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Julia[910], Urso[911] or Genua Urbanorum; and among them in former
times Munda[912], which was taken with the son of Pompey. The free
towns are Old Astigi[913] and Ostippo[914]; the tributary towns are
Callet, Callecula, Castra Gemina, the Lesser Ilipula, Merucra, Sacrana,
Obulcula[915], and Oningis. As you move away from the sea-coast, near
where the river Menoba is navigable, you find, at no great distance,
the Alontigiceli and the Alostigi[916].

The country which extends from the Bætis to the river Anas, beyond the
districts already described, is called Bæturia, and is divided into two
parts and the same number of nations; the Celtici[917], who border upon
Lusitania, in the jurisdiction of Hispalis, and the Turduli, who dwell
on the verge[918] of Lusitania and Tarraconensis, and are under the
protection of the laws of Corduba. It is evident that the Celtici have
sprung from the Celtiberi, and have come from Lusitania, from their
religious rites, their language, and the names of their towns, which
in Bætica are distinguished by the following epithets[919], which have
been given to them. Seria has received the surname of Fama Julia[920],
Nertobriga that of Concordia Julia[921], Segida that of Restituta
Julia[922], and Contributa[923] that of Julia. What is now Curiga
was formerly Ucultuniacum, Constantia Julia[924] was Laconimurgis,
the present Fortunales were the Tereses[925], and the Emanici were
the Callenses[926]. Besides these, there are in Celtica the towns of
Acinippo[927], Arunda[928], Aruci[929], Turobriga, Lastigi, Salpesa,
Sæpone, and Serippo.

The other Bæturia, which we have mentioned, is inhabited by the
Turduli, and, in the jurisdiction of Corduba, has some towns which are
by no means inconsiderable; Arsa[930], Mellaria[931], Mirobriga[932],
and Sisapo[933], in the district of Osintias.

To the jurisdiction of Gades belongs Regina, with Roman citizens; and
Læpia, Ulia[934], Carisa[935] surnamed Aurelia, Urgia[936] or Castrum
Julium, likewise called Cæsaris Salutariensis, all of which enjoy the
Latian rights. The tributary towns are Besaro, Belippo[937], Barbesula,
Lacippo, Bæsippo, Callet, Cappacum, Oleastro, Ituci, Brana, Lacibi,
Saguntia[938], and Audorisæ.

M. Agrippa has also stated the whole length of this province to be
475 miles[939], and its breadth 257; but this was at a time when its
boundaries extended to Carthage[940], a circumstance which has often
caused great errors in calculations; which are generally the result
either of changes effected in the limits of provinces, or of the fact
that in the reckoning of distances the length of the miles has been
arbitrarily increased or diminished. In some parts too the sea has been
long making encroachments upon the land, and in others again the shores
have advanced; while the course of rivers in this place has become more
serpentine, in that more direct. And then, besides, some writers begin
their measurements at one place, and some at another, and so proceed
in different directions; and hence the result is, that no two accounts

(2.) At the present day the length of Bætica, from the town of
Castulo[941], on its frontier, to Gades is 250 miles, and from Murci,
which lies on the sea-coast, twenty-five miles more. The breadth,
measured from the coast of Carteia, is 234 miles. Who is there that
can entertain the belief that Agrippa, a man of such extraordinary
diligence, and one who bestowed so much care on his subject, when he
proposed to place before the eyes of the world a survey of that world,
could be guilty of such a mistake as this, and that too when seconded
by the late emperor the divine Augustus? For it was that emperor who
completed the Portico[942] which had been begun by his sister, and
in which the survey was to be kept, in conformity with the plan and
descriptions of M. Agrippa.


The ancient form of the Nearer Spain, like that of many other
provinces, is somewhat changed, since the time when Pompey the Great,
upon the trophies which he erected in the Pyrenees, testified that 877
towns, from the Alps to the borders of the Farther Spain, had been
reduced to subjection by him. The whole province is now divided into
seven jurisdictions, those of Carthage[943], of Tarraco, of Cæsar
Augusta[944], of Clunia[945], of Asturica[946], of Lucus[947], and of
the Bracari[948]. To these are to be added the islands, which will be
described on another occasion, as also 293 states which are dependent
on others; besides which the province contains 179 towns. Of these,
twelve are colonies, thirteen, towns with the rights of Roman citizens,
eighteen with the old Latian rights, one confederate, and 135 tributary.

The first people that we come to on the coast are the Bastuli; after
whom, proceeding according to the order which I shall follow, as we
go inland, there are the Mentesani, the Oretani, and the Carpetani
on the Tagus, and next to them the Vaccæi, the Vectones, and the
Celtiberian Arevaci. The towns nearest to the coast are Urci, and
Barea[949] included in Bætica, the district of Mavitania, next to it
Deitania, and then Contestania, and the colony of Carthago Nova; from
the Promontory of which, known as the Promontorium Saturni[950], to
the city of Cæsarea[951] in Mauritania, the passage is a distance of
187 miles. The remaining objects worthy of mention on the coast are
the river Tader[952], and the free colony of Ilici[953], whence the
Ilicitanian Gulf[954] derives its name; to this colony the Icositani
are subordinate.

