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same picture was re - engraved by Storer
a few years subsequently for an anonymous
History of Verulam and St. Albans, pub-
lished in 1 81 5 by Shaw, a local bookseller,
and this plate (with a further alteration in
the imprint) reappeared in Williams's History
of Verulam, issued by Langley, in 1822.
Two years later than the appearance of the
Cabinet we find, in a plan of St. Albans pub-
lished by Vernor, Hood, and Sharpe (as a
supplement to the Beauties of England and
Wales), a small engraving by J. Roper of the
south-west aspect of the Abbey, from a draw-
ing by G. Cole. Contemporary with this there
appeared an important addition to the already
extensive list of engravings of St. Alban's
Abbey, viz., the south, west, and east eleva-
tions drawn by John Carter, and engraved by



NOTES ON ENGRAVINGS OF ST. ALBANS ABBEY.



49




THE NORTH FRONT OF ST ALBAN S ABBEY.
From a drawing by Hawksmoor, 1723.




ST. ALBAN'S ABBEY.
From ft drawing bv G. Beck, 1791.



VOL. XXXI.



5



NOTES ON ENGRA VINGS OF ST. ALB AN* S ABBE Y.



James Basire for the series of English cathe-
drals published by the London Society of
Antiquaries, 1810. These large and fairly
accurate plates are architectural drawings to
scale, and, as such, are extremely valuable ;
they do not, of course, pretend to be artistic.
Carter also made a very small etching of the
south view, from a rough sketch executed in
1775, which was published in 1786, and
included in 1839 in the collection of his tiny
etchings entitled Specimens of Gothic Archi-
tecture and Ancient Buildings in England ;
the same series included three other St.
Albans subjects.

Clutterbuck's History of Hertfordshire con-
tains an excellent general view of St. Albans
and its Abbey, from the south east, as seen
from Verulam walls. It was engraved by G.
Cooke from a drawing by C. Varley (18 15),
and the artist has succeeded in producing a
satisfactory picture ; indeed, Cooke's plates
for Clutterbuck are rightly regarded as the
best work he ever accomplished. On the
left is seen the Great Gateway, on the right
the Clock Tower with a cluster of houses, in
the middle distance the winding Ver, with
clumps of trees here and there, while in the
foreground are harvestmen at work. In 1 8 1 7
there appeared in a small i6mo. volume,
entitled Picturesque Rides aud Walks around
London, a coloured aquatint of the south-east
view, drawn and engraved by Hassell, which
shows the wall then enclosing this portion of
the Abbey. Four years later (1820) Nasmyth
(probably Patrick Nasmyth, the well known
landscape-painter) essayed a picture of the
south view, as seen from the narrow coach-
road at the rear of Holywell House, the resi-
dence of the Spencer family, which was de-
molished in 1840. This picture (then the
property of the publisher, T. Gosden, of St.
Martin's Lane) was engraved on a small scale ;
the Abbey is seen on the left, partly obscured
by trees overhanging the roadway. This plate
is interesting as giving an unusual aspect of
the sacred building, as well as affording a
glimpse of the departed Holywell House, on
the site of which now stand a few poor cottages.

A large lithograph by F. Calvert, published
by VV. Cole in 1822, portrays the Abbey from
the south-east, incorrectly described as the
south-west. This is a rare and curious print,
inaccurate in many respects as to details,



especially as to the form of the turrets of the
south transept ; the nave, also, is too short,
and the Great Gateway is omitted altogether.
A large plate, drawn and engraved in 1824 by
John Coney, also of the south-east view, was
published in Dugdale's Monasticon, the ex-
tended edition, folio, projected in 181 2 and
completed in 1830; the architecture is care-
fully drawn and vigorously engraved, the sky
being machine-ruled The imprint states
that it was published by Longman and Co.,
Harding, Mavor, and Lepard, and Joseph
Harding. In 1824 were also produced the
beautiful series of steel engravings depicting
interior and exterior views of the Abbey, from
drawings by J. P. Neale, and published by
him in a work entitled Views of the most
interesting Collegiate and Parochial Churches
in Great Britain. As I am dealing only with
exterior views, I must limit my remarks to
the two plates that come within that category,
one of which, engraved by W. Wallis, shows
the south side, with the remains of the cloister
arches clearly defined, the other being a south-
east prospect, engraved by T. Barber. These
artistic and delicately-executed engravings are
accurate representations, and therefore very
reliable.

