn-mill. (" Har-

* Falgan Chronicle, p. 394. Quoted in Manx Soc,
vol. ix., p. 19.

t Quoted in Brown's Isle of Man Guide, p. 139.
Sir John Stanley, however, died in 1432.

% King Henry VI., Act ii.

See Folk-lore of the Isle of Man, pp. 96-101, for
charms already given.

2 Y



346



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



ropdale," in Mane luster City Neivs.) Coughs
in general were suppose 1 to be cured by the
use of red flannel. The virtue lay in the
colour, not in the flannel.

For Ringworm. Put three sticks in the
fire, and when they are red pass them round
the ringworm mark one after the other, and
repeat the following words : " Ringworm,
ringworm, don't spring or spread no more;
go thee ways down to the dust. In name of
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." This charm
was only efficacious if repeated during church-
time on Sunday. It was given to our in-
formant (W. J. C. Braddan) by a Mrs. Q ,

in Baldwin, since deceased. She told him
that she would not give it to a woman, as
that would break the charm, as it could only
pass from a woman to a man, and from a man
to a woman. Our informant knows of many
cases of ringworm cured by this woman, and
the writer knows a man, now living, who was
cured by her.

Another Cure for Ringivorm.

Ringworm white,

Ringworm red,

I command thou wilt not spread ;

I divide thee to the east and west,

To the north and to the south,

Arise, in the name of the Father,

Son, and Holy Ghost.

(C Roeder, Rushen.)
Ringworm is called Chenney-Jee, "God's
Fire," in Manx.

For the Evil Eye. If a child is ill, sweep
the nearest four roads, take the dust there-
from and shake it over the child. To cure a
" butched " child or cow : Take a handful of
thatch from the house whence it is suspected
the harm has come, cut it up into small
pieces, and rub the sufferers with it. (C.
Roeder, Rushen.)

Mr. Roeder also quotes cases of a child, a
pig, and a pair of horses which had been
"overlooked." They were all cured by the
use of the herb vervine " vervain " which
was used in different ways in the three cases.
The child was given the herb to eat with
water. The pig had the herb " put over it
three times," with the incantation, " Evil
Spirit, in the name of the Father, Son, and
Holy Ghost, rise, and come out of the pig."
The horses were simply given the herb to eat
without water. All the patients of course
recovered. (Lezayre.)



(LL Bridson,



efficacious
especially



in



A Charm against all Diseases. The fol-
lowing, written on a piece of paper and worn
round the neck, would keep the bearer from
all diseases : " Ayns y toshiaght van Goo, as
va'n Goo marish Jee, as va'n Goo Jee. Va'n
Goo Cheddin ayns y toshiaght marish Jee.
Liorishyn va dy chooilley nhee ny Yannoo
(John i. 1-3). (R. C. Santon.)

A Cure for Cramp. Take off your shoe
and turn it upside down.
Braddan.)

The following charm was
illness generally, but more
rheumatism, if the patient was rubbed while
it was repeated : " Ta mee skeaylley yn guin
shoh ayns ennym yn ayr, as y Vac, as y
Spyrryd Noo.* My she guin, ayns ennym y
Chiarn, Ta mee skealley eh ass yn eill, ass
ny fehyn, as ass ny crauenyn." (" I spread
this pain in the name of the Father, and of
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost* If it is a
pain, in the name of the Lord, I spread it out
of the flesh, out of the sinews, and out of the
bones.") {From Dinah Moore, Raby ;
through Miss Graves.)

To prevent Milk being bewitched. On
May Eve put a branch of the cuirn (rowan) in
the cow-house.

To ward off the Effects of Witchcraft.
Take a red-hot coal from the fire with the
tongs and throw it over your shoulder. (C.
Roeder, Rushen.)



a List of tfje Jntientones of
Cfmccft <$oou$ maDe temp.
(EDtoam 1D3[.

By William Page, F.S.A.
{Continued from p. 278, vol. xxxi.)



