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the study and preservation of brasses elsewhere, as its
members may find opportunity. The society has held
two ordinary meetings in each of the last three terms,
at all of which recent rubbings taken by members have
been exhibited. Papers have been read on " Symbolism
in Brasses," by Mr. H. M. Conacher ; "The Problems
of a Brass Engraver," by Mr. J. W. Crowfoot ;
"Heraldry," by Mr. A. R. Pinel ; "Canopies in
Brasses," by Mr. J. L. Myres ; " The Parish Church
and Monuments of Minster in Sheppey," by Mr. W.
H. Draper. At the last meeting, in Lent term, several
members discussed the brasses which they had lately
studied, and exhibited their rubbings. At a public
meeting held in November, in the Ashmolean lecture-
room, Viscount Dillon kindly gave an interesting
lecture upon " Ancient Armour," and has since
become honorary member of the society.

iRetoietosi ana Notices
of Jfteto T5oofe0.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books senLfor review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers. ]

Some Notes ok the History of the Parish

OF Whitchurch, Oxon. By the Rev. John

Slatter. Cloth, crown 8vo., pp. viii., 150.

London : Elliot Stock.

This is a modest and unpretending outline of the

history of a small country parish in Oxfordshire. So

far as it goes, it is a careful and scholarly little book ;

but we cannot avoid a feeling of regret that the author

did not see his way to something more exhaustive



and complete. It is evident from what he gives us in
the hundred and fifty pages of his book that he could
have written a complete history of his parish very well.
However, we must be thankful for what we have got.
Canon Slattcr says in the preface : '* When I came to
Whitchurch in 1SS0, I at once procured a book,
properly indexed, in which to enter information of
whatever sort that might be useful to my successors.
The facts thus collected, though far from being a per-
fect history, have, however, attained to a certain
degree of continuity ; but I should hardly have
ventured to publish these if I had not in my chest
come across some documents which seem of great
interest, and one of them in particular of great
rarity. I allude to the first poor-law accounts of the
parish under the earlier Act of Elizabeth viz., 5 Eliz ,
cap. 3."

These poor-law records are undoubtedly of very
considerable importance and interest. They were the
result of the local application of the Act of Elizabeth
alluded to by Mr. Slatter, and which embodied the
provisions of an earlier Act of Henry VIII., which
had been extended under Edward VI., and Philip and

It is, as Mr. Slatter observes, very seldom that the
poor-law accounts of this date have been preserved.
The law then called for a voluntary contribution from
the wealthier people in each parish, to be gathered
together, and administered in relief, by certain "col-
lectors." If people refused to contribute voluntarily,
then the justices cculd compel them to do so ; or if a
parish was too poor to support its own paupers, then
certain of them were licensed to beg in adjoining
specified parishes. It is the record of these poor-law
proceedings which has been fortunately preserved at
Whitchurch, and which is printed in the book under
notice. Besides this, the history (and a very interest-
ing one it must have l>een) of the parish from the
earliest times is given in outline by Mr. Slatter. The
only pity is (as we have already said) that he has not
filled in the outline with rather more of detail. It is
pretty clear that a good deal of valuable material with
regard to the manorial history might have been forth-
coming, such as would have helped to throw light on
points more or less obscure as to manors and early
village communities generally. The framework at
Whitchurch, as given by Mr. Slatter, is complete
enough ; it only wants a little more filling in.

The old church a Norman building was pulled
down in 1858, with the exception of a small portion
of later date, which is still standing, and which con-
tains a stone sculptured with a floreated crucifix.
This fortunately escaped the hand of the spoiler, as
did also several monumental brasses, some of them of
more than ordinary interest. In the parish records
are four inventories of the church goods taken in
*574> (?) '584, and 1593. Students of post- Reforma-
tion ritual will find points of interest in these inven-
tories, which also contain lists of the goods belonging
to the parish, used at what we suppose was the Church
Ale, but which seems to have been locally known as
" Kevel Day."

It will be gathered from this notice that, short as
the book is, it contains a great deal worthy of record,
and well put together. The only fault of the book is
that there is not more of it.

The History ok Suffolk : Popular County His-
tories. By the Rev. J. J. Raven, D.D., F.S.A.
Cloth, demy 8vo., pp. viii, 287. London :
Elliot Stock. Price 7s. 6d.

