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and clay, and heaved them after him. But
he miscalculated both height and distance, so
that the mighty mass, which had filled the
whole bed of the present Lough Neagh, flew
over and past the giant, and did not lose its
impetus till it fell in the midst of the Irish
Sea. There it formed an island, afterwards
called Man from Manannan Mac Lir.t

He also appears as a magician in the Manx
story, which represents him as casting a spell
over an island near Port Soderick, in conse-
quence of which it was submerged, and the
inhabitants transformed into blocks of
granite ;| and, finally, in a verse of an old
Manx song, he is described as an associate
of fairies and demons. Campbell, how-
ever, like Professor Zimmer,|| considers him
an historical personage, but regards him as a
Celt, not a Norseman, remarking that he " is
never called the king of any country or terri-'
tory, but the King of the Finn, a body of

* Folklore of the Isle of Alan, pp. 10-13.

f Fictions of the Irish Celt, Kennedy, p. 280.

% Folklore of the Isle of Man.

Ibid., p. 13. || Ibid., p. 10.



men who were raised, according to the tradi-
tions current in the Long Island and other
parts of the Highlands, and in Ireland, to
defend both countries against foreign in-
vaders, more especially against the Scandi-
navians;" and he notes that the scenes of
the Finn stories are " all laid in Eirinn and
Lochlan," and these would seem to have
been border countries, so that possibly the
stories relate to the time when the Norse-
men occupied the Western Isles.*


Bom on engravings of
St. aiftan'0 atrtep.

By F. G. Kitton.

HE collector of topographical prints,
as well as the producer of them,
serves a distinctly useful purpose
in bringing together an assemblage
of pictorial records of bygone and existing
architectural antiquities records that fre-
quently prove very serviceable to the historian,
and which, but for the collector, might have
vanished like the scenes they depict. He
who forms a collection of such prints, if only
for their own sake, derives therefrom not only
considerable interest, but often much amuse-
ment ; for, in the case of early engravings
especially, the curious anomalies which are
sometimes apparent, as well as the remarkable
perspective drawing that many of them ex-
hibit, cannot fail to excite a smile. On the
other hand, he finds delight in the possession
of beautiful specimens of the engraver's art
transcripts from paintings or drawings by dis-
tinguished artists who excelled in the careful
delineation of architecture, both ecclesiastical
and domestic.

Remembering that there exist many thou-
sands of prints portraying the old cities and
towns of England, with their cathedrals,
abbeys, churches, streets, and ancient houses,
the collector would be wise to confine his
attention to one particular subject only, and

* Western Highlands. Introduction, p. v.

endeavour to make it as complete as possible,
rather than attempt to acquire a miscellaneous
and indiscriminate gathering of "odds and
ends." The famous Abbey of St. Alban, for
example, affords considerable scope for the
collector who possesses a reasonable amount
of enthusiasm for research.

Mr. Lewis Evans, F.S.A., who is probably
the most ardent of collectors of Hertfordshire
prints, has made a speciality of those relating
to St. Alban's Abbey. He informs me that,
out of a probable 200 distinct prints existing
of the whole abbey, he has about 140, not
including variations in inscriptions, cut-down
blocks, etc. ; but, counting these variations
and views of portions of the building, to-
gether with numerous engravings of the
interior, he has acquired nearly 600 different
representations of the Abbey. Notwith-
standing the fact that his extraordinary collec-
tion is the result of many years' patience,
Mr. Evans believes that there may be quite
300 engravings relating to the Abbey that he
has not yet met with, or had the opportunity
of obtaining. After inspecting his carefully
and systematically arranged folios, one is able
(almost at a glance, as it were) to realize the
many chapters in the history of the sacred
edifice that derives its name from England's
Proto-Martyr. In the present paper I deal
only with exterior views of the Abbey,
and chiefly with such as possess special
interest and value, either artistically or topo-