COUNTY OF STAFFORD {continued).

10. Shareshyll.
Lappley.
Bradeley.
Brerywoode.
Coppnall.
Stretton.
Barkysweche.

11. Bednall.
Actontrusell.
Norbury.
Blynchyll.

* Here name the person to be cured.



A LIST OF THE INVENTORIES OF CHURCH GOODS.



347



COUNTY OF STAFFORD {continued).
Forton.

Churche Eyton.
Haghton.

12. Weston.
Shyreffhales.
Gnosall.
Castel Churche.
Pynkeryche.

13. Rugeley.
Cannocke.
Wolverhampton.
Codesall.

14. Hymley.
Bylston.
Sedgeley.
Envelde.
Rowley.
Clent.
Kynfare.
Tresull.
Are ley.

15. Overpen.
Byshtbury.
Bobynton.
Swynford Regis.
Womburne.
Patshyle.
Patyngham.
Tetnall.

16. Clyston Campvill.
Horlaston.

Chapell Churche in Lichfilde.

17. S. Myghelles in Lichfilde,
Stowe in Lichfilde.
Wylnall.

Dorlaston.
Weyforde.
Norton.
Tatynhyll.

18. Dunstall, a chapell of Tatenell.
Elforde.

Walsall.

Bloxwich.

Bromley Regis.

Longdon.

Edyngale.

Yoxhall.

19. Farewall.
Whyttyngton.
Pype Rydware.
Homerwyche.
Harmytage.
Draytton Bussel.
Alderyche and Barre.
Russhall.

Barton.
Westebromwyche.

20. Tamworth.
Hynce.
Newborow.
Alderwas.
Wednesbury.
Rydwar Maveson.
Rydwar Hampstall.
Roleston.



Publications ant) proceedings of
archaeological Societies.

PUBLICATIONS.
Part XLVI. of Arch^ologia .Ei.iana has been
issued. We suppose it must be taken as a sign of the
general tendency of modern archaeology to gravitate
towards ecclesiology, that of the six papers contained
in this part no less than five are on ecclesiastical sub-
jects. Time was, when the complaint used to be made,
that the Newcastle Society recognised nothing as an
antiquity, or worthy of its notice, which could not
establish its connection in some way or other with the
Roman occupation of Britain. The swing of the pen-
dulum seems now to be in the opposite direction, if
we are to judge from the contents of the part of
Archaologia sEliana before us. In spite of its rather
one-sided character, the part is a very good one. It
contains some additions to his former paper on Dar-
lington Church, and also an account of Hartlepool
Church, by the Rev. J. F. Hodgshon, who is recog-
nised as one of the most competent authorities on
church architecture in the north. The second paper
is a survey, temp. Charles II., of the churches in the
archdeaconry of Northumberland. This is followed
by an account of Chibburn, and the Knights Hospital-
lers in Northumberland. Then comes the one non-
ecclesiastical paper of the lot, by Major R. Mowat,
on "The Names of Caurasius on the Carlisle Mile
Stone." The sixth and concluding paper is by the
Rev. H. E. Savpge, and deals with Easington Church.
There are, we should add, a number of excellent
illustrations and plans.



PROCEEDINGS.
At the Anthropological Section of the meeting of the
British Association, held at Ipswich in September,
(we borrow our report from the East Anglian Daily
News), Mr. H. W. Seton-Karr read a paper on
" Stone Implements from Somaliland." He said his
first discovery of flint-chipped spear-heads, knives, and
scrapers was made in the winter of 1893-94 on his
return to the coast from lion-hunting in the interior.
A few of those which he picked up are now in the
British Museum, a few he gave to the Earl of Ducie's
collection, and the remainder he retained for himself.
Last year, on his return from lion-hunting, he (the
author) again traversed the district, and obtained by
diligent search several thousand implements. Only
about 100, however, were really symmetrically chipped
as spear-heads. He also gathered a large number of
cores, chips and flakes, knives and scrapers. The
localities in which the discoveries were made were in-
variably of one character. In the first p'ace, the dis-
trict was distinguished by the presence of flint nodules
upon the surface, so that these ancient people, with
whom this place was apparently a manufactory, had
the materials ready to their hands. He observed next
that they were more numerous as one approached a
well or the river-beds in which the wells were dug.
1 le inferred that the people who made the implements
were timid or in a state of constant warfare with the
surrounding tribes (as the Somalis are to this day),
because the spots which seem to have been chosen as



