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These, and illustrated books on brasses,
photographs, etc., are exhibited at all meet-
ings for the inspection of members.

It is quite clear that there is ample scope

for such a society to do really useful work.
Bearing in mind how much the study of
archaeology owes to several ladies, whose
names are well known as those of accom-
plished antiquaries, we have very great pleasure
on hearing of the existence of this particular
society, and we wish it many years of progress
and prosperity.

The pursuit of the study of archaeology is
often popularly supposed to commend itself
to a set of sour-minded persons, devoid of
any sense of humour, and who are quite
unable to appreciate a piece of genuine fun.
Evidently this conception of what antiquaries
are like is entertained by the town clerk of
Louth, in Lincolnshire. It seems that while
Mr. St. John Hope was engaged in the pre-
paration of his work, on the Insignia of the
Corporate Cities and Tcnvns of England and
Wales, he met with a refusal in one instance
to communicate the information he needed.
The Athenaeum, in reviewing the book,
alluded to this, and " gibbeted " the default-
ing town by name, mentioning that it was
none other than Louth. It seemed only
natural to suppose that an explanation would
be at once forthcoming, to the effect that the
refusal arose from an unfortunate misconcep-
tion on the part of the authorities, who re-
gretted the mistake they had made. Nothing
of the kind, however ; and Mr. Thomas
Falkner Allison, the town clerk of Louth,
proves himself quite equal to the occasion.
In the succeeding number of the Athenaium
appeared the following highly diverting letter
from that gentleman. For the edification
and amusement of those readers of the Anti-
quary who may not have seen it, we print the
letter in full :

"corporation plate.

" Town Clerk's Office, Louth.

" 1 notice your polite reference to myself
in your paper of 19th inst. I presume that
you receive a fee for reviewing favourably the
above book, the editors of which had, as is
so often the case, the main object of their
own personal advantage. Why I should
assist them in that object I know not.

" As it happens, however, the Borough of
Louth is a modern one, created by the Act
of 1836, and the editors ought to have known
this. I did not suppose they were anxious



to have information regarding modern
boroughs ; if so, they had better write another
book it would be so very interesting and
profitable to the editors. You may think
that you have done a clever thing in 'gibbet-
ing ' me others think that it is only another
proof of your natural radical snobbism.

" Thos. Falkner Allison."

In a note to this the Editor dryly observes :
" We congratulate the inhabitants of Louth

on possessing so intelligent and courteous a

Town Clerk."

$ 4? <t>

Mention of this piece of modern fun may
perhaps excuse the introduction here of a
good story taken from the Depositions from
York Castle (Surtees Society), edited by Canon
Raine, and which, although certainly not a
note of any month in 1895, 1S > nevertheless,
the record of a perfectly true story of the
past. It is difficult in the present day, when
members of the Society of Friends have
gained for themselves, and their body in
general, so exceptionally good a name, not
merely for philanthropy, but also for orderly
behaviour, to remember that in the earlier
days of the existence of their sect, they con-
sidered it their duty to interrupt divine
service in what they called the " steeple
houses," much in the manner in which the
Quaker acted, who came to such signal grief
at Orton a couple of centuries ago. The
record is as follows : " Mr. Fothergill, vicar
at Orton, one Sunday exchanged pulpits with
Mr. Dalton of Shap, who had but one eye.
A Quaker, stalking as usual into the church
of Orton whilst Mr. Dalton is preaching, says,
'Come down, thou false Fothergill, come
down !' ' Who told thee,' saith Mr. Dalton,
'that my name was Fothergill?' 'The
Spirit,' quoth the Quaker. 'That spirit of
thine is a lying spirit,' says the other ; 'for it
is well known that I am not Fothergill, but pied
Dalton of Shap.' " It is not related how the
Quaker took this rather startling rebuff.

