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Burham, Kent," by George Payne,

Esq., F.S.A., local secretary ;
' English Royal Bookbindings in the

British Museum," by Cyril Davenport,

Esq., F.S.A. ;
; On the Persistence of Roman Types of

Pottery throughout the Early Mediaeval

Period in Britain," by Professor T.

M'Kenny Hughes, F.R.S., F.S.A. ;
'On Excavations at Silchester in 1894,"

by George E. Fox, Esq., F.S.A.



duarterlp Jftotes on Roman
T5rttam,

By F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A.



XVI.




HE last few months have not yielded
many discoveries of Roman re-
mains in Britain. A villa at
Darenth in Kent and a milestone
near Carlisle are the only important finds
made since last October, and the lesser finds
of which word has reached me are not very
numerous. Perhaps I may with the New
Year renew my request to my readers to
inform me of objects discovered or articles
published which in any way throw light on
Roman Britain.

Kent. At Canterbury the excavations
required for the new County Hotel have
brought to light some massive founda-
tions, which are described as "part of a
citadel at the western end of Canterbury in
the Roman age." The description is in-
accurate, and the remains appear to be
in reality Norman. At Darenth, near Dart-
ford, a very extensive villa, long suspected,
has now been found, and is in process
of excavation by Mr. George Payne, Mr.
Clowes, and others. The work is, 1 be-
lieve, not yet complete, but in point of size
the remains found already challenge com-
parison with the largest examples known in



Britain. The ground-plan presents several
puzzling and interesting features, but it is not
fair to discuss it till the whole has been
ascertained. Of the rooms which have been
opened, the baths seem to be the best pre-
served and most important : at some period
they were apparently adapted for some manu-
facture requiring tanks. The walls were
of flint and tiles, with coloured plaster inside,
the floors of tiles, or cement, or tessera, but
no elaborate mosaic has yet been discovered.
The smaller finds are somewhat disappointing
coins of Tetricus (a.d. 267) and of the fourth
century, window and other glass, iron rails,
bone pins, and the like. The pottery is
mainly black Upchurch (Medway) ware, with
a little " Samian." It is possible enough
that the best rooms of the house have not
yet been touched. We may trust the archae-
ologists in charge to do the work as it should
be done, and to find all that is to be found.
In the meantime, we can say that we have
one more solid addition to the long strip of
civilization which crossed the north of Kent
in Roman times from Canterbury through
Rochester to Greenwich and London. It is
a thin strip, lying close to the great Roman
road, and, except near Maidstone, rarely ex-
tending more than two miles south of it.
The Darenth villa itself lies about that dis-
tance from the Roman road. At Burham,
near Rochester, some remains have been
found which are said to be those of a
Mithraic " cave." As no statuary or in-
scriptions have turned up, the identification
may be left till the publication of fuller
details (see ante, p. 3).

Midlands. Three discoveries have to be
recorded from the Midlands. At Great
Chesterford, in the north-west corner of
Essex, and on the very edge of Cambridge-
shire, Professor McKenny Hughes has de-
tected a new rubbish-pit containing "Samian "
and other pottery, and the remains of
domestic animals. The pit itself appears to
have been 400 yards further from the " camp "
northwards than the previously found pits.
In describing these finds to the Cambridge
Antiquarian Society on November 26 last,
Mr. Hughes observed that no traces had
been found of any pre-Roman people at
Chesterford, and that he thought the remains
pointed to a permanent Roman town, not to



38



QUARTER! Y NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN



a temporary military station. But the British
coins recorded by Sir John Evans contradict
the first observation, while the remains them-
selves point rather to a Romanized British
than to a Roman town. Of military occupa-
tion there is, of course, no vestige. At West-
cotes, near Leicester, a fragment of a Roman
inscription was discovered last October, and
is now in the Leicester Museum. I am
obliged to Mr. Montague Browne, curator,
for an excellent photograph, but the lettering
is too fragmentary for explanation. At
Chester Mr. I. M. Jones, city surveyor, has
found Roman masonry, of the usual North-
wall type, in the wall close to Morgan's
Mount ; no inscribed stones were to be
seen.