348



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



factories for the noisy operations of breaking up the
flint nodules and shaping them were usually retired
places surrounded by low hills, which would prevent
the sound from travelling far. There was also generally
a water-course with steep sides, along which persons
could escape unseen if surprised by people coming
suddenly over the surrounding ridges. The imple-
ments were most numerous in the vicinity of this
central water-course. The ground had always a very
gentle fall, so that the heavy showers which constitute
the rainfall in Somaliland would wash away the sandy
soil, and yet leave the stones lying free and clean upon
the surface, in which position they were always found ;
also there were generally no other stones upon the
surface besides these worked flints. There was another
point which he could not explain, though the reason
may be simple. It is that there was never any vegeta-
tion upon the spot upon which the implements were
found scattered, excepting a few scraggy mimosa
bushes. This was not owing to his not having searched
the surface where it was partly covered with plants,
for he was always on the alert to detect the presence
of worked flints while in pursuit of game. It was his
intention to return to the district this winter, when he
hoped to make other discoveries. Out of all his
specimens he did not think there was one absolutely
perfect ; all seemed either damaged or unfinished.
Sometimes he found an unfinished spear-head on the
ground, surrounded by a mass of flakes and chips, as
though the people had dropped their work, and carry-
ing with them all their perfect weapons and belong-
ings, fled never to return. The President, Professor
W. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., congratulated Mr. Seton-
Karr upon turning from the noble sport of lion*
hunting to the still nobler one of man-hunting.
(Applause.) He understood that these discoveries
were made in a very dry district, which would go to
show that there had lieen a very considerable climatic
change in Somaliland as in Egypt. In regard to the
factories being in sterile regions, this was probably
due to the fact that flints were more exposed in such
places, and the workers went to the places where they
could get the greatest amount of material ready to
their hand. Unfortunately very little was known at
present about the stone age in Africa, and he was
therefore very glad to hear that Mr. Seton-Karr was
about to further prosecute his searches. Sir John
Evans said the history of the implements shown by
Mr. Seton-Karr was a matter of mystery, but he be-
lieved evidence would be forthcoming to show that
they l>elonged to the late Palaeolithic period rather
than to the Neolithic age. Professor Boyd-Dawkins
said he possessed a collection of implements from
Pretoria, which were very similar to those discovered
by Mr. Seton-Karr. They certainly were not the
work of Kaffirs or their ancestors, or of the Bushmen.
Mr. Allan Brown considered the Stone Age was one of
continuity, and there was no break whatever in it.
Palaeolithic and Neolithic were the beginning and the
end they were not distinct they merged in one
another. A re- arrangement of terms was urgently
required to suit the present advanced state of know-
ledge. Dr. Munro said although a discussion on the
matters touched upon by Mr. Allan Brown was not
exactly in order, at this stage he agreed as to the
necessity for a re-arrangement of terms. No dis-



coveries made in Europe breached over the gap be-
tween the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods, but
searches in Africa might result in something being
found which would do so.