The earliest known engraving of the Abbey
is that contained in what purports to be a
view of St. Albans and Verulamium as given
in Speed's map of Hertfordshire, the date of
which is about 16 10. Here the building is
seen from the south-west ; the whole pic-
ture is very curious, and so fanciful that it
cannot be seriously taken as a truthful re-
presentation. A more accurate (although
crude) presentment is that given in Dugdale's
Monasticon Anglicanum, first edition (vol. i.
[1655], pp. 176, 178), where we find two views
of the old Abbey, viz., from the north and
the south respectively, drawn and engraved
by Daniel King. The first of these quaint
plates bears, in the left upper corner, the
words, " Ecclesioe olim Conventualis S" Al-
bani facies Septentrionalis," and on the right
an elaborate coat-of-arms having the following



inscription below: "Tantorum cinerum ne
pereat crypta. P. Chr : Terne, Med: D."
The other plate is similarly inscribed, "Ec-
clesine olim Conventualis S ,; Albani facies
australis " (on right), and another coat-of-
arms surrounding the legend, " In memoriam
Ecclesiae S" Albani protomartiris Angloru
hoc posuit Galfridus Palmer Arm:" the
drawing of the architecture in these en-
gravings is inaccurate in many respects as,
for example, the length of the nave, which
is much exaggerated ; it will also be observed
that while, in the first plate, the tower is
represented as having a short spire, or
"spike," with a vane, the second picture is
remarkable for the absence of that particular
feature.* The latter print clearly shows the

Church of St. Alban," and "The South
Prospect," etc., respectively.

In 1723 a large print of "The North
Front of the Antient & Famous Church of
St. Alban " was issued by C. Dicey and Co.,
of "Aldermary Church- Yard, London," and
measures 21 inches by 16 inches. This was
drawn by Nicholas Hawksmoor (a scholar of
Sir Christopher Wren), and engraved in line
by B. Cole ; it also presents, as a background
to the picture, a fanciful representation of
what is intended as a view of St. Albans
and Verulam, a southern prospect of the
Abbey itself being included therein ; the
lower portion of the plate contains a ground-
plan of the Abbey. To commemorate a
restoration of the Abbey, a slightly larger en-

EccUfi* olim conventulln
S U Albani facies SepUntrionilis

ci/i*r/Z*hfd&Z ttjc*fi

Facsimile of an engraving by Daniel King, 1655.

remains of the cloister arches on the face of
the south wall, and in both we see the little
bell turret above the roof of the Lady Chapel,
then (and for many years subsequently) used
as the Grammar-school. A later state of
these engravings by King maybe distinguished
by the fact that they give translations into
English of the Latin inscriptions, " The
North Prospect of y e Sometymes Conuentuall

* The slender spire so often to be found surmount-
ing the towers of Hertfordshire churches is familiarly
known as the " Hertfordshire spike." That formerly
existing on the tower of St. Alban's Abbey was erected
in the fifteenth century by Ablwt Wherthampsted, and
demolished in 1833 ; this "spike'' was substituted for
Ablxit Trumpington's octagonal lantern, a structure
which, doubtless, considerably enhanced the archi-
tectural l>eauty of the building. Vide Ashdown's
St. Alhan< : Historical and Picturesque, 1893.

graving of this plate was issued about the
same time, signed " Hawksmoor, architectus.
J. Kip, fecit. G. Hulett, sc." Both these
Hawksmoor engravings are undoubtedly rare,
and there is a reproduction a small quarto
plate which is probably as scarce ; in a
scroll above the picture is inscribed the title
" The famous Church of St. Alban, Proto-
Martyr of Great Britain ; with a View of the
present Town & Anc' City of Verulam," and
below, " To the Reverend Mr. Arch-Deacon
Stubbs this Plate & y e Plan are gratefully
acknowledg d " (sic). This was the plate pre-
pared by T. Harris for Stevens' additions to
Dugdale's Monasticon, 1722-3. The Abbey
portion only has been more recently engraved
on wood by Martin, on a much reduced scale.
Samuel and Nathaniel Buck are responsible



for the designing and engraving of a south-
west view of the Abbey as it appeared in
1737, the date of this print, folio size. The
principal features of King's south view are
here observable, but the designer has en-
hanced the topographical value of the picture
by introducing the great monastic Gateway,*
and the remains of the western wall of that
portion of the monastery which is believed
to have been the Aula Regis, or the King's
Hall ; also the great window inserted by
Wheathampsted in the south transept, which
was destroyed by a storm in 1703.T

the Lords of his Majesties most Honourable
Privy Council," etc., and particulars as to the
history of the structure are also given.

The last-mentioned print has been fre-
quently copied. The best of these repro-
ductions is an unsigned engraving (dated
18 19), on the same scale, of the Abbey
only. A plate unsigned by artist or engraver
appeared in England Displayed. This is of
small folio size, and includes both Abbey and
Gateway. All Buck's faults are exaggerated,
and in some respects the artist has taken
great liberties with the original. For instance,

st. alran's abbey from the south-west, 1737.