# # 4p

One of the most remarkable survivals from
a highly remote past, is the annual meeting
on Tynwald Hill, in the Isle of Man, when
the new laws passed by the Legislature of the
island, are formally promulgated in the Manx
and English languages. It is a ceremony of
the highest antiquity, and of the very greatest

interest possible. It is, indeed, well known
and recognised as such throughout the
civilized world. It is scarcely credible, but
nevertheless, it appears to be a fact, that this
solitary instance remaining of the open air
meetings of primaeval times, is threatened
with abolition. The newspapers tell us that
" at a recent meeting of the Manx Legislature
it was talked of 'as a ridiculous farce, the
outcome of sentiment,' and the Bishop
seconded a motion that the ceremony should
be abolished. This was opposed by the
Attorney-General and the Deemsters on the
ground that it was a time-honoured cere-
mony, and that the feeling in the island and
in England was to keep up old institutions."
Fortunately, the proposal appears to have
been negatived, for the present, at any rate.

4? 4p 4p

We alluded last month to Mr. Reginald L.
Poole's account of the muniments in the
possession of the Dean and Chapter of
Worcester, contained in the Appendix
(Part VIII.) of the Fourteenth Report of the
Historical Manuscripts' Commission. The
episcopal registers form a grand and perfect
series from the consecration of that lordly
prelate, Godfrey Giffard, in 1268, to the
present day. The Registrum Sede Vacante
is unique of its kind, and extends from
January 26, 130^ to 1434. We are glad to
learn that it is about to be published by the
Worcester Historical Society.

$? *)& $?
A piece of plate, of more than ordinary
interest, was sold by Messrs. Debenham,
Storr, and Sons on the last day of October.
It is a tankard, given by Charles II. to Sir
Edmund Barry Godfrey in 1666, in recog-
nition of his services during the Plague and
the Fire of London. The tankard is of the
ordinary form in vogue at that period, with a
flat lid. On the front are the royal arms,
with those of Godfrey, with stiff feather
mantling, below. On either of the sides of
the tankard is an oblong device : one bears a
representation of the City of London in
flames, and the other a gruesome representa-
tion of the progress of the Plague. The
tankard, which is a little over 6 inches in
height, and thirty-six ounces in weight, fetched
(as was anticipated) a good round sum. It is
strange that no one seems to have known of
its existence till now.



We have received quite anangry, though kindly
meant letter from a correspondent (whose
name we withhold) impugning the statement
made by the Rev. E. Maule Cole, in a paper
printed in the Antiquary for October, that
the stones figured therein are the stumps and
sockets of ancient crosses. We should not
have alluded to the matter at all, were it not
that the communication, with which we have
been favoured, is a very characteristic example
of the sort of way in which people are at
times ready to dispute the opinions of others
without really knowing very much about
the particular matter themselves, and that,
moreover, with a considerable degree of acer-
bity. Our correspondent observes as follows :
" I do not at all agree with his (Mr. Cole's)
sweeping conclusion that all the stones he
alludes to have been the bases of crosses ; I
have been a rambler for many years about
the eastern border of Cheshire and a consider-
able part of Derbyshire, and have met with
many curious stones, some of which I am
convinced have been the bases or sockets of
crosses, etc I notice, Illustration No. i.,
Garrowby Cross. I know of a stone, of which
I have a photo, that is very much like it, and
has been known for ages as Abbot's Chair,
and the road running by the side is known
as Monks' Road. Then, again, Fig. 7, Lecon-
field Cross. I never saw a cross fixed in a
round socket ; I should think it is more likely
that of a holy water basin."

We should have supposed that almost any
student of archaeology would have known the
value to be placed on such a name as " the
abbot's chair," as applied to a wayside stone.
[When and where did abbots have stone
seats by the roadside?] So, too, although
our correspondent may never have seen a
cross with a round shaft, if he keeps his eyes
open he may even yet see such things.
Speaking of the East Riding crosses,
although those of the wolds have little more
than their sockets remaining, some others in
Holderness are much better preserved. Of
one of these, the cross at Atwick, which has
never been figured before, we give the accom-
panying illustration. It stands at the meeting
of five roads in the middle of the village, and
has borne an inscription which, unfortunately,
is quite undecipherable, as it was, indeed, fifty

years ago, when Poulson compiled his history
of that district.

$ # #

We have to record, and we do so with much
regret, the death of Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock,
F.S.A. Mr. Brock was a very energetic
antiquary, and was intimately connected with
the work of the British Archaeological Associa-
tion. His loss will be very greatly felt by
the Association, in behalf of which he ex-
pended much of his energy and time. He
was elected a Fellow of the Society of Anti-
quaries in 1876.

