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Story of the Nations

A Series of Historical Studies intended to present in
graphic narratives the stories of the different
nations that have attained prominence in history.



In the story form the current of each national
life is distinctly indicated, and its picturesque and
noteworthy periods and episodes are presented for
the reader in their philosophical relations to each
other as well as to universal history.



12°, Illustrated, cloth, each
Half Leather, each



$1.50
$1.75



FOR FULL LIST SEE END OF THIS VOLUME.



MODERN ITALY




HUMBKRT I.
(From a photograph by Brogi.)



THE STORY OF THE NATIONS



MODERN ITALY



i 748- i 898



BY
PIETRO ORSI

PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE R. LICEO FOSCARINI, VENICE



TRANSLATED BY



MARY ALICE VIALLS




NEW YORK

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN



y



&?



$\






\



**»*.



tSJo

PASQUALE VILLARI,

FOREMOST OF LIVING ITALIAN HISTORIANS

IN HARMONISING THE ART WITH THE SCIENCE

OF HISTORY, I DEDICATE THIS MODEST WORK, THAT

I MAY ENJOY THE PLEASURE OF PUBLICLY

EXPRESSING THEREBY MY SINCERE

ADMIRATION FOR HIS

GENIUS






TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE



ALTHOUGH Italy is still the favoured shrine to
which thousands of British and American travellers
annually flock, to find in her lakes and mountains,
her churches, picture-galleries and ruins, the goal of
their pilgrimage, whilst the magic names of Rome,
Florence and Venice £.re as household words upon
their lips, yet the inner history of the peninsula — a
record fraught with the profoundest human interest —
has been strangely neglected, even by those who, it
might be reasonably supposed, would be its closest
students. But it ought not to be forgotten that the
country, which we are so apt to regard as simply a
paradise of nature as well as of art, has a practical
demand on our sympathies quite as strong as its
hold on our imaginations.

Whilst the picturesque heroes of Roman story are
familiar traditions of our schooldays, Charles Albert —
that most noble and pathetic of kingly figures —
Cavour — the pilot who steered the bark of Italian
independence safely home to port, between the rocks
of absolutist reaction and the whirlpool of revolu-
tionary fanaticism — and many more, are, especially






VI TRANSLATOR S PREFACE

to the younger generation, too often mere names.
To familiarise his readers with the pioneers of
modern Italy and their work, is the object of Pro-
fessor Pietro Orsi who, from his distinguished
academical position, commands exceptional qualifi-
cations for such a task. It is to be regretted that
considerations of space have forbidden the fuller
treatment and more detailed development of so
complex a theme as the making of the present
Italian kingdom, but it is hoped that this compre-
hensive resume will encourage students to explore
the manifold phases of the movement for themselves
and that, read in connection with this volume, the
other Italian series in the "Story of the Nations,"
such as Sicily, Venice, and The Tuscan Republics, to
say nothing of France and Austria, will acquire fresh
significance as parts of a great whole.

Italy has long been an inexhaustible treasury of art
and literature for the English-speaking race ; ought
not then her political annals for the last hundred
years to give her an even nobler and more strenuous
claim on the Anglo-Saxon mind, with its keen bent
for practical politics and unswerving devotion to
constitutional freedom. Indeed, interest in Italian
affairs may be said, at least, to have been a tradition
in our literature during the last half century ; aroused
long ago by Mr. Gladstone's eloquent protest against
the Bourbon regime in Naples — in his two famous
Letters to the Earl of Aberdeen — and kept alive in
the impassioned verse of Mrs. Browning, it has, of
late years, been stimulated by the fascinating mono-
graphs of Madame Martinengo Cesaresco and Mr.



TRANSLATORS PREFACE Vll

J. W. Stillman's valuable work, The Union of Italy.
Is it too much to expect that such an interest may
be further promoted by the following pages, wherein
the great questions connected with the Italian
Risorgimento are relegated to their proper place in
the historical perspective, so that we can see them
clear and undistorted in the sober light of fact ?