It is not without its value and interest that we are
able to note, as these volumes appear one after the
other, how widely diverse the history of each county
is from that of the rest. It might be supposed that,
taken as sections of a whole, the history of each
portion of England would run very much in the same
lines. This is not the case, and it is perhaps, not the
least valuable feature of these Popular County His-
tories that they bring out the differences in clear and
sharply-defined outlines. The history, as given in
these volumes, is necessarily condensed, and this con-
densing accentuates the individuality of each county,
as regards its past history, in a much more marked
degree than would otherwise be possible.

The previous volume of the series was the History of
Northumberland, by Mr. Cadwallader Bates, and that
followed Colonel Fishwick's History of Lancashire.
It would, perhaps, be difficult to have imagined how
widely different the history of these three sections of
England is, without the help of the three volumes of
this very useful series.

The publisher has been fortunate in securing Canon
Raven's services for the History of Suffolk. It is a
county whose history is not easy to recount because,
unlike that of most other counties, it is a compilation
of individual histories.

The history of Suffolk is to be read in, and gleaned
from, the individual stories of its villages to a much
greater extent than is the case with other counties.
For such work, Dr. Raven, from his long and intimate
connection with Suffolk, is especially well fitted. The
result is before us in the present volume, and we have
no hesitation in saying that the result is, on the whole,
thoroughly satisfactory. It would l?e possible to
criticise here and there, and perhaps the objection
may be taken that too much space is occupied by a
narration of religious and ecclesiastical events, as com-
pared with the secular history of the county. Vet, in
a county like Suffolk, whose history, as we have
said, is mainly the compilation of the history of its
villages, the ecclesiastical side is necessarily more
conspicuous than any other, and in this fact lies the
explanation of, and the justification for, the apparent
disproportion we have alluded to. It is a fault if,
indeed, it be exactly a fault which was pretty well
inevitable, and it must be regarded as the outcome,
not of defective knowledge, or of a faulty conception
of the relative proportion of things, but as the result
of a truthful reflection of the history of almost any
rural district which lies (to quote the prospectus of the
book), as Suffolk does, " out of that zone of England
in which the more notable historical events have

The best way of conveying a general idea of the
ground which the book covers will be if we follow the
custom we have adopted on other occasions, and give
the separate headings of the chapters into which the
book is divided. They are nineteen in number, and
are as follows :

1. Physiography and Prehistoric.

2. The Roman Occupation Earlier.

3. The Roman Occupation Later.



4. Earlier Saxon Times.

5. Later Saxon Times.

6. The Norman Period.

7. Early Plantagenet.

8. ,, ,, continued.

9. Edward III. and Richard II.

10. Colleges, Lollards, and Pilgrimages.

11. Perpendicular Architecture, Domestic

Life. Sir James Tyndall.

12. Henry VIII. and Edward VI.

13. Queen Mary.

14. Queen Elizabeth.

15. Early Stuart.

16. From the Long Parliament to the Revo-


17. Suffolk during the Reigns of William

III., Anne, and George i.

18. Later Days.

19. Ethnology, Surnames, Folklore, and

Perhaps as interesting a portion of the book as any,
is that part of the last chapter which deals with the
folklore and dialect of the county. There is, we ought
to add, a very complete index.

* * *
Dated Book-Plates (Ex - Libris) with a
Treatise on their Origin and Develop-
ment. By Walter Hamilton. Part III. 4to.,
paper, pp. 11 1-225. London: A. and C. Black.
Price 7s. 6d. net.

This is the third and last part of Mr. Hamilton's
useful catalogue of dated book-plates.

As dealing with book-plates of the present century
it cannot be accounted archaeological, and it is only
by virtue of its connection with the two former parts,
which came legitimately within the scope of view of
the Antiquary, that this third part can by courtesy
claim a notice in our pages.

Mr. Hamilton dwells on the decadence of art in
the first half of the century, as reflected in the poverty
of design shown in the ex-libris of that date. He
considers that a revival of artistic design in book-
plates may be noted after 1851. To a limited extent
this may be true, but we arc not sure that we alto-
gether agree with him. Bookplates designed in the
earlier part of the century were, at least, a natural
outcome of the taste, or lack of taste, of that period.
It is not so now. At the present day book-plate
designs are running riot. The so-called " high art "
of the sickly aesthetic fashion of the hour is figuring
far too often in the book-plates of the present day.
This can be seen in some of the illustrations given by
Mr. Hamilton in this section of his book. Many of
the designs are exaggerated and unreal, however odd
or weird, or even pretty, they may chance to be. If
a book like Mr. Hamilton's is to be anything more
than a mere catalogue, it ought to criticise and point
out errors and evidences of bad taste. No one could
speak with more authority then the chairman of the
Ex-Libris Society. We do not care to specify what
we consider the bad taste of particular persons as shown
in the designs of their book-plates illustrated in this
book. It is, however, very evident that many of the
designs figured by Mr. Hamilton contravene the
canons of sobriety and good taste which should restrain
the design of a book-plate.