The President read a paper on " Flint and Metal
Working in Egypt." He said the flints of the earliest
class yet dated in the collection were of the well-
known Paleolithic types common to most countries.
The next period of flint work was that where the old
Palaeolithic types were less defined, and the usual
Neolithic long parallel flaking began to appear.
These flints were found in gravels of the old high
Nile. The gravels form a terrace, the top of which is
some 30 feet above the present Nile plain, and extend
in thickness to 15 feet or more below it. These flints
show that the gravel-rolling river of the pluvial age
was still in operation at the end of the Palaeolithic or
part of the Neolithic age, and thus a more definite
position than before was reached. Between these late
gravel flints and the historic age there were not any
stages yet known, and the next that could be dated
were the large parallel-faced rectangular flakes of the
IV. dynasty. The next stage was the work of the
New Race, the invaders who overthrew the first
pyramid-builders' civilization. These people appear
to have been far more skilled than the Egyptians in
making flint as well as hard stone and pottery. For
the length, flatness, and thinness of the objects, the
regularity of the parallel surface flaking, and the
minuteness of the serration in the edges, or else the
fine knife-edge made by flaking, the workmanship of
these flints surpassed that of any other people. The
discoveries included javelins, arrow-heads, and flint
sickles. There were also stone ornaments. One per-
fect bangle and fragments of others were found. The
next period of flint work was that of the XII. dynasty.
The types that were found were straight-backed knives,
curved knives, hoes or adzes, axes with lugs, scrapers,
and sickle-flints. In the next great period, that of the
XVIII. dynasty, bronze had almost superseded flint,
but oval scrapers and flint saws for sickles were still
made. Most of the flint work was, however, poor or
coarse, as if only made for the poorest classes. As
late as the fourth century (ad.) flakes still continued
to be largely struck for use, as they were to be found
intermingled with Roman glass in the rubbish mound
around a Roman fort south of El 1 leybeh. The origin
of metal working in Egypt appears to have been in
the III. dynasty. In the IV. dynasty copper tools
were habitually used for all the dressing down of lime-
stone, and the gigantic wall in the Pyramids must
have needed a large supply of tools. Fine needles
show that metal was early used for sewing. Copper
was the only metal yet found in use, though one
sample of bronze rod of this age had been found. Of
the new race after the IV. dynasty some excellent
metal work has been obtained, while on reaching the
XII. dynasty metal work was much more commonly
found. Fish-hooks, needles, bodkins, netting-needles,
etc., were all made of metal copper hardened by
oxide of copper, by arsensic, and in one case by a
small amount of tin. Silver and gold were also freely
and splendidly worked. The introduction of iron into
Egypt has not yet been satisfactorily proved before the
Psammetichi. It may have been earlier, but no in-
dubitable evidence of its pre-Greek usage has appeared.



PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.



349



Sir John Evans said the collection shown by the
President was such as probably had never before been
placed before a British audience. The implements
showed the progress of civilization in Egypt.

*$ 4$ *g

The third field meeting for 1895 of the Cardiff
Naturalists' Society was held during September.
About sixty members started from Barry, some seven
miles from Cardiff, and drove to Fonmon Castle- A
short paper on " The History and Antiquities of the
Castle " was read by Mr. Edwin Seward, of Cardiff,
who referred, in the first place, to the continuous line
or groups of castles and places of defence along the
coast of South Wales. Fonmon is one of a group of
castles, each of which was evidently placed in such a
position as to help in defending or controlling the
neighbouring harbour of Aberthaw, which enabled the
Norman lords of these castles to keep communication
open with the opposite coasts of Somerset and Devon,
in the event of Welsh attacks from the hills of central
Glamorgan, or of raids by the Welsh on those fair
lands of the Vale of Glamorgan between the sea and
the hills, which the Norman followers of Robert Fitz-
hamon had acquired. This Conquest of Glamorgan
gave an immediate reason for the erection of Fonmon
Castle, as well as of many others of South Wales, of
which, however, it was one of the earliest. It was
built by Sir John de St. John, one of the twelve knights
who accompanied Fitzhamon into South Wales, circa
1 100. The oldest existing portions of the building are
on the south and east sides, where the early drum
towers were afterwards adapted to more modern usages,
a large wing on the north side having been built about
200 years ago. The castle and estate of Fonmon
passed into the hands of the Jones family through
Colonel Philip Jones, one of Cromwell's chief ad-
herents in South Wales, and who was also a member
of Cromwell's Privy Council. Mr. Seward pointed
out a fine oil portrait of Colonel Jones in the hall, and
the other pictures here and elsewhere in the castle
were inspected. % They include a good contemporary
portrait of Cromwell, an excellent family portrait by
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mr. and Mrs. Matthews by
Gainsborough, and some gallery pictures by several
masters of the Italian and French schools. Amongst
other objects of interest an especially fine collection
of porcelain, all of the square-marked variety of
Worcester, was inspected ; this is in excellent pre-
servation, and well painted with flowers and fruit.
On returning to Barry a short visit was made to some
excavations of foundation walls lately found in carry-
ing out certain new roads for Lord Windsor on Barry
Island, in connection with the important dock and
railway undertakings at Barry. These remains are
understood to be those of an ancient chapel with other
buildings, but as the excavations were still in progress
discussion of the matter was deferred.