At any rate, it is trusted that this record will form
one more link in the already long and lasting chain
which binds united Italy to England, and that it will
likewise be a factor in ensuring for Italians Trans-
atlantic suffrages, for surely America, with her own
cherished traditions of liberty, will not be slow to
lend a sympathetic ear to the " story " of a nation
that, in her gallant struggle for independence, has
won her way, in spite of internal anarchy and foreign
oppression, out of the darkness and confusion of the
old unhappy past, to the dawn of a new day that
brings her the inestimable blessings of unity and
freedom.

MARY ALICE VIALLS.

London,
October, 1899.




CONTENTS



I.



Italy after Aquisgrana



PAGE

i-34



Kingdom of Sardinia — Lombardy — Republic of Venice —
Republic of Genoa — Parma and Piacenza — Modena and
Reggio — Grand duchy of Tuscany — States of the Church —
Naples and Sicily — Poetry of Giuseppe Parini — Vittorio
Alfieri and nationalist ideal.



II.



Italy during the French Revolution



36-48



Effect of French revolution in Italy — First campaign of
Napoleon Bonaparte (1796-97) — Origin of the Italian tri-
colour flag — Fall of the Venetian Republic — New
democratic regime — Italy conquered by the French — Austro-
Russian victory and triumph of reaction — Exiles of 1799 and
ideal of a united Italy.



III.



The Napoleonic Regime



49-64



Napoleon's passage of the St. Bernard, and battle of
Marengo— Convocation of Lyons and Italian Republic
Francesco Melzi — Kingdom of Italy — Eugene Beauharnais
— Conquest of kingdom of Naples —Abolition of temporal
power of the Popes- Italian provinces annexed to French



CONTENTS

PAGE

empire — Awakening of Italian life under Napoleonic regime
— Kingdom of Naples under Joseph Bonaparte and Joachim
Murat — Bourbon court in Sicily — Constitution of 1812 —
Abdication of Napoleon — Restoration of the ancient order —
The ' Hundred Days ' — Fall of Napoleon — Joachim Murat
— His loss of the throne — Last effort and death.



IV.

The Restoration : Old Governments and New

Peoples ....... 65-74

Congress of Vienna and re-adjustment of Italy — Austrian
predominance — Victor Emmanuel I. returns to Piedmont —
Lombardo-Venetian provinces under Austria — Condition of
the duchies — Mildness of Tuscan rule — Papal States — Ferdi-
nand I., King of the Two Sicilies — Holy Alliance and
liberalism.

V.
Revolutionary beginnings .... 75-93

Carbonarism — Revolution at Naples (1820) — Expedition
sent by Holy Alliance against the constitutionalists and
restoration of absolutism — Revolution in Piedmont (1821) —
Conduct of Charles Albert — Restoration of absolute rule
with Charles Felix — Political prosecutions in the Lombardo-
Venetian States — Cruelty of Francis IV. of Modena and his
designs on the Sardinian succession — Congress of Verona —
Charles Albert in Spain.



VI.
Ten Years of Reaction 94-106

Italy from 1821 to 1830 — Francis IV. of Modena and Ciro
Menotti — Revolution of 1831 — United Italian provinces —
Austrian intervention and re-establishment of ancient
governments — Memorandum of the Powers to the Pope.



COXTENTS Xl'

VII.

PAGE

Giuseppe Mazzini and 'Young Italy' . . 107-121

Letter of Mazzini to Charles Albert — 'Young Italy' —
Conspirators of '33 — Expedition of Savoy — Stern repressions
— Ferdinand II. of Naples — The Sicilian risings — Art and
science as factors in the nationalist cause.



VIII.

The Force of Public Opinion . . 122-128

Death of the Bandiera brothers — Gioberti and his Primato
Degli Italian i — Balbo's Speranze D' Italia— Pontificate of
Gregory XVI. — D'Azeglio's Ultimi Cast Di Romag>ia.