Carlisle. At Carlisle a very interesting
milestone has been found and secured by
Chancellor Ferguson for the Tullie House
collection. He has obliged me with squeezes
of it. It bears two inscriptions on its two
ends. First it was erected to, or by, Carausius,
the admiral of the classis Briiannica, who
made himself Emperor of Britain. Subse
quentiy it was turned round, the inscription
of Carausius was put into the ground, and on
the end which now became top was cut an
inscription of Constantius or Constantine I.,
most probably of the latter. The stone
marked the first mile from Luguvallium
(Carlisle) on the road which ran near Penrith
and by Brough under Stainmoor to York.
Other milestones of the period (the end of the
third and beginning of the fourth centuries)
have been found along this road, but this is
the first certain instance of any inscription
bearing the name of Carausius (see Academy,
January 12).

Literature. In the Athenccum for
December 15, 1894, I have conjectured that
the evidence of coins and other considera-
tions place the foundation of the Roman
city of Silchester at about 85 to 90 a.d., when,
as Tacitus tells us, Agricola had been en-
couraging the Britons to copy Roman ways
and build in Roman fashion (Tac, Agric, 21).
I may add here that Mr. G. E. Fox is inclined
to date the architectural remains of the Forum
at about the reign of Trajan (98 to 117 a.d.).
In the Academy Mr. Henry Bradley has
pointed out that the name Icknield street is
authenticated, so far as pre-Conquest docu-



ments go, only for the part of it which occurs
in Berkshire. He thinks that this Berkshire
road is the original Icknield street, and that
the extension of the name to the eastern
counties is due to the antiquarianism of the
twelfth century. If so, Icknield has nothing
to do with Iceni, and many of our theories
about the road will have to be revised. At
Edinburgh Dr. Christison, in his Rhind Lec-
tures, has discussed the Roman origin of
alleged Roman earthworks in Scotland with
healthy scepticism. So far as I can judge,
Dr. Christison has said what has long wanted
saying, but I cannot agree with him in his
doubts as to the Roman origin of Birrens
and Ardoch. Too many Roman remains
have been found at these places, and
especially at Birrens, to allow much room
for hesitation. It is, however, a pity that
the Scotch sceptics who deny the Roman
origin of these sites do not lay out a little
money in digging. With respect to the
name Chester, discussed by Dr. Christison, I
may point out that on both the north and
south slopes of the Cheviots there are many
Chesters which are not and cannot be
Roman. Outchester near Bamburgh, and
Bonchester will serve as examples. As I
long ago observed, Chester seems, north of
the Tyne, to lose its special connection with
Roman civil or military settlements

Christ Church, Oxford,
January 15, 1895.



jFurtbet iftote.s on a^anr
jfolfeiore.

By A. W. Moore, M.A.

Author of Surnames and Place-Names of the Is'.e of Man ;
Diocesan History of S odor and Man ; Folklore of the Isle
0/ Man, etc.

The Magic Sword.

RAINNE, the betrothed of Finn,
becomes enamoured of Diarmid,
and elopes with him ; he is pursued
from place to place by his rival,
and at last arrives in the neighbourhood
of the mountain Ben Gulban, where he
takes up his abode. " The day came
then with its full light, and he said, ' I will
go to seek the hound whose voice I have




FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



39



heard since it is day.' ' Well, then,' said
Grainne, 'take with thee the Moralltach
that is, the sword of Manannan - and the
Ga-dearg ' (the red spear). ' I will not,' said
Diarmid ; ' but I will take the Beag-alltach
(the small fierce one), and the Ga - buie
(yellow javelin) with me in my hand, and
Mac-an-Chuill* by a chain in my other
hand.' . . . The wild boar then came up
the face of the mountain with the Fenians
after him. Diarmid slipped Mac-an Chuill
from his leash against him, and that profited
him nothing ; for he did not wait the wild
boar, but fled before him. Diarmid said,
1 Woe to him that doeth not the counsel of
a good wife ; for Grainne bade me at early
morn to-day to take with me the Moralltach
and the Ga-dearg.' Then Diarmid put his
small, white -coloured, ruddy- nailed finger
into the silken string of the Ga-buidhe, and
made a careful cast at the boar ; so that he
smote him in the fair middle of his face, and
of his forehead. Nevertheless, he cut not a
single bristle upon him, nor did he give him
wound or scratch. Diarmid's courage was
lessened at that ; and thereupon he drew
the Beag-alltach from the sheath in which it
was kept, and struck a heavy stroke there-
with upon the wild boar's back stoutly and
full bravely. Yet he cut not a single bristle
upon him, but made two pieces of his sword.
Then the wild boar made a furious spring
upon Diarmid, so that he tripped him, and
made him fall headlong. . . . And when he
was fallen to the earth, the boar made an
eager, exceeding mighty spring upon him,
and ripped out his bowels and his entrails,
so that they fell about his legs. Howbeit,
as he (the boar) was leaving the Tulach
(hill), Diarmid made a triumphant cast of
the hilt of the sword that remained in his
hand, so that he dashed out his brains, and
left him dead without life. Therefore, Rath-
na-h-Amrannt is the name of the place that
is on the top of the mountain, from that
time to this."}

His love affairs were numerous.

Thus, the " Sick-bed of Cuchulainn," a
tale which goes back substantially to the

* Mac-an-Chuill (the son of the hazel), a favourite-
hound of Diarmid's.

f That is, " The rath of the sword-hilt."
X Manx Soc, vol. xv., pp. 129- 131, from Ossianic
Society's Publications, vol. iii.



fifth century of our era, although we only
possess it in transcripts of the eleventh
century, relates that Manannan became
jealous of CUchulainn, with whom his wife
Fand had fallen in love. He shook a cloak
of invisibility and of forgetfulness between
the two, and carried off Fand with himself
to Fairy-land, whereupon Cuchulainn returned
to his own wife.

We extract the portion of the tale more
immediately relating to Manannan :

"Now, all this was revealed to Manannan
namely, Fand, the daughter Aed Abrat, to
be engaged in an unequal conflict with the
women of Ulster, and that Ciichulainn was
putting her away. Manannan then came
from the east to seek the maiden : and he
was in their presence, and no one of them
perceived him but Fand alone; and then a
great terror and bad spirits seized on the
maiden on seeing Manannan, and she made
a poem :

Behold ye the valiant son of Ler,
From the plains of Eogan of Inber,
Manannan, lord over the world's fair hills,
There was a time when he was dear to me.

Even if to-day he were nobly constant,
My mind loves not jealousy,
Affection is a subtle thing ;
It makes its way without labour.

One day that I was, and the son of Ler,
In the sunny palace of Dun- Inber ;
We then thought, without a doubt,
That our separation should be never.

When Manannan the great me espoused,
I was a spouse of him worthy ;
He could not win from me for his life
A game in excess at chess.

When Manannan the great me espoused

I was a spouse of him worthy ;

A wristband of doubly tested gold

He gave to me as the price of my blushes.

I had with me at going over the sea
Fifty maidens of varied beauty ;
I gave them unto fifty men,
Without reproach, the fifty maidens.

Four times fifty without folly,
It was the household of the one house ;
Twice fifty men, happy and perfect,
Twice fifty women, fair and healthy.

I see coming over the sea hither,
No erring person sees him,
The horseman of the crested wave ;
He adheres not to [his] long ships.

Thy coming past us, up to this,

No one sees but a sidhaighe [fairy] ;

Thy good sense is magnified by every gentle host,

Though they be from thee far away.



4 o



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



As for me, I would have cause,
Because the minds of women are silly ;
The person whom I loved exceedingly
Has placed me here at a disadvantage.