From an engraving by S. and .V. Buck.

Although the technique of Buck's engrav-
ing is good, there are faults in drawing,
the tower not being massive enough, and
the " spike " surmounting it much too
elongated. This " Prospect " is " humbly
inscribed ... to the Right Reverend Father
in God, Edmund, Lord Bishop of London,
Dean of his Majesties Chapel Royal, One of

* Afterwards used as the common gaol, and now as
the Grammar-school.

t The Wheathampsted window was succeeded by
another with frame and tracery of wood, which
remained until 1832, when a stone window of Per-
pendicular design was inserted. The latter was re-
moved in 1890 by Lord Grimthorpe, who substituted
lancets representing the '"Five Sisters" window in
York Minster.

the number of windows in the clerestory of
the nave is reduced from twenty-three (as
correctly given by Buck) to sixteen. The
other reproductions of Buck's view are mostly
adaptations (with or without the Gateway),
and on a much smaller scale, varying from
8vo. to i6mo. The most satisfactory of these
was engraved for the first volume of A New
Display of the Beauties of England ; another,
which appears in A Description of England
and Wales (1769), vol. iv., is wrongly de-
scribed as a north-west view, and shows a
much taller "spike"; a third, published in
England and ) Vales Illustrated '(1764), vol. i.,
bears the names of B. Ralph and J. Ryland,
draughtsman and engraver respectively : a

4 6


fourth is dated 1819, but unsigned; a fifth
was engraved by Metcalf ; in a sixth (engraved
by Taylor, and published, "according to
Act of Parliament," by Alex. Hogg), also
undated, only a fragment of the monastic
wall is delineated, while the drawing of
details is altogether incorrect ; another ver-
sion, published by J. Robinson and Co.,
1769 (for the Ladies' Magazine), shows
a " spike " so enormous as to resemble
a lofty spire, and is disfigured by other
inaccuracies. With regard to the last-men-
tioned plate, a curious error was made by
the copyist, who translated the fragment of
monastic wall into a substantial flight of steps
leading up to the exterior of the south aisle !

A plan of St. Albans, containing a south
(but described as a south-west) view of the
Abbey, was published in 1 766 by A. Dury, the
drawing by M. Wren, engraved by J. Chev ls .
Although the tower and transept are supposed
to be in perspective, the remainder of the
structure is shown as an elevation, while the
length of the Lady Chapel is represented as
being extremely short. There is also a pen
lithograph, by C. J. W. W(inter), portraying
the south view, which purports to have been
taken "from an old print, 1767"; but this
date must be wrong, for the lithograph depicts
in the transept the Wheathampsted window,
which was destroyed in 1703. There is also
a three-sided castellated structure (at one
time, I believe, the residence of the head-
master of the Grammar-school) abutting
on the south wall, near the west end, which
I have not noticed in any other engraving.
About 1 783, two etchings by B. Green ap-
peared of the south transept and Lady Chapel
respectively. A south-east view, engraved by
Sparrow, and published by S. Hooper, 1787,
appeared in Grose's Antiquities oj England and
Wales; although rather crudely drawn, the en-
graving is delicately wrought, the proportionsof
tower and other structural features being fairly
correct. This plate was afterwards copied by
Metcalf, on a somewhat larger scale, for New
come's History of St. Aldan's Abbey, 1795.

In the same year (1787), three interesting
engravings of St. Alban's Abbey were pub-
lished, from drawings by Jacob Schnebbilie,
draughtsman to the Society of Antiquaries,
to which office he was appointed on the
recommendation of the then president, the

Earl of Leicester, who, in his park at Hert-
ford, accidentally saw him for the first time
while sketching. He was the son of a Swiss
confectioner who settled in England ; for a
time he followed his father's business, but
his talent for sketching induced him to give
up the manufacture of sweetmeats in favour
of Art, in which he soon excelled. His
speciality was pictorial architecture, and he
executed several drawings (the majority of
which he afterwards etched and published)
of important architectural antiquities in Great
Britain. His three representations of St.
Alban's Abbey* were etched by himself and
aquatinted by F. Jukes, whose name also
appears as the publisher. Schnebbilie died
in 1792, "after an illness occasioned by too
intense an application to professional engage-
ments, which terminated in a total debility of
body." The Gentleman's Magazine of that
date declares that " few artists produced more
specimens of their talents in their particular
departments than Mr. Schnebbilie in the last
four years of his life, which was the short
space of time that he seriously occupied in
such pursuits."