* <* $

The Cumberland and Westmorland Anti-
quarian and Archaeological Society held their
second meeting for this year at Furness Abbey on
Monday and Tuesday, September 24 and 25. On
the first day the society and their friends mustered
very strongly to hear Mr. St. John Hope give one of
his lucid expositions of the arrangement and details of
a Cistercian house. He commenced about 2 p.m. at



what is locally known as the " Abbot's Chapel," but
which is really the capella extra portas, and conducted
the party, swollen by casuals and abbey visitors to
about 200, to the church, to the cloister and to the
domestic buildings, and explained the excavation made
under his direction during the previous week. Mr.
Hope spoke for about two hours, after which Chan-
cellor Ferguson summed up the position by stating
that the excavations already made proved that more
were necessary in order to unveil a complete plan of a
Cistercian Abbey of the larger size ; that a sum of
,200 was necessary ; that the necessary permissions
had been all obtained, and that the society would give
<> to start a subscription, and that the owner of the
ruins, Mr. Victor Cavendish, would contribute as well
as others. An adjournment took place to tea on the
lawn of the hotel, after which, by special train and
ferry-boats, the members and their friends reached
Piel Island and inspected the ruins of the Castle or
Pile of Fouldrey, which was described by Mr. St. John
Hope as a concentric Edwardian castle of about 1326.
Dinner took place at the Furness Abbey Hotel, after
which the following papers and reports were laid
before the society : " Report on Excavations on the
Roman Wall at Bleatarn, Appletree, and Laner-
cost ;" " MS. (seventeenth century) Epistles of Early
Friends," by W. G. Collingwood, M.A. ; " Proposed
Photographic Survey," by the President; "The
Heraldry in St. Andrew's Church, Penrith," by J.
Haswell, M.D. ; "The Heraldry in Hornby Hall,"
by J. Haswell, M.D. : " Redness Hall, Carlisle," by
the President. A small committee was also appointed
to consider the advisability of having in 1894 a pil-
grimage from end to end of the Roman Wall similar
to that held in 1886.

On the second day, a visit was made to Stainton
Old Hall and Cockpit, Bolton Chapel (now a farm
building), and Hawkfield, where is a fine Norman
font, taken from Urswick Church, and also some
window tracery built up into an impossible window.
Urswick Stone Walls were next visited, and explained
by Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A., Mr. John Fell, and
Dr. Barber ; as also was the burh called Pennington
Castlehill, from which the barrow, known as Ella
barrow, was pointed out. A halt took place at
Dalton for lunch, where the church and castle were
both open for inspection ; from thence the return was
made to Furness Abbey. Since the meeting, a sub-
scription list has been opened to raise the 200, and
the co-operation of Lancashire societies and archaeo-
logists will be welcomed.



Eetnetos anD Notices
of Jfteto T50Q&S.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

Moulton Church and its Bells. By Sidney



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