I bid thee adieu, O beautiful Cu ;
Hence we depart from thee with a good heart ;
Though we return not, Xx. thy good will with us ;
Every condition is noble to [in comparison with] that
of going away

A departure this which it is time for me [to make] ;
There is a person to whom it is not grief ;
It is, however, a great disgrace,

l*aegh, O son of Riangabra.

1 shall go with my own spouse,

Because he will not show me disobedience,
That ye should not say it is a secret departure ;
If ye desire it, behold ye.

Behold, etc.

" The woman went after Manannan then,
and Manannan bade her welcome, and said :
'Good, O woman,' said he, 'is it attending
Ciichulainn thou wilt be henceforth, or is it
with me thou wilt go ?' By our word, now,'
said she, ' there is of you one whom I would
rather follow than the other ; but,' said she,
' it is along with thee I shall go, and I shall
not wait on Ciichulainn, because he has
abandoned me ; and, another thing, thou
good man, thou hast not a dignified queen ;
Ciichulainn, however, has.'

" When Ciichulainn now saw the woman
departing from him to Manannan, he said to
Laegh : What is that ?' said he. This,'
said Laegh, ' it is Fand that is going to
Manannan, the son of Ler, because she is
not pleasing to thee.'

" It was then Ciichulainn leaped the three
high leaps, and the three south leaps of
Luachair ; and he remained for a long time
without drink, without food, among the
mountains ; and where he slept each night
was on the Slighi (road) of Midhluachair.

" Emer, in the meantime, went to visit
Concobar to Emania ; and she told him the
state that Ciichulainn was in.

"Concobar sent the poets, and the pro-
fessional men, and the Druids of Ulster to
visit him, that they might arrest him, and
that they might bring him to Emania along
with them. He, however, attempted to kill
the professional party. These pronounced
Druidical incantations against him, until they
laid hold of his legs and his arms, until he
recovered a little of his senses. He then
besought them for a drink. The Druids



gave him a drink of forgetfulness. The
moment he drank the drink he did not re-
member Fand and all the things that he had
done. There were, too, drinks of forgetful-
ness of her jealousy given to Emer, for she
was in no better condition [than he].
Manannan in the meantine shook his cloak
between Ciichulainn and Fand, to the end
that they should never again meet. So that
this was a vision of being stricken by the
people of the sidhe [or fairy mansions] to
Ciichulainn : for the demoniac power was
great before the Faith ; and such was its
greatness that the demons used to corporeally
tempt the people, and that they used to show
them delights and secrets, as of how they
would be in immortality. It was thus they
used to be believed in. So that it was to
phantoms the ignorant used to apply the
names of Sidhe and Aes Sid/ie." *

Manannan appears from the following
stories to have had other love affairs of a
less legitimate character.

Ossian and Caeilte, with a small remnant
of the Fianns, who are said to have survived
by more than 150 years the fatal battle of
Gowra, when all but these few had been
killed, are represented as meeting with St.
Patrick and others, and being questioned on
many points of ancient lore. Among other
questions put to Caeilte was why the name
of Manannan's Cairn was given to a certain
hillock, and he replied : " It was a warrior
of the Tuatha de' Danann: Ail/en Mac
Eogabail, that fell in love with the wife of
Manannan Mac Lir ; while Aillen's sister,
Aine, daughter of Eogabal, fell in love with
Manannan, to whom again she was dearer
than the whole human tribe besides. Aine
asked of her brother Aillen : ' What is it
that hath wasted the king-like stately formed
that clothed thee once ?' ' By my word and
verily, young woman,' Aillen said, 'thine
only self excepted, there is not of the human
race one to whom I would disclose the
matter ' ; and he told her : ' It is that I am
enamoured of . . . Angus Finn's daughter
and wife of Manannan.' ' In my hand lies
the remedy for that,' cries Aine, 'for Man-
annan is in love with me, and if he give

* "The Sick-bed of Ciichulainn," etc., from the
Yellow Book of Slane, quoted by O'Curry in the
Atlantis Magazine (1859), pp. 1 12-1 15.