(KHateMttarfes on IPaper.

By Miss E. E. Thoyts.

HE bull's-head mark was alluded to
in the former article ; it is one of
the commonest of the early marks
to be found in books printed during
the latter part of the fifteenth, and the first
half of the sixteenth, centuries. It occurs in



a number of different forms, and four or five
distinct types of these varying forms may be
noted. In its simplest form the head appears
(i) alone, without any adjunct (Fig. i, p. 359).
Then we find a straight line upwards from
the head, sometimes ending in (2) a star
(open (Fig. 2) or merely outlined (Fig 3));
sometimes in (3) a simple flower ; and some-
times in (4) a Lombardic T. There are
almost countless varieties of each of these
types, hardly two instances of them ever
being alike. In the accompanying illustra-
tion (Fig. 4) a curious elaboration of the
bull's-head mark is to be seen, in which a
combination is formed of it with the serpent-
mark, which is also a well-known mark found
also in great variety, but I have not so far met
with it on the paper of any English manu-

The whole figure of a bull is by no means
a common water-mark. That which is given
(P- 35 9> Fig. 5) was copied by me from a Court
Roll, the writing on which was dated 147 1.

Allusion was also made to the water-mark
of a unicorn. This is a mark which very
commonly occurs on paper of the seven-
teenth century, but its special significance
appears to be now unknown. It is found in
a variety of different forms, three examples of
which are given here. Two of them (Fig. 6
and Fig. 7) show the unicorn fairly well out-
lined, but the third example (Fig. 8) is such
a very clumsy device that it is difficult to feel
sure that it was intended for the outline of a
unicorn at all. It is, however, so common on
manuscript (as distinguished from printed)
paper in England of a date circa 1650, that it
seems desirable to give a facsimile of it.

Another uncommon mark is that of the
Garter, which I have copied from a Court
Roll of the third and fourth Edward IV.

The mark of a sickle, or reaping-hook, is
also an uncommon early water-mark. An
illustration is given of it (p. 360) on
account of the small circles on this particular
example. These circles show the places
where the device was fastened on the wire
frame. Similar indications of such joints
are occasionally to be met with, but they
are not at all common, and on that account
it seems desirable to give at least one repre-
sentation of a mark showing them.

The same characteristic of rareness does

not pertain to the water-mark of the crown,
which is found of two types. The older one


(Fig. 9) is a very common mark, especially so
on the paper of books printed in Germany
during the sixteenth century. The other and
smaller device (Fig. 1 o) is, perhaps, of French
origin, and of later date than the first. Both
are found in a number of varying forms.

"Petit Raisin" and "Grand Raisin" are
marks on two kinds of paper, presumably
of French make. It is a little difficult to
distinguish them at the present day, but the
device of a bunch of grapes is very well
known as a common water-mark.

" Petit Nom de Jesus " and " Grand Nom
de Jesus " were two kinds of paper of French
origin, with the sacred monogram (I H S) as



a water-mark. The mark copied here is
taken from the fly-leaf of the Neiv General
Atlas, published in London in 1721, the
water-mark of the book itself being that of
a fleur-de-lys throughout The particular
sheet of paper is of thick consistency. The
unfolded sheet measures about 26 inches by



21 inches; when doubled the I H S mark
occurs on one leaf, and another mark of a
fleur-de-lys (in a shaped shield with a crown
above and the letters " L. V. G."* below)
on the other.

M Pantalon " paper is another French paper.
It was marked with the Dutch arms, and


was very commonly used for folio books in
England from circa 1650 to circa 1 700.

The double-headed eagle is an extremely
common mark on paper made in Germany
during the seventeenth century, but it does
not often occur on the paper used for writing
in England. Like most other water-marks,
it is found in all manner of forms. Very
often the central shield bears a separate dis-
tinguishing mark.

" Carre" Simple," " Cavalier," " Colombier,"
" Dauphin," " Baton Royale " are the names
of different kinds of French paper, but I
have not met with the particular marks from
which their names were probably derived.