The Builder of March 7, 1891, published
a capital drawing (photo-lithographed by
Sprague and Co.) of the Abbey from the
south-east as it appeared in 1859. It is
No. 3 of a series of cathedrals in England
and Wales contributed to that journal by
Mr. H. W. Brewer, and is a good example of
the penmanship of that skilled draughtsman.
The greater part of the Lady Chapel being
omitted, the opportunity was afforded of
giving prominence to other architectural
features, such as the rich window-tracery, the
passage entrance, etc. This is an interesting
souvenir of the old Abbey before it was
touched by the unsympathetic, though
generous, hand of Lord Grimthorpe. The
same praise cannot, alas ! be bestowed upon
Mr. Brewer's more recent presentment of the
Abbey I mean the south view he executed
for the Stationers' Company's almanack,
1894. It is a picture of the ancient fabric as
seen after the final restoration, and, apart from
a certain want of care in the delineation of
some of the details, the artist has rearranged
the environment for the sake of enhancing



NOTES ON ENGRAVINGS OF ST. AZBAN'S ABBEY.



5i



the pictorial effect. For example, the " Old
Fighting Cocks " Inn is shown as standing
on the site of the Rectory, and the river is
made to run about thirty yards from the
Cathedral, whereas it is a much greater
distance away.

In my collection are three pretty undated
prints, 8vo. in size, each portraying the Abbey
and immediate surroundings as seen from
the south. One is engraved by W. Henshall
from a drawing by C. Marshall, and bears
both a French and an English sub-title.
This view, which is one of three representing



altered and the plate reprinted in an illus-
trated edition of Hume's History of E?igland,
which was issued by Virtue and Son. A
third plate is obviously a copy of the above,
although the composition and effect have
been considerably altered, doubtless with the
idea of passing it off as an original picture.
Note, for instance, the substitution of a
ploughman for the harvesters, and the intro-
duction of a rustic figure with dog near a
foot stile on the left. This was drawn and
engraved for Dugdale's England and Wales
Delineated, but neither the name of the artist




ST. alban's abbey from the south- west.
As " restored" by Lord Grimthorpe.



objects of interest in the town, was published
by Simpkin, Marshall and Co., etc., and is
taken from a spot contiguous to the silk-mill ;
it includes the " Fighting Cocks " Inn, with
a timber-waggon crossing the stream. The
second plate, drawn by T. Allom from a
sketch by Prior, and engraved by H. Adlard,
gives a more distant view, from a point near
Verulam Hills ; there are trees in the middle
distance, and harvesters at work in the nearest
field. This plate appeared in Dr. Beattie's
Castles and Abbeys, published in 1842, and
the imprint, which included the name of
James S. Virtue, was subsequently slightly



nor engraver is appended. There is also a
small undated lithograph by J. D. Harding
of the north-west view a spirited drawing
made additionally attractive by the introduc-
tion of a rustic bridge and a sheet of water in
the foreground ; the latter, I believe, never
had any existence in fact.

Before concluding my list, I ought to men-
tion certain local productions that deserve
mention. Neale's comprehensive volume on
the Abbey contains several well-drawn illus-
trations (reproduced by photo-lithography),
the work of an architectural draughtsman
rather than that of an artist, but valuable for



$*



N0T&S on archeology in provincial museums.




the careful rendering of details. There is a
large chalk lithograph by J. H. Buckingham
Of the south-east view ; and, finally, two
interesting lithographs, published in St.
Albans several years ago by Rayment and
W. Langley, of the south prospect, some im-
pressions being tastefully coloured.

N.B. My thanks are due to Mr. Le\\i> Evans,
F.S.A., and Mr. Herbert C. Wroot, for kind assis-
tance in compiling these notes.



Botes on arcb^ologp in
Provincial Museums.

NO. XXXIX.-THE WARRINGTON MUSEUM.
By J. Ward, F.S.A.

HE average municipal museum is
the appendage of a free library,
holding an altogether minor place
in the estimation of both general
public and urban authority, and this subordi-
nation is accentuated by the usual designation
of the combined institution, " Free Library
and Museum." But with regard to Warring-
ton, in name at least, the reverse is the case.
The Free Library there is a department of
the institution known as the "Warrington
Museum," which began its career as a sub-
scription library, founded in 1759, and taken
over by the Corporation in 1848 to form part
of the latter institution.