In fact, the modern book-plate is fast being vul-
garized and is running to seed.

We have gone, page by page, through Mr. Hamil-
ton's list, and we are bound to say that so far as we
had the means of checking it, the list seems to be
remarkably free from errors. In only two instances
have we detected a mistake. One occurs in the first
entry on p. 144, where it is said that Dr. William
Tyrrell, Bishop of Newcastle, was translated to
Sydney in 1853. This is a mistake. Dr. Tyrrell
was Bishop of Newcastle at his death.

The other mistake is also ecclesiastical and curious,
and also of more importance. In the second part of
his book Mr. Hamilton drew attention to a fictitious
book-plate of Bishop Carr, of Killaloe, which he had
been told was taken from a device in Canon Dwyer's
History of the Diocese of Killaloe. We then pointed
out that although the device in question occurs in the
book named, it is really copied from Harris's edition
of Sir James Ware's works, vol. i., which was pub-
lished in Dublin in 1739.

On page 216 of the part under notice, in the list of
" Additions and Corrections," under date of 1661,
Mr. Hamilton includes as a small book-plate (2^
inches by 2J), a label inscribed " Sigillum Decani et
Capituli Laonensis 1661." This is another of the
devices of Irish episcopal and capitular seals which
occur as headings to the sections of Harris's edition
of Ware's work. As there are a large number of
these devices in that work, and as many of them only
need to be cut out with a pair of scissors to look like
genuine book-plates, it is well that collectors should
be placed on their guard. We have, while writing
this notice, taken the trouble to look through the book.
Some of the devices would lend themselves more
readily to fraud than others, those of Killaloe being
among the most easy for an unscrupulous person to
make use of ; the number is so considerable that it
may not be amiss to record them here. There are
three each of the following : Armagh, Meath, Kil-
more, Derry, Dublin, Kildare, Ossory, Ferns, Cork,
and Cloyne ; four of Tuam ; two each of Clogher,
Dromore, Raphoe, Leighlin, Limerick, Killaloe, and
Elphin ; and one each of Down and Clonfert. The
two latter, if cut out, would easily pass as ordinary
oblong book-plates Of Cashel there are two devices
of the average size, and four small ones. Of Water-
ford there is one of average size, and five small. In
all more than fifty of them. They are all very prettily
designed, and were it not that the book is fortunately
rather rare and costly, many more of them would no
doubt be passing current as book-plates than is actually
the case. It is clear that the collector needs to be on
his guard as to them, and it is safe to say that any
small label with an Irish bishop's arms, or with those
of an Irish cathedral chapter, which it may be
attempted to palm off as a book-plate, will, on
examination, be found not to be a book-plate at all,
but to have been cut out from the book in question.

* * *

An Introduction to Folklore. By Marian
Roalfe Cox. Cloth, 8vo., pp. xv, 320. London :
D. Nutt. Price 3s. 6d.

It says very much for the study of folklore that the
books which have appeared on the subject have as a
rule maintained an unusually high standard of excel-



lence and scholarly attainment. With a subject which
appeals so readily to the popular fancy, it might have
been expected that quite the opposite would have
been the case, and that the market would have been
stocked with a plentiful supply of books of a very
inferior order of merit. Fortunately this is not so,
and the book now before us quite rises to the general
high level which is so distinct a feature of most of the
books which have dealt with folklore.