"Soleil," "L'etoile," "Grand Monde"
speak for themselves. "Chaplet," another
French paper, may perhaps be that which
bears the figure of a cardinal's hat as a
water -mark. An instance of this mark
occurs in the paper of the Churchwardens'
Account Book at Whitchurch, Oxon, in 1666.

I now pass to a brief notice of a few of
the first persons to introduce paper-making

* For L. V. Gerrevink, a very celebrated Dutch
paper-maker, the right to use whose mark passed, as
in this case, to other paper-makers.

in England. It is generally said that the
first paper-mill was that of John Tate at
Stevenage, in Hertfordshire, while others
name Speilman, of Dartford. Tate's Mill
or paper-works, however, were certainly the
older of the two, for the first book printed
on English made paper was Bartholomeus
de Proprietatibus Rerum, issued 1495-96.
The paper (so says the Saturday Magazine
of 1832) seems to have been made by John
Tate the younger, and has a mark like a
wheel. Now, John Tate used as a mark
a star of five points within a double circle ;
this, and a wheel would be almost identical.

Some authorities give the date 1460 for
Tate's mill. Father and son carried on the
business over thirty years.

At the end of the next century, in 1585,
Richard Tottyll applied to the Crown to
permit his endeavour to introduce paper-
making into England by bringing over
Frenchmen to teach the trade secrets, and
he asked for a thirty years' privilege and sole
right of collecting rags in England for his
purpose ; but already the danger of " sole
privilege" was being commented upon in

The real beginning of paper -making in
England dates from Queen Elizabeth's reign,
when John Speilman, a German, brought
over some of his fellow-countrymen, and
established a paper-mill at Dartford, in Kent,
under royal patronage, and with a four
years' patent from the Crown, by which he
was granted sole right to buy up rags and
establish mills in England. In 1597 he
renewed his patent for a further term of
fourteen years. Speilman seems to have
been determined to protect his monopoly,
for in 1 60 1 we find him engaged in a law-
suit against John Turnor, Edward Marshall,
and George Friend, because they had erected
a mill in Buckinghamshire. The following
year he sued Robert Style and Edward
Marshall, whereupon they had to pay for
the leases, arrears, and materials used.
About the same time a difficulty arose con-
cerning the collection of rags, and it was
suggested that the poor people in Bridewell
should collect them for the benefit of the

The people of Buckingham and Middlesex
objected to the mills on sanitary grounds,
and complained that the rags brought the



plague into the country, and they petitioned
against the mills. The only mill mentioned
is that of Horton Mill, at Colnbrook ; this
was in 1637. During the whole of the
seventeenth century the plague was very

sion of the paper-mills threw a number of
persons out of work, and the Government
had to recompense and relieve them. In
one instance no less than 1 20 people were
thrown out of work.


prevalent, and particular years are especially
marked in history as plague years. No
doubt these foul rags were a source of
danger, and it is no wonder that the collect-
ing of them was objected to. The suppres-

In 1640 Endymion Porter, Captain John
Reade, PMward Reade, and John Wakeman
applied for a fifty-seven years' patent for the
invention and manufacture of white writing-
paper; they were granted a fourteen years'




lease. In the face of such a fact, it is absurd
to suppose, as some have done, that only
coarse brown paper was made in England

until 1690. Certainly, about that date, the
number of mills largely increased, for many corn-
mills were altered, and made into paper-mills.



In the middle of the eighteenth century
Baskerville invented moulds for wove-paper,
and about that date the makers took to putting
their names in full upon the paper.

Inseparably connected with paper-making
as an English industry must ever remain the
name of James Whatman. It has, however,
been erroneously stated* that he worked as
a journeyman at some of the principal paper-
mills on the Continent. The real fact of his
acquiring his special knowledge of the Con-
tinental processes of paper-making is that,
being, when young, an officer in the Kent
Militia, he travelled in the suite of the British
Ambassador to Holland, where the best
papers were then made, and where he
obtained an insight into the methods of
manufacture, which his genius turned to
account in after-years, when he set up for
himself, in 1770, at Maidstone. There his
celebrated paper was made. In 1798 James
Whatman died ; he had either sold the
mills before his death, or his son parted
with them soon after. The Turkey Mills
passed to the Hollingworths, but without the
privilege of using Whatman's mark on the
paper, which generally was " Original Turkey
Mill." The right to this was acquired by
Mr. Balstone, who had lived in Mr. What-
man's family, and been employed in some
capacity at the Turkey Mills. He started
mills at Springfield, near Maidstone, and the
paper known as " Whatman's " is made there
to the present day.