The building which bears the above name
is a brick-and stone structure, erected about
forty years ago, sombre and solid, and with
little claim to architectural beauty. The
rooms devoted to the library are cramped
and ill-arranged, but the museum department
is decidedly better off. Two natural history
rooms and a picture - gallery are light,
spacious, and well-proportioned, although
lacking in architectural merit, like the
exterior. The other exhibition spaces are
better described as vestibules and lobbies
than rooms. As might be expected in a
museum of forty years' standing, many of
the glass cases are very much behind present-
day requirements. They are heavy, incon-
venient, and greatest of a curator's trials -



freely pervious to dust ; but some of the
newer cases are all that can be desired.
Taken as a whole, the museum has a well-
cared for appearance ; and while it is true
that some of its exhibits, particularly those
in the antiquarian section, are open to im-
provement in respect to arrangement, display,
and descriptive adjuncts, others, especially
the natural history groups, are most admir-
able in these respects, and certainly are much
in advance of what one too frequently meets
with in larger and wealthier provincial
museums.

As in most institutions of the sort, the
exhibits are of a miscellaneous character,
and, as is equally frequent, natural history
absorbs the lion's share of space and atten-
tion. Archaeology, however, is well repre-
sented, especially in its local phase ; it seems,
indeed, as though most of the more important
finds of the district during the last few
decades had gravitated to this museum. The
less-advanced treatment of the archaeological
collection is by no means due to any remiss-
ness or lethargy on the part of the able
curator, Mr. C. Madeley his excellent work
in the natural history department amply
proves his capability and enthusiasm. But
it is the old, old story : inadequate support
and consequent undermanning, the income
for all purposes last year being only ; 1,100.
The ever-growing demands of the library
had, years ago, left Mr. Madeley but little
time for the museum. It is only of late,
since he has had an assistant-curator, that he
has been able to carry out a " spirited policy "
in this department, which already has had
most happy results.

Giving precedence to local antiquities, our
inspection will begin with the large series of
objects the chief feature of the museum
from the site of the Roman station at
Wilderspool, a suburb of Warrington. This
station was situated on a lingula, that is, an
angle of land at the confluence of two
streams, which, in the present case, are the
Mersey and the Cress Brook. So much has
the site been built upon and otherwise inter-
fered with during the present century, that
all visible remains of a camp have disap-
peared ; and there is little probability that
the large finds of past times will be repeated.
A large number of objects of this period



NOTES ON ARCHEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS.



5;



were turned up during the construction of
a canal in 1 80 1-3, but there appears to have
been no attempt to collect and preserve
them. On two previous occasions, 1770 and
1787, similar finds were made, those of the
former date being sufficient to form a small
museum at the house of a Mr. Ireland.
More finds are recorded for 1823, 1831,
1867, and the four or five following years,
those of the last - mentioned years being
the chief source of the museum series we
are about to consider. Formerly a portion
of the site was known as the Town Field ;
and this appears to have originally formed
part of a rectangular area of about sixteen
acres, which presumably represented the
ancient camp. But the whole extent of ground
over which Roman remains have been found
is about thirty-six acres.

It is almost unnecessary to say that, being
an important Roman station, its ancient
name has been the subject of many an
antiquarian dispute. The theory of the late
Dr. Kendrick, whose able investigations have
thrown many lights on Roman Cheshire and
Lancashire, was that it was the Condate of
Antonine {Reliquary, vol. xi.). On the other
hand, the late Mr. W. Watkin {Roman Cheshire)
regarded it as Veratinum, and he identified
Condate with Kinderton. To enter into so
intricate a dispute is outside our range ; but
it probably occurs to the reader that if the
latter is right, the names Warrington and
Kinderton are derived respectively from
Veratinum and Condate then what be-
comes of the confident theory of some
place-name etymologists which makes the
former place tenanted by, and named after,
the warlike Warings ?

The Wilderspool objects in the museum
were collected and presented by Dr. Kend-
rick. In a small but most useful illustrated
guide, written by him about twenty-two years
ago, they are conveniently divided into stone,
earthenware, glass, metal, and lead objects,
animal remains, and coins ; and it is hardly
necessary to say that the earthenware greatly
predominates. Those of stone are by no
means numerous or important, consisting
merely of pieces of columns and querns,
whetstones, and spindle-whorls. Fragmen-
tary specimens of roofing-tiles and bricks
indicate that they were of ordinary character