There is a great deal of very suggestive matter and
accurate reasoning in Introduction to Folklore, especi-
ally in the chapter on the "Separable Soul." It is
not necessary to agree with all that is said in a
book in order to appreciate its power, or estimate its
value, and this is the case in the present instance.
The fault of the past was that nobody noted, in any
systematic or scientific way, the many traces of remote
antiquity which can be detected in the ordinary cus-
toms and manners of civilized nations and individuals.
The danger, as it seems to us, is now rather in the
opposite direction of detecting, or thinking that there
is to be detected, a trace of primaeval usage in customs
or practices which are really only the outcome of some-
thing by no means peculiarly ancient. To take a
single instance, that of Christians turning to the East.
It certainly suggests a connection with ancient sun-
worship, but if examined it will be found that it is of
mediaeval origin, and is based on the symbolism so
dear to the minds of men like Durandus and others.
It is not a traditional custom of unbroken lineage
from primitive Christianity, but is a piece of medkeval
symbolism liased on the idea of the " Son of righteous-
ness arising with healing on His wings." It is not
connected with anything more remote. So, too, the
placing of a poker upwards across the bars of a grate
to induce a fire to burn, is based on sound common-
sense, and is devoid of the idea, suggested in the
book before us, that it originated in the forming of a
cross, to make the evil spirit depart out of the fuel,
which he prevented from burning. It would be quite
easy to argue that the reason for punishing boys by
whipping them on what Mr. Athelstan Riley and Mr.
Labouchere have designated in Truth as the " official
spot," arose not from the obvious convenience of that
locality, but because it was a tradition from the days
of primceval cannibalism, when the chef of that period
was wont to pound the human steak to make it
more tender. The fact is, that if we only use a little
imagination we can very soon invest nearly every
action of life with some romantic origin, supposed to
be derived from prehistoric savagery or superstition.
There is a real danger of this, and the student of
folklore needs to curb the reins of his imagination to
a very considerable extent in this respect.

The first chapter of this book is headed " Intro-
ductory." It is followed by one on the Separable
Soul ; then comes the subject of Animal Ances-
tors ; which in turn is followed by chapter iii., on
Animism Ghosts and Gods ; chapter iv. deals
with the Other World ; chapter v. with Magic ; and
chapter vi. with Myths and Folk -tales.

It is a book full of matter for sober reflection, and
without always accepting the author's conclusions, we
look upon it as quite one of the best books on the
subject. It is a capital explanation of and introduction
to folklore in its many-sided bearings. There is, we
may add, a complete and full index.

Extracts from the Records of the Merchant

Adventurers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Vol. i. (Surtees Society, vol. xciii.) Pp. Iii, 315.

Published for the society by Andrews and Co.,

This, which is one of the volumes issued to the
members of the Surtees Society for 1894, was originally
entrusted to Mr. J. R. Boyle, whose work as a pains-
taking Northern antiquary is well known. Unfor-
tunately, Mr. Boyle had to leave Newcastle before
completing the work, and this and other causes made
it necessary for someone else to continue the work.
A fresh editor was found in Mr. F. W. Dendy, and
fortunately the book has not really suffered from the
change of editor, as might have been feared that it
would. It is not, perhaps, generally understood that
merchant gilds were quite distinct from the craft gilds
(or mysteries). Their meml>ers were those burgesses
in the town who were shopkeepers or warehousemen
engaged in the purchase and sale of merchandize.
Craft gilds, on the other hand, were associations of
artisans engaged in special handicrafts in a town.
Merchant gilds existed in France at an earlier date
than their existence in England can be traced, and it
is surmised that their advantages may have first been
learnt by the English from the Norman merchants
who followed in the wake of the Conqueror. This
volume deals therefore with what may be termed a
general association of Newcastle shopkeepers, and
not with the trade gilds of Newcastle at all. The
Records of the Newcastle Merchant Adventurers are
contained in fifteen manuscript volumes, ranging from
the middle of the fifteenth to the middle of the present
century. They are deposited in the safe of the com-
pany (which still exists), in the Merchants' Hall, at the
Guildhall at Newcastle. It is from these fifteen books
that the extracts have been taken which are given in
the present volume. The insight which they give into
the merchant life of a great Northern town is extremely
interesting, and is, moreover, full of important material.
We learn much from them of the ways and methods
of trade in the past, and much new light is thrown
upon matters which have hitherto been obscure and
doubtful such, for instance, as the question of a
struggle between the merchant gilds and the craft
gilds, a matter hitherto much in dispute among his-
torians. The Newcastle records distinctly indicate
that there was such a struggle in the reign of Ed-
ward II. It is impossible, in a book full of so much
variable matter, to give any detailed outline of its
contents. We can only say that it appears to
have been very judiciously and carefully edited. It
forms one of the most valuable books which have
hitherto appeared on the subject of merchant life in
England in the past. We very much hope that similar
records in other towns may also be published ; we
shall then be better able to compare the different
aspects of trading in the past history of England than
is at present possible. We have learnt a good deal
about the craft gilds of late years ; we now need more
information as to the merchant gilds. This volume is
a considerable help in this, and it will be much more
so when the companion volume appears.