IX.
From Reforms to Revolution . . . 129-159

Charles Albert and Austrian tactics — Pius IX. and reforms
— Sudden awakening of the national conscience — Popular
agitation, and behaviour of the princes — Charles Albert's
reforms — Palermo insurrection — Constitution granted in the
Neapolitan States, Piedmont, Tuscany and Rome.



The War of 1848 160-193

Lombardo-Venetian States at the beginning of 1848 —
Sanguinary policy of Austrian government — Liberation of
Venice — The ' Five Days ' at Milan — War of Indepen-
dence — First successes of the Italian arms — Allocution of
Pius IX. — The 15th of May at Naples, and withdrawal of
the Neapolitan troops from the war— Tuscans at Curtatone
and Montanara — Last victories of the Piedmontese — Defeat
of Custoza — Retreat — Armistice — Vicissitudes of Italian states
at the end of 1848 — Heroic defence of Venice.

i a



XU CONTENTS

XI.

PAGE

The War of 1849 194-215

Struggle between Piedmont and Austria resumed — Defeat of
Novara and abdication of Charles Albert — The ' Ten
Days' of Brescia — Restoration of absolutism in the king-
dom of Naples — Submission of Sicily — Re-establishment
of grand-ducal government in Tuscany — The Roman
Republic — French intervention — Garibaldi — Determined re-
sistance of Venice — Daniele Manin.

XII.

The Beginning of Victor Emmanuel II.'s

Reign 216-232

Victor Emmanuel's interview with Radetzky at Vignale —
Reaction triumphant throughout Europe — Peace concluded
with Austria — Massimo D'Azeglio and ' Proclamation of
Moncalieri ' — Gladstone's letter on the Bourbon government
— Deplorable condition of rest of Italy — Prosecutions at
Mantua — 6th of February, 1853, at Milan — Memorandum of
Cavour — Assassination of the Duke of Parma.

XIII.
The Star of Piedmont 233-245

Cavour, president of the Ministry — Development of
nationalist feeling — Part taken by Piedmont in Crimean
war — Cavour at the Paris Congress — Centralisation of
Italian life in Sardinian kingdom — Revolts in kingdom of
Naples — Expedition of Sapri — Change of Austrian policy
in Lombardo-Venetian States — Bold attitude of Piedmont
and speech of Cavour — Alliance with France.

XIV.

The War of 1859 246-268

Preparation for a new war — Speech of Cavour — Austrian
ultimatum — Victor Kmmanuel's manifesto — Condition of
rival armies — Montebello, Palestro, Magenta and Melegnano



COXTENTS Xl I i

V\r,y
— Garibaldi and his ' Cacciatori delle Alpi ' — Solferino and
San Martino — Preliminaries of Villafranca and Peace of
Zurich — Cession of Savoy and Nice to France — Fusion of
Parma, Modena, Romagna and Tuscany with Piedmont.



XV.

The March of 'the Thousand' . . . 269-284

Francis II. King of Naples — Garibaldi and 'The Thousand '
from Quarto to Marsala, Calatafimi, Palermo and Milazzo
— Victor Emmanuel's army in the Marches and Umbria —
Volturno — English sympathy for Italian cause — Capitulation
of Gaeta — Kingdom of Italy proclaimed.

XVI.

The Roman Question 286-302

Cavour's speeches on the Roman question — Death of the
great minister — Difficulties in new kingdom — Brigandage —
Line taken by ' party of action ' — Aspromonte — Garibaldi's
visit to England — Convention of September, 1864, and
transference of capital from Turin to Florence.

XVII.

The War of 1866 3°3~309

Alliance of Italy and Prussia — Condition of the armies —
Battle of Custoza — Garibaldi in the Trentino — Naval
engagement at Lissa — Peace of Prague — Venetia annexed to
kingdom of Italy.

XVIII.