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE



4i



thee his wife, I will as the price of procuring
thee relief yield him my society. They,
Aillen and Aine, came away as far as to this
tulach, whither Manannan too (his wife with
him) arrived. Aine took her seat at Man-
annan's right hand, and gave him three
loving, passionate kisses ; then they sought
news one of the other. But when Man-
annan's wife saw Aillen she loved him . . .
so Manannan handed over his own wife to
Eogabal's son Aillen, himself taking Aillen's
sister Aine."*

" Tuag, daughter of Conall Collamair, son
of Etirscel, King of Tara [was reared, apart
from men, to be wooed by the King of Erin.]
When the Feast of Tara was held by Conall
Collamair, the folk of Ireland, both men and
women, were gathered unto it. [Thither also]
went Fiugail, son of Eogabail, a fosterling
of Manannan Mac Lir. He chose Tuag,
daughter of Conall Collamair, to take her
with him (for Manannan) into the Land of
Everliving Women. So by means of art
magic he took her in her sleep, without her
perceiving it, to the inver of Glas Mac. . . .
He laid her down [still] sleeping by the side
of the inver, so that he might go to take
counsel with Manannan ; but after he had
gone, a wave came over her at the inver, and
drowned her. Or maybe it was Manannan
himself that was carrying her off, as is mani-
fest in the stave :

The three waves of the whole of Erin :
Clidna's wave, Rudraige's wave,

And the wave that drowned Mac Lir's wife
At the strand over Tuag Inbir.f

In another queer story about Manannan,
written in the twelfth century, he appears as
a huntsman with hounds :

"The hounds of Manannan Mac Lir and
the hounds of Mod, from whom Insi Mod
are named, met together around the pig that
devastated the land about them, even Insi
Mod. Unless the hounds had come between
them and the pig it would have been a
criathar as far as Albion, that is, it would
have been a desert. The pig sprang before
the hounds into the lake. The dogs rushed
after it. It pressed them together on the

* From the "Colloquy of the Ancients" in the
Book of Lismore. Translation in O'Grady's Silva
Gadelica, pp. 196, 1 97.

f The Bodleian Dinnshenchas. Folklore, vol. iii.,
p. 5*-

VOL. XXXI.



lough, and not a hound escaped from it
alive without mangling, and without drown-
ing. After that the pig went to the island
which is on the lough. Hence Loch Con
(" Lake of the Hounds "), and Muicc-inis
(" Pig Island ") :

The hounds of Manannan Mac Lir,
And the hounds of Mod the very swift,
A pig destroyed them with its maw (?)
At Lough Con, at Muicc inis.*

Later Irish tradition considered that
Manannan was immortal, and that he re-
mained in Ireland till the time of St.
Columba, when he endeavoured to be recon-
ciled to the new faith. But as he did not
succeed in this, he retired to Armenia, the
country from which he had originally come.t

Manannan, as we have seen, was originally
an Irish divinity, living in a mysterious
island identified with the Isle of Man, who,
after passing through numerous metamor-
phoses, became a man. The accounts, from
Irish sources, of his connection with that
island are, as we have seen, of the vaguest
character, and, from purely native sources,
our information about him is unfortunately
all of comparatively recent origin, as the
" Supposed True Chronicle of Man "J and
" The Traditionary Ballad " both probably
date from the sixteenth century, though
doubtless founded on older traditions. The
portion of the ballad relating to him is as
follows :

Manannan Beg va mac y Leirr,
Shen yn chied er ec row rieau ee :
Agh myr share oddym's cur my-ner,
Cha row eh hene agh an chreestee.
Cha nee lesh e chliwe ren eh ee reayll,
Cha nee lesh e hideyn, ny lesh e vhow ;
Agh tra vaikagh eh Ihuingys troailt,
Ollagh eh ee mygeayrt lesh kay.
Yinnagh eh dooinney hassoo er broogli,
Er-lhieu shin hene dy beagh ayn keead ;
As shen myr dreayll Manannan keoie
Yn ellan shoh lesh eh cosney bwoid.
Yn mayll d'eeck dagh unnane ass e cheer
Va bart dy leagher ghlass dagh blein ;
As va shen orroo d'eeck myr keesh,
Trooid magh ny cheerey dagh Oiel-Eoin.