and quite devoid of inscriptions. There are
an unusually large number of fragments of
mortaria of the common white, buff, and
red ware, some of the rims bearing inscrip-
tions, and others having the unusual feature
of lateral handles. Amphorae and ampullae
of similar ware are, of course, present. In
finer varieties of the same ware are several
strainers and thuribles, and a lamp, the only
one found at Wilderspool ; but the most
valuable specimen is an imperfect theatrical
mask. It was thus described by Mr. H.
Syer Cuming in the Journal of the Archceo-
logical Association, vol. xxvii. : "We must
press on to the crowning glory of the late
discoveries, the very gem of the present
assemblage of relics ; in short, the rarest
and most precious object which the excava-
tions at Wilderspool have afforded a veri-
table antique persona, or mask of terra-
cotta. . . . Deeply must we regret that
this visor comes to us in such a shattered
and fragmentary state; but enough is pre-
served to show that it is of ample size to
cover the human face, the eyes, nostrils, and
mouth being open to allow sight, respiration,
and voice to proceed without interruption.
There have been two perforations towards
the lower part of each cheek, and probably
the same number on each side of the fore-
head, through which cords passed to lace
the mask to a cap, hood, or wig, which
covered the head of the actor, for I presume
there cannot be a doubt that it was fabri-
cated for the theatrum. . . . Julius Pollux
enumerates twenty-five masks for tragedy,
exclusive of those required for the persona-
tion of certain heroes, etc., and forty-three
for comedy, so that it seems perfectly hope-
less to attempt to identify the Wilderspool
visor with any special name that has de-
scended to us ; but I think we may safely
pronounce it a persona tragica, from the
grave and almost ghastly expression of
countenance." Some of the vessels of this
class of pottery are of the variety termed by
Dr. Kendrick "rough-cast." The peculiar
rough surfaces of these appear to have been
produced by sprinkling powdered clay upon
the surface while still moist, and then, when
dry, fixing it by dipping the vessel into a
bath of " slip," or clay-wash. The specimens
of black and gray pottery do not call for any



54



NOTES ON ARCHEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS.



special notice, for they are precisely such as
are turned up on most Roman sites. Those
of Samian ware are numerous, and some of
them are fine examples of the pottery ; the
more perfect belonged to bowls, acetabula,
and patera?. On not a few of the fragments
are the remains of lead rivets, used in repair-
ing the vessels when broken, a not unusual
feature, yet interesting, as showing how highly
the old owners esteemed the ware. The
following is a tolerably complete list of the
potters' names on the Wildcrspool Samian
specimens :

ALBIXTM CREM . . . REGINl'M

ANA1LLIM DEC . . . SACRAPOT

ATTIC I'M DONATI'M O'SORINI

CELSI'M FELIIC . . TITILLVSTE

CINNAMI OF'FLAVIV.ER TITVKfM

CIV . . . FUSC1 VETERIM

COCIl.M OF'LC'VIRII. VORANO

COCVRO'F NICAN1 . . . EVIRIL

CLA . . PRI ... . . OC

PAVILLI . ELLINI'M

Glass is moderately well represented ; the
most remarkable specimens are the fragments
of two bracelets. They are of opaque white
glass, streaked or stained with pale green on
the surface. Dr. Kendrick considered them
to be quite unique.

The bronze objects offer no points of
special interest. They consist of studs or
buttons, bodkins, pins, knobs, handles,
buckles, fibulae, etc.* Among the iron ob-
jects is a large fire-dog, described, but in-
correctly figured, in the Journal of the Archae-
ological Association^ vol. xix. It consists
essentially of a bar of iron, each extremity
bent in opposite directions, so



^



V

At B, the bar rests upon an arched piece
of iron, so that the whole is a tripod, A serving
as the third foot. At C is a ring or loop,
through which the front bar was passed.
The fellow dog was not found. There are
many other iron objects of this period shown

* Since writing this article, the museum has ac-
quired several fibulae found at Wilderspool in 1867
and following years. These are bow-shaped, and one
is enamelled.



nails, hasps, bolts, hooks, staples, wall-
cramps, keys, a padlock, modelling tool,
horse's bit, axe, cleaver, shackle, etc.
Among these are some clusters of nails used
for sandal-soles, the chief peculiarity of which
is that they have a distinct thread, " proving
that the Romans were acquainted with the
screw." These iron objects, as a rule, exhibit
" the blistering effects of intense fire," which
must be assigned to "some conflagration,
probably wilful, which has enveloped and
devastated the entire Roman station." The
coins are relatively few for so important a
site, and they range from Vespasian to
Marcus Aurelius.