Note to Publishers. We shall be particularly 0*
obliged to publishers if they will always state the price ? 1
of books sent for review.


Abbeyton Bridge, Holy Well at, 217.

Aberdeenshire, Holy Wells of, 151, 180.

Aberdour, Holy Well at, 180.

Aboyne, Holy Wells at, 151.

Abstracts of Protocols of Town Clerks of
Glasgow, Review of, 62.

Alford, Holy Well at, 367.

A ntber Witch, The, Review of, 94.

Ancient and Holy Wells of Cornwall, Re-
view of, 186.

Ancient Bookbindings, 9.

Ancunt Rome and its Neighbourhood,
Review of, 93.

Andre (J. L.), Letter on Suppression of
Superstition, 128.

Antiquary, The, Among the Pictures, 166.

Archwologia, 312.

Archceologia ?E liana. The, 347.

Archaeological Institute, Proceedings of,

Publications of, 379.

Archaeological Institute of America, Pub-
lications of, 314.

Archaeological Journal, The, 312.

Archaeology in Provincial Museums, Notes
on, Warrington Museum, by J. Ward
(F.S.A.), 52. 176-

Architectural History of Harrow Church,
Review of, 316.

Ardnacloich, Holy Well at, 181.

Argyleshire, Holy Wells in, 181.

Armorial Families, Review of, 222.

Associated Societies' Reports, 28.

Aultnaskiach, Holy Well at, 216.

Avendale, Holy Well at, 27.

Ayrshire, Holy Well in, 214.

Badges from Monumental Brasses, Some

Examples of, by J. L. Andr6, 233.
Balmore, Holy Wells at, 216.
Bath, Elizabethan, Letter on, 32.
Beaumont (G. F.), Letter on Colchester,

Berks_ Archaeological and Architectural

Society, Publications of, 28.
Best Plays of the Old Dramatists, Re-
view of, 255.
Blundered Coins, Note on Two, by T. M.

Fallow (M.A., F.S.A.), 77.
Bookbindings, Ancient, 9
Book - Collectors, English, Scottish, and

Irish, by W. C. Hazlitt, 236.
Book-Hunting and its Votaries, by J. H.

Slater, 374.
Booh oj Common Prayer in Manx Gaelic,

Review of, 220.
" Book of Wisdom," A MS., 308, 339.
Book-Pla'es, Dated, Reviews of, 156, 383.

Books Fatal to their A uthors, Review of,

Books Received, 127, 319.
Bradford Historical and Antiquarian

Society, Publications of, 314.
Brasses, Some Badges from Monumental,

Brave Translunary Things, Review of,

Brehon Laws, The, Review of, 30.
British Archaeological Association, Pro-
ceedings of, 89, 92, 124, 153, 183, 220,

British Association, Proceedings of, 347.
Brownbill (J.), Letter on the Hill of

Spaxton, 189.
Bught, Holy Well at, 216.

Cairnie, Holy Well at, 180.

Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Proceed-
ings of, 28, 92, 380.
Publications of, 253, 313.

Cambuslang, Holy Well at, 150.

Camulodunum, 58.

Letter on, 159.

Caplaich Hill, Holy Well at, 215.

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club,
Proceedings of, 219.

Cardiff Naturalists' Society, Proceedings

of. 279. 349-
Celtic Fairy- Tales, More, Review of, 94.
Chalice, A Pre-Reformation, by W. J.

Cripps(C.B., F.S.A.), 14.
Chapters in the Early History of the

Church of Wells, Review of, 188.
Chaucer, Complete Works of, Reviews of,

61, 158.
" Chulakanlamangala," Review of, 316.
Church Goods, Inventories of, temf>.

Edward VI., 278, 346, 362.
Closing Rings, 202.
Coins, Note on Two Blundered, 77.
Colchester and Camulodunum, by F,

Haverfield(M.A., F.S.A.), 58.

Letter on, 159.

Communion Cup and Cover, Halwcll

Devon, 270.
Coningsby Hospital, Hereford, by W. J

Burn, ;i 1.
Cork Historical ;ind Archaeological Society

Proceedings of, 155.
Correspondence, 32, 63, 95, 128, 159, 1

256, 288, 320, 352.
Costume of Colonial Times, Review of,

6 3-
Craig Dunain, Holy Well at, 2:5.
Craifield, Review of, 351.
Cruden, Holy Well at, 181.

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