Schnebbilie's views of the Abbey, quarto
size, represent it as seen from the south-west,
north-west, and north-east respectively. The
first of these makes the most satisfactory
picture, although the drawing is not abso-
lutely accurate, the tower, with its " spike,"
being too tall in proportion to the rest of the
building, while the front of the transept is too
broad ; for the sake of effect, the artist has
also taken the liberty of transferring the river
Ver (which, in reality, is some distance away)
to a field contiguous to the Abbey. The
print also affords a glimpse of the Great
Gateway and the King's Stables, the latter
having long been demolished. In the north-
west view the tower is too massive, and the
west front, with its Perpendicular window, too
narrow ; the trees and Monastery wall adjacent
to the western porch have disappeared, but
fragments of the wall seen on the left, en-
closing private gardens on the north side of
the Abbey, are discernible. The third en-
graving (that is, the south-east view) is very
vigorously aquatinted ; here, on the contrary,

* Schnebbilie made four drawings in St. Albans,
viz., three of the Abbey and one of the Clock Tower
and Market Cross, all of which were engraved.



the tower is not massive enough, but other-
wise the details are fairly accurate, the Lady
Chapel making a most effective foreground.
The Schnebbilie prints are comparatively
rare. A few impressions were coloured, and
these are exceedingly scarce.

A very interesting south-west view of the
Abbey, engraved by Birrell, was published in
1 790 by E. Harding, No. 132, Fleet Street. It
purports to have been " copied by F. Grosse
[Grose], Esq., from an Ancient Drawing said to
have been made by Livens, a Disciple of Rem-
brant." The original drawing, in wash {circa
1640), is included in a collection of Hertford-
shire views presented (I understand) to the
British Museum (King's Maps and Drawings,
vol xv.) by Baskerfield, once Mayor of St.
Albans ; its dimensions (8vo.) are about the
same as those of the engraved reproduction.
The architectural details are, on the whole,
well rendered, although exception might be
made to certain features, such as window
traceries ; while the engraver has misunder-
stood the artist in representing the presbytery
as a continuation of the south transept ; it
will also be noticed that an ordinary flag-
staff is substituted for the then existing
Wheathampsted " spike.'' This engraving is
especially valuable in depicting what remained
at that time of the monastic buildings. To
the right of the centre are the King's Garners,
and to the extreme left the King's Stables are
shown, backed- by the Great Gateway, while
near the foreground of the picture, and almost
in a line with the west front of the Abbey, we
see the ancient Water Gate, also of monastic
origin. On the plate is engraved a refer-
ence to Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part II.,
act ii., scene 1, which contains an account
of the miracle (!) wrought by St. Alban in
restoring the sight of an ostensible blind man.
I have said that this print is described as
a copy of a drawing said to have been
made by Livens, a disciple of Rembrandt.
On referring to Pilkington's Dictionary of
Painters, I am unable to discover the name
" Livens," but it seems to me pretty certain
that Jan Lievens (a Dutch painter, born in
1607) is the real author of the work, as he
visited England during the reign of Charles I.
(1625-49), and was patronized by the King
during his three years' stay in this country.
Lievens, however, was not a pupil of Rem-

brandt, but a fellow-disciple^ of that famous
painter in the studio of Peter Lastman,
another distinguished Dutch artist ; hence
probably arose the confusion of facts. The
drawing is a very beautiful study ; though
it has been three times engraved (once upon
wood), none of the reproductions has done
justice to the original.

In 1791 a remarkable engraving of the
Abbey, as seen from the south-east, was pub-
lished in the General Magazine and Im-
partial Review. It was drawn by G. Beck
and engraved by I. Barlow. Although
undoubtedly intended as a true picture,
this print fails to give the faintest idea
of the original at any period of its event-
ful history; indeed, the utter absence of
portraiture is absolutely ludicrous, and can
only be accounted for by the supposition
that the artist, when producing his drawing,
relied only upon his memory, notwithstand-
ing the fact that he has introduced a
portrait of himself in the act of sketching.
Were it not that the surroundings to some
extent portray the actual environment of the
sacred edifice (such as the Great Gateway
and the river Ver), it would be reasonable to
doubt that the picture was really meant to re-
present St. Alban's Abbey. True, it indicates
the presence of Norman work in the tower
and turrets, but the most striking feature of
the building, viz., the enormous nave, is con-
spicuous by its absence.