There are many remains of Roman
Britain from other localities in this museum.
Among these we may mention tiles from Sil-
chester, York, Wroxeter, and Slack (Cam-
bodunum), the latter inscribed coht ii br ;
tesserae from Aldborough, fragments of
tessellated pavement from Leicester, cement
and concrete from Bulstrode and Melandra
Castle, sepulchral urns from Hartford, and
Winnington, near Northwich, and from Stret-
ton, near Warrington ; Samian ware from
Kinderton, Verulam, and Manchester; bronze
vessels from Chester, and pottery of lower
grades from other places.

From Chesterton, a small bronze figure has
found its way to this museum. It is 2% inches
high, with a pedestal, helmet, and right hand
up in the attitude of holding a spear, which,
however, has disappeared. A handleless
variety of amphorae from London helps to fix
the period of an undescribed one of very
similar shape and texture in the Cardiff
Museum. A small, two-handled, amphora-
shaped vessel of gray ware came from the-
Hartford mentioned above. It is beautiful
in shape, and about 8 inches high. There
are also relating to Roman Britain many
plans of famous tessellated pavements, rub-
bings of inscriptions, and casts, one being
that of a small domestic altar (from Man-
chester?). Besides these, the museum con-
tains a miscellaneous assortment of ancient
Continental- Roman, Graeco-Roman, and
Egyptian objects, which, however, are not
worth enumerating here, as they are such as
most enthusiastic tourists to Italy, Greece,
and Egypt bring back with them as mementos
of their wanderings.



NOTES ON ARCHEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS.



55



We will now recede into Pre-Roman
Britain. A remarkably well-arranged and
well-labelled case is devoted to stone and
bronze implements. The Pleistocene period
is rather inadequately represented by a few
flint haches and flakes from Abbeville and
St. Acheul in France, and from Broomhill
and Warren Hill in England. Those which
belong to later times, and which, from a
geological point of view, are best described
as Post- Pleistocene, are extremely well selected
and instructive. Some of them are obviously
of Neolithic Age ; others are typically Bronze
Age specimens ; but, as usually is the case, the
antiquity of the majority cannot be defined
so precisely. Eighty or more specimens were
purchased at the recent sale of a portion of
the collection of the late Thomas Bateman,
of Derbyshire, and many of them were
obtained from that county and the adjacent
parts of Staffordshire. The arrow-heads of
this series are particularly pleasing, and
exhibit almost every known shape. Two
grooved axe-hammers of basalt, from Middle-
sex (29 P and 125 L in Bateman's Catalogue
of Antiquities), are of unusual form, there
being none similar figured in Evans' Ancient
Stone Implements. Five perforated axe-ham-
mers are those of the catalogue, Nos. 92 P,
109 L, 137 L, 311 P, 313 P. The locality of
Warrington has furnished several fine
specimens of the same. One over 9 inches
long came from Dean, near Bolton ; and
another, very similar to Fig. 140, Evans, most
beautifully and carefully finished, from a
barrow at Middleton, near Warrington. The
last is particularly interesting, as it was buried
with a bronze dagger in a cinerary urn, both
dagger and fragments of the urn being shown
in the present case. The fragments indicate
that the urn was'of the usual Bronze Age type,
and that the deep rim was decorated with
impressions of twisted thong to form a chev-
rony pattern. The dagger is very small, about
4 inches long, and rather unusual, having
a tang with a rivet hole ; it is referred to in
Evans' Bronze Implements, p. 224, and an
account of the whole discovery is contained
in volume xvi., Archceological Association
Journal. But to return to the stone imple-
ments. A large and lumbering axe-hammer
of Silurian gritstone was found in the wall
of a cottage at Brinnington, near Stockport.



Some doubts have been entertained as to
its genuineness, and it certainly does look
very new ; but there is no adequate reason to
dispute its antiquity. A beautifully-shaped
perforated disc, 2\ inches in diameter, came
from Haydock in Lancashire, and is classed
by Sir John Evans as a hammer (Ibid., p. 206).
An enormous celt (nearly 18 inches long) of
hone slate, was found at Newton in the same
county. It closely resembles Fig. 61 in the
work just alluded to, and was described by
Mr. Syer Cuming in the Archceological Asso-
ciation Journal as a club. The rest of
the collection consists of axes from Ireland,
Denmark, and Germany ; crushers, spindle-
whorls, cores, scrapers, and flakes from
various places in the British Islands ; and a
few specimens of American and New Zealand
workmanship.

The collection of bronze is also small, but
is equally excellent. The most valuable
specimens two spear-heads and five sock-
eted axes formed part of a small hoard
found on the estate of Colonel Wilson Patten,
at Winmarleigh, near Garstang, Lancashire.
They appear to have been buried in a small
wooden box. The larger of the spear-heads



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