Rome the Capital 310-316

Garibaldi and the volunteers in Papal States — Intervention
of France and battle of Mentana — Neutrality of Italy during
the Franco- Prussian war — Occupation of Rome by Italian
troops, September 20, 1870 — ' Law of guarantees.'



XIV CONTEXTS

XIX.



PAGE



Italy after 1870 . . . . . . 318-348

Internal administration — Death of Mazzini — The ' Right '
and ' Left ' — Advent of ' Left ' to power— Death of Victor
Emmanuel — Death of Pius IX. and election of Leo. XIII.
— Origin of Triple Alliance — Death of Garibaldi — Internal
reforms and development of public works — Occupation of
Assab and Massowah — Italian affairs in Africa — Bank
prosecutions and commercial morality— The riots of May,
1898 — Turin Exhibition— Italy in 1899 — Population — Royal
Family — Constitution of the state — National exchequer —
Army and navy — Imports and exports— Education — Chief
cities.

XX.
Literature and Art 349-384

Revival of literature and art — Eighteenth century poets —
Classicism — Romantic School — Political tendencies in Italian
literature— Historical research — -Musicians — New epoch —
Historians — Journalism — Criticism — Later poets — Novelists
— The drama — Tainting and sculpture — Music — Science, &c. —
Conclusion.

Appendix 385

Index 389



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Humbert I.

Map of Italy

The Royal Palace, Turin

The Doge's Palace, Venice

The Ducal Palace, Genoa

The Pitti Palace, Florence

The Vatican

The Royal Palace, Naples

VlTTORIO ALFIERI

The Royal Palace, Caserta
Theatre of San Carlo, Naples
Arco Della Pace, Milan .
Joachim Murat
Gabriele Rossetti .
Santorre di Santarosa



Frontispiece



PAGE

I



13
17

21

25
29

35
39
47
55
63
77
85



XV i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Ferdinand II. of Naples . . . . 117

Charles Albert, King of Sardinia . . 131

Pius IX. . . . . . 135

Leopold II., Grand Duke of Tuscany . 139

Ruggero Settimo . . . . 153

Daniele Manin . . . . .189

Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa . . . 199
Giuseppe Mazzini ..... 205

Giuseppe Garibaldi .... 209

Victor Emmanuel II. . . . .217

Massimo D'Azeglio . . . . 221

The Carignano Palace, Turin . .' .225

Camillo Cavour .... 235

The Madama Palace, Turin . . . 247

Napoleon III. . . • • .261

Nino Bixio . 2 73

Enrico Cialdini . . . .281

The Montecitorio Palace, Rome . . 285

Bettino Ricasoli . . . • .291

Urbano Rattazzi . . . 299
Alfonso la Marmora .... 305



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



xvn



Alfredo Cappellini .

The Quirinal

Marco Minghetti

The Madama Palace, Rome

H. M. Queen Helena

H. M. Amadeus I., King of Italy

H. M. Victor Emmanuel III.

Luigi Carlo Farini



308

• 3*7
325

• 329
337

• 34i
345

• 363





' Modern /tali/." Stor>/ of the Nations Series



. :. uTbnr^hit Loiwmh-







ITALY AFTER AQUISGRANA



THE traveller who enters Italy by the Mont
Cenis tunnel is confronted by a race whose tempera-
ment is as hard as the alpine granite and cold as the
long alpine winters — a race toughened, braced and
disciplined to duty by the constant exercise of arms,
whose integrity is preserved and whose interests are
guarded by rulers of the honoured dynasty of Savoy.