* From Bodleian copy of Dinnshenchas Irish
Legends. Translated by Dr. Whiteley Stokes.
Folklore, vol. iii., p. 497.

t Manx Antiquities, vol. i. Manx Soc., vol. xv.,
p. 133. (Original source unknown.)

X Folklore of the Isle of Man, p. 5.

Ibid.



42



FURTHER NOTES ON MANX FOLKLORE.



Paart ragh lesh y Icagher seose

Gy yn slieau mooar ta heose Barool ;

Paart elley aagagh yn leagher wass,

Ec Manannan erskyn yn Keamool.

Myr shcn eisht ren adsyn beaghey,

Erlhiam pene dy by-veg nyn geesh,

(iyn kiarail as gyn imnca,

Ny doccar dy Ihieggey er nyn skeeys.*

Manannan Beg\ was son of Kcirr,

lie was the first that e'er had her :

Hut as it seemeth unto me,

He himself was but a heathen.

'Twas not with his sword lie kept her,

Nor with his arrows, nor his bow ;

Hut when he would see ships sailing,

He hid her right round with a fog.

1 led set a man uix>n a brow,

You'd think there were a hundred there :

And thus did wild Manannan guard

That island with all its booty.

The rent each paid out of the land

Was a bundle of green rushes ;

Ami that was on them for a tax

Throughout the country each John's Eve.

Some went up with the rushes to

The great mountain up at Barool ;

Others would leave the grass below,

With Manannan above Keamool.

In this way, then, they lived, I think

Myself their tribute very small,

Without care or anxiety,

Or labour to cause weariness. %

All that living tradition in Man knows of
him is that the Trie Cassyn, or "Three
Legs," proceeded out of the Tinwald Hill,
together with a little man called Manannan-
bege-Mac y Leirr, " Little Manannan son
of Leirr," who rolled them as a wheel before
him. This, they add, " was before the
Gorees' days, who were kings in Dalby, and
before the Danes held Peel Castle."

Another tradition still extant is to the
effect that St. Patrick found the island ruled
by Manannan, who was called Yn Dooinney
Troor Cassagh, "The Three- Legged Man,"
and that all his people, who were likewise
three-leggt d, travelled about like a wheel
turning round and round.^T (See stories of
" The Origin of the Arms of the Island " and
" The Discovery of the Island."**

Another tradition speaks of him as Yn

* Train, History of the Isle of Man, pp. 50, 51.
t /.e., " little."

Translation by A. W. Moore.
S A village in the Isle of Man.
ii Manx Soc., vol. v., p. 4.

W. Cashen, Peel.

** Folklore of the Isle of Man, p. yj.



Maninagh " The Manxman," who was the
first man in Man, which he protected by a
mist. If, however, his enemies succeeded in
approaching the Manx coast in spite of the
mist, he threw chips into the water, which
became ships. His stronghold was Peel
Castle, on the battlements of which he was
able to make one man appear as a thousand.
So he defended his island, and routed his
enemies.

We have already given some account* of
the connection of Finn Mac Cumaill with
Man. He was the chief hero of the later
Irish legends, which form a cycle entirely
distinct from that of the heroic age.

In the following Irish tale, the original
source of which is unknown, he is stated to
have been the actual originator of the Isle of
Man :

The Lsle of Man and Lough Neagh.

" Finn, having defeated a Scotch giant,
was pursuing him eastwards, but as the
Scotch monster was more fleet of foot, he
was being left behind. Finn, therefore,
fearing that he might reach the sea and swim
across before he could overtake him, thrust
his hands into the ground, tore up the rocks



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