I pass from this artistic jeu d/ esprit to what
is probably the first engraving of the Abbey
executed during the present century a south-
west view drawn and engraved by J. Sparrow
(undated), depicting the edifice environed
by trees, with the river in the foreground.
A more important delineation, however,
appeared in 1802; it is also a south-west
view (4to.), engraved by W. Byrne, F.S.A.,
from a drawing by T. Hearne, F.S.A.
This fine print gives a general view of
the structure and its sylvan surroundings,
with water and a rustic bridge in the
foreground. Two years later, the same
artist and engraver produced a companion
plate of the Abbey as seen from the south-
east, also a very artistic presentment, although
the drawing is somewhat careless in the
rendering of the tower turrets and window-
heads ; the lighting-up of the picture is, how-

4 8


ever, excellent, and the same may be said of
the engraver's technique.

Contemporary with Heame and Byrne's
earlier plates, there was published in the
Beauties of England and Wales a distant view
of the Abbey from the south-west, the pic-
ture also depicting a portion of the ancient
walls of Verulam. This print, delicately en-
graved by J. Greig from a painting by G.
Arnald,* portrays the Great Gateway, the
"Old Fighting Cocks" Inn,t and the wind-
ing River Ver. Three years later (1805)
there appeared a much larger aquatint en-
graving of the south-west view, engraved by
T. Cartwright from a picture by the same
artist G. Arnald. The first state of this
plate, which measures 18 inches by 14 inches,
is wrongly described as the north-west aspect,
but the error was subsequently rectified.
Here we have a nearer view of the Abbey and
Great Gateway than in Arnald's smaller plate
(the tower of the former is again too slim) ;
the " Fighting Cocks " is on the right, and in
the immediate foreground is the river, with
rustic bridge and cattle crossing the stream.
Plain and coloured impressions were issued,
both now being scarce. In 1804 Messrs.
Vernor and Hood issued a south-east view,
which was engraved by Storer from a drawing
by G. Shepherd. The artist selected almost
identically the same point of view as Hearne's
of two years previously, and carried out his
picture on practically the same lines, but not
with his predecessor's artistic feeling for
effect, although the drawing and perspective
are more exact. The plate (which appeared
in one of the numerous works published
at the time, descriptive of London and its
environs) was reprinted in 18 14 by J. and
J. Cundee. G. Shepherd is also respon-
sible for a drawing of the west view, engraved
by R. Roffe for the Beauties of England and
Wales (1805), a much more foreshortened
representation than Schnebbilie's north-west
aspect, but retaining many of the same
features, notably the walls and gardens ; but
the trees had disappeared. Shepherd's de-
lineation of the great west window of Per-
pendicular design (lately destroyed by Lord
Grimthorpe) is good, but the tower, judging

* The name is spelt Arnarld'va. my proof impression
of the plate,
t Originally a monastic fishing-house.

by the glimpse here given, would be much
too narrow if carried out. Near the entrance-
porch is depicted a burial scene, with a group
of mourners. In 181 5 Shepherd produced
another interesting print, showing the Abbey
as seen from the south-east. It was en-
graved in aquatint " from an original draw-
ing finished on the spot, Aug. 1815," and
published during the following year by Burgis
and Co. The entrance to a passage, which,
until recent years, was used as a public
thoroughfare between the Lady Chapel and
the Saint's Chapel, is clearly indicated, and
the print would be an excellent and true
picture of the Abbey as it then appeared but
for the incorrect rendering of the nave, which
is inaccurate as regards dimensions and
perspective. An adaptation of this plate,
engraved on copper by J. Walsh, was after-
wards issued ; also a small wood-engraving
of the same.

In 1808, a north-east view, as seen from
the Bank garden, was drawn and engraved
for the Antiquarian and Topographical
Cabinet by J. Greig, who, it will be remem-
bered, reproduced Arnald's south-west view
of 1802. In this small print the artist
has removed a portion of the garden wall
in order to expose the entrance to the
passage above referred to. The Cabinet
also contained a distant view of the Abbey
from the west, and a south view, as seen
from the site of the present Rectory ; the
latter was engraved by I. Storer, the draughts-
man's name not being mentioned. The

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