From the eleventh century this princely house,
originally from Maurienne, had begun to extend
its dominion in Piedmont, and, by means of its
ability and perseverance, had gradually succeeded
in subjugating the whole of the province ; in fact,
by the first half of the eighteenth century, Charles
Emmanuel III. had extended the frontier of his
territory on the side of the Milanese from the Sesia
to the Ticino. Besides Piedmont and Savoy — the
cradle of the race — this family had held for centuries
the city and province of Nice, and thus possessed
a maritime port which assured a free access to
the waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Here indeed
they had obtained the sovereignty of an island



2 ITALY AFTER AQ11SGRANA

which brought to the House of Savoy that royal
title coveted by so many generations of its princes. 1
It was war which had led to these results, and by
war alone could they be heightened or modified.
Thus, from the period extending from 1748 to
1792, during which Italy was at peace, no changes
whatever affected the dominions of the House of
Savoy.

The territories in question contained about three
million two hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants,
of whom nearly two million eight hundred thousand
belonged to the mainland and only four hundred
and fifty thousand to Sardinia. This island had
been reduced by four centuries of Spanish misrule
to the most deplorable condition ; uncultivated and
destitute of roads, a great part of it was almost
wholly owned by feudatories, mostly of Spanish
origin. Some few of the great and radical reforms
that it needed were indeed introduced, but with
little effect.

Piedmont, on the contrary, had the appearance of
a highly cultivated province, with its lowlands rich
in mulberries and vines ; moreover, the land was
divided to such an extent that nearly all the agri-
culturists were landed proprietors as well. Industries
were developing, it is true, but they were subject

* By the peace of Utrecht (17 13) Victor Amadeus II. of Savoy had
gained Sicily, but in consequence of the attempts of Cardinal Alberoni
— the Spanish minister- -to recover the lost Italian provinces, the
Emperor had insisted on Victor Amadeus ceding Sicily to him and
taking in exchange Sardinia : hence the title of the new kingdom — a
title preserved by the House of Savoy up till 1861, when Victor
Emmanuel II. assumed that of ' King of Italy.'



COURT OF TURh\ 3

to a whole code of minute regulations which,
although meant to foster their increase, in reality
only hindered it. The capital of the kingdom — Turin
— only contained seventy-five thousand inhabitants,
but its clean, level streets and its wide, regular
squares, gave the city a very attractive aspect, so
that Montesquieu, who visited it in 1728, pronounced
it " Ic plus beau village du uionde."

The court of Turin, although free from the vices
of that of Versailles, was organised on much the
same basis. A retinue of fully three hundred and
thirty courtiers surrounded the monarch, and the
annual expenditure amounted to more than two
million francs — representing the tenth part of the
national revenue. From these courtiers — all of whom
were, naturally, nobles — were chosen the ministers
and all other state functionaries. The aristocracy
likewise monopolised the highest dignities in the
Church, whilst no less than two thousand five hundred
of its members served in the army, and it was for
them that the various officers' ranks were reserved.
In consideration of these privileges all the noblesse
were bound by absolute obedience to the sovereign,
even in matters affecting their private life ; and
this rigorous dependence was all the more irksome,
inasmuch that, in such a miniature kingdom, the
monarch could keep himself accurately informed as
to the affairs of his subjects. This must have pro-
voked discontent among the more independent of
the members of his entourage, whose natures must
have resented such servitude : however, in view of
the fact that the royal family was easy-going and



4 ITALY AFTER AQUISGRANA

well-intentioned, such a discontent would not be
likely to have any very serious results.

Count Vittorio Alfieri himself, though an ardent
hater of tyrants, wrote, apropos of Victor Amadeus III.
(who reigned from 1773 to 1796): "Although I do
not like kings in general, and still less arbitrary
ones, I am bound to admit that the family of our
princes is excellent, especially when you come to
compare it with all the other reigning houses of
Europe. And in my inmost heart I rather feel
affection for them than otherwise, seeing that this
king — like his predecessor Charles Emmanuel III.
— has the best intentions, the most charming dis-
position and exemplary temper, and has done his
country a great deal more good than harm." »
Unfortunately, Victor Amadeus III., although con-
scientious and upright, was deficient in strength of
character and a knowledge of his times, so that it
can be understood how, under a prince of such
temperament, promotion was granted to the most
worthless courtiers.