Louis Robert, a clerk in Monsieur Leger
Didot's paper-mills at Essonne, in 1799 in-
vented machinery for making paper of con-
tinuous length. It was used by Didot and
Gamble (1799 to 1801), and afterwards by
Fourdrinier in the mill at Dartford.

The duty on paper was only abolished in
1 86 1, having been in existence until then, in
spite of efforts to get it remitted.

No doubt, for a long time, English-made
paper was deficient in quantity, and probably
in quality also. So long as the few English
paper-makers retained a right of monopoly,
the industry was at a standstill. Then, when
the scare as to the plague being spread by
the rags used for paper arose, a fresh check
was given to the progress of paper-making,

* In the Report of the Juries of the Exhibition of


so that it is not difficult to account for what
would otherwise be a surprising fact that
not till a little more than a century ago, did
paper-making in England become at all com-
mensurate with the country's requirements.
From the same cause few of the older paper-
marks are perhaps in any other sense English,
than that they are found in English books
or manuscripts.

I hope that the brief, and to some extent
crude, notice of the subject which I have
given in these two articles may lead to
greater attention being paid by antiquaries
to an important and very interesting subject.
Except for Mr. S. L. Sotheby's costly work,
published more than thirty years ago, and
occasional references in such publications as
the Saturday Magazi?ie, the subject is one
which appears to have been almost wholly
overlooked, in spite, too, of its practical
value as a check against literary fraud. A
handy volume dealing with the matter would
be a very useful book. But for Mr. Sotheby's
work, and a small book by Mr. Richard
Herring, published in 1863, there seems
to be nothing of the kind in existence, and
those persons who desire information on
the subject, have to find it how and where
they can.

I would add, in conclusion, that, except
where specially mentioned, the marks figured
in these articles are the marks which occur
on English manuscript paper, such as law-
deeds and others. The reason for this
restriction is that paper used for writing on,
is more likely to be of home manufacture
than the paper of printed books, large
quantities of which would be required to
complete an edition. Hence, the possibility
that the marks copied may be those of
English -made paper. In some cases, no
doubt, the marks are not English, but in
others there is more probability that they
may be so, than if they had been merely
copied from printed books. In a few cases,
where the marks were too indistinct to be
copied, accurately in detail, from the manu-
scripts, recourse has been had to identical
marks in printed books. In all cases, how-
ever (except where otherwise stated), marks
almost exactly similar to those illustrated,
occur on paper that has been used for writing
in England.

3 A



a List of tbe Inventories of
Church $oot)S maDe temp.
DtoarD ID J.

By William Pack, f.s.a.

{Continued from p. 278, vol. xxxi.)









Burton upon-Trent.


Thorpe Constantyn.

(Ex. Q. R. Ch. Gds.,


College of Burton-upon


(Ibid., ,",)

College of Burton-upon


(Aug. of Mi set. Bks., vol. 400,/. 62.)








Lichfeld Cathedral.


Stowe wuhin the City of Lichefeld.


The Chappel Churche

within the City of


Saynt Mighell in the Citie of Lichefeld.




Kydwar Hampstale.














Drayton Bassette.


Barre et Aldrege.


Pype Ridwar.
















Ridwar Maveson.


Kinges Bromley.


















Thorpe Constantine.












42. Clifton.

43. Bloxwiche Chappell.

44. Tameworthe.

45. Trentham.

46. Marston.

47. Newe Castell.

48. Wolslanton.

49. Norton-on the-Nord.

50. Meyre.

51. Staundon.

52. Barlaston.

53. Saynt Chaddes in Stafford.

Online LibraryPhoebe PalmerThe Antiquary (Volume 31) → online text (page 62 of 67)