The clergy counted as a powerful influence, at
this period, in the state. Without reckoning Sar-
dinia and Savoy, there were not less than twenty
thousand priests and twelve thousand monks and
nuns in the province of Piedmont alone. The Church
possessed its own tribunals and prisons ; it claimed
the exclusive right of judging cases against ecclesias-
tics and sought to establish its own competency
against that of the laity in all that had to do with
matters of faith, questions of heresy, matrimonial

* Vita di Vittorio Alfuri.



6 ITALY AFTER AQUISGRANA

suits, &c. The priesthood formed a wealthy, as
well as a numerous body ; not so the nobles,
among whom there were very few who could boast
of an annual income of fifty thousand francs. Both
noblesse and priesthood were, however, in a great
measure exempted from taxation, the burden of
which hence fell on the other classes of society.

The bourgeoisie naturally viewed the privileges of
the nobility as a grievance. The richer members
of the middle classes tried to acquire titles and thus
to become ennobled themselves. Men who had
risen through wealth and education, keenly realised
the odium of those social differences which were
continually making themselves felt, as, for example,
in the fashion of dress, and although they were
devoted supporters of an ancient and glorious throne,
would have welcomed many reforms had the latter
been introduced.

Just at this period, many men, distinguished by
genius and learning, began to emerge from the ranks
of the Piedmontese bourgeoisie. Seeing themselves
neglected by the government, and not finding a
favourable milieu in so-far uncultured Piedmont,
they sought for protection and honours elsewhere.
Thus Giuseppe Baretti (17 16-1789), the eminent
critic, author of the Frusta Letteraria, lived for
many years in England ; the illustrious historian,
Carlo Denina (1731-1813), the author of the
Rivoluzioni D'ltalia, incurred the bitter hatred of
the friars on account of his book, DelVImpiego
Delle Persone, and to avoid their persecution, took
refuge in Berlin, whither Frederic II. had invited



VICTOR A MADE US III. .' LOMBARDY "J

him, and thence went to Paris where he died ; whilst
the great mathematician, Luigi Lagrange (1736—
181 3), also passed the most important years of his
life in Berlin and Paris. Thus the influential
members of the middle class who would have been
most capable of initiating a movement of ideas,
emigrated instead.

The King, Victor Amadeus III., thought of
nothing but the army, and on this he lavished all
his time and attention. He adopted Frederic II.
as his model and for this reason affected Prussian
uniforms, weapons, and discipline for his soldiers ; but
these innovations served more for external display
rather than for any practical purpose. He devoted
enormous sums to the furtherance of his plans ; out
of a revenue of twenty million francs, ten were mono-
polised for the expenses of the army. As might
have been expected, the financial administration did
not prosper ; the deficit, that had begun some years
before, as well as the taxes, went on continually in-
creasing. But notwithstanding, he pursued his way,
strangely heedless of whither it tended and abso-
lutely ignoring the new order of things.

*
* *

Passing beyond the Ticino, we reach that beautiful
and fertile plain of Lombardy which was formerly
the centre and living nucleus of the Italian communes :
many of the magnificent buildings which now
embellish its cities, as well as some of the most
useful public works which make this region the
true paradise of Italy, date back to that glorious



8 ITALY AFTER AQUISGRANA

epoch. This flourishing state of things had con-
tinued under the Visconti and Sforza regi?nes, but
no sooner had Spanish rule supplanted the latter,
than all progress was arrested, though it is worthy
of note that the decadence of Lombardy was
not so rapid as that of Naples and Sicily. At
the beginning of the eighteenth century the
Milanese had passed to Austrian rule under which
it had been amalgamated with Mantua, the latter
having been deprived of the Gonzaga dynasty
which in the last wars had declared against the
empire.

Under the new order the Lombardy province
began to recover from the miserable condition to
which it had been reduced by Spanish mis-govern-
ment. When the war of the Austrian Succession
was ended and Maria Theresa's position had been



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