We next have Lucentum[955], holding Latian rights; Dianium[956], a
tributary town; the river Sucro[957], and in former times a town of the
same name, forming the frontier of Contestania. Next is the district
of Edetania, with the delightful expanse of a lake[958] before it, and
extending backward to Celtiberia. Valentia[959], a colony, is situate
three miles from the sea, after which comes the river Turium[960],
and Saguntum[961] at the same distance, a town of Roman citizens
famous for its fidelity, the river Uduba[962], and the district of the
Ilergaones[963]. The Iberus[964], a river enriched by its commerce,
takes its rise in the country of the Cantabri, not far from the town
of Juliobriga[965], and flows a distance of 450 miles; 260 of which,
from the town of Varia[966] namely, it is available for the purposes of
navigation. From this river the name of Iberia has been given by the
Greeks to the whole of Spain.

Next comes the district of Cossetania, the river Subi[967], and the
colony of Tarraco, which was built by the Scipios as Carthage[968] was
by the Carthaginians. Then the district of the Ilergetes, the town
of Subur[969], and the river Rubricatum[970], beyond which begin the
Laletani and the Indigetes[971]. Behind these, in the order in which
they will be mentioned, going back from the foot of the Pyrenees,
are the Ausetani[972], the Lacetani[973], and along the Pyrenees, the
Cerretani[974], next to whom are the Vascones[975]. On the coast is the
colony of Barcino[976], surnamed Faventia; Bætulo[977] and Iluro[978],
towns with Roman citizens; the river Larnum[979], Blandæ[980], the
river Alba[981]; Emporiæ[982], a city consisting of two parts, one
peopled by the original inhabitants, the other by the Greek descendants
of the Phocæans; and the river Ticher[983]. From this to the Venus
Pyrenæa[984], on the other side of the Promontory, is a distance of
forty miles.

I shall now proceed to give an account of the more remarkable things
in these several jurisdictions, in addition to those which have been
already mentioned. Forty-three different peoples are subject to the
jurisdiction of the courts of Tarraco: of these the most famous
are—holding the rights of Roman citizens, the Dertusani[985] and the
Bisgargitani; enjoying Latian rights, the Ausetani, and the Cerretani,
both Julian and Augustan, the Edetani[986], the Gerundenses[987],
the Gessorienses[988], and the Teari[989], also called Julienses.
Among the tributaries are the Aquicaldenses[990], the Onenses, and the

Cæsar Augusta, a free colony, watered by the river Iberus, on the
site of the town formerly called Salduba, is situate in the district
of Edetania, and is the resort of fifty-five nations. Of these there
are, with the rights of Roman citizens, the Bellitani[992], the
Celsenses[993], a former colony, the Calagurritani[994], surnamed the
Nassici, the Ilerdenses[995], of the nation of the Surdaones, near whom
is the river Sicoris, the Oscenses[996] in the district of Vescitania,
and the Turiasonenses[997]. Of those enjoying the rights of the ancient
Latins, there are the Cascantenses[998], the Ergavicenses[999], the
Graccuritani[1000], the Leonicenses[1001], and the Osicerdenses; of
federate states, there are the Tarragenses[1002]; and of tributaries,
the Arcobrigenses[1003], the Andologenses[1004], the Aracelitani[1005],
the Bursaonenses[1006], the Calagurritani[1007], who are also surnamed
the Fibularenses, the Complutenses[1008], the Carenses[1009],
the Cincenses[1010], the Cortonenses, the Damanitani[1011], the
Larnenses[1012], the Lursenses[1013], the Lumberitani[1014], the
Lacetani, the Lubienses, the Pompelonenses[1015], and the Segienses.

Sixty-five different nations resort to Carthage[1016], besides the
inhabitants of the islands. Of the Accitanian[1017] colony, there
are the Gemellenses, and the town of Libisosona[1018], surnamed
Foroaugustana, to both of which have been granted Italian[1019] rights.
Of the colony of Salaria[1020], there are the people of the following
towns, enjoying the rights of ancient Latium: the Castulonenses, also
called the Cæsari Venales, the Sætabitani[1021] or Augustani, and
the Valerienses[1022]. The best known among the tributaries are the
Alabanenses[1023], the Bastitani[1024], the Consaburrenses[1025],
the Dianenses[1026], the Egelestani[1027], the Ilorcitani[1028],
the Laminitani, the Mentesani[1029], both those called Oritani and
those called Bastuli, and the Oretani who are surnamed Germani[1030],
the people of Segobriga[1031] the capital of Celtiberia, those of
Toletum[1032] the capital of Carpetania, situate on the river Tagus,
and after them the Viatienses and the Virgilienses[1033].

To the jurisdiction of Clunia[1034] the Varduli contribute fourteen
nations, of whom we need only particularize the Albanenses[1035],
the Turmodigi[1036], consisting of four tribes, among which are
the Segisamonenses[1037] and the Segisamaiulienses. To the same
jurisdiction belong the Carietes[1038] and the Vennenses with five
states, among which are the Velienses. Thither too resort the
Pelendones of the Celtiberians, in four different nations, among
whom the Numantini[1039] were especially famous. Also, among the
eighteen states of the Vaccæi, there are the Intercatienses[1040],
the Pallantini[1041], the Lacobrigenses, and the Caucenses[1042]. But
among the seven peoples belonging to the Cantabri, Juliobriga[1043]
is the only place worthy of mention; and of the ten states of the
Autrigones, Tritium and Virovesca[1044]. The river Areva[1045] gives
its name to the Arevaci; of whom there are six towns, Segontia[1046]
and Uxama[1047], names which are frequently given to other places, as
also Segovia[1048] and Nova Augusta, Termes[1049], and Clunia itself,
the frontier of Celtiberia. The remaining portion turns off towards
the ocean, being occupied by the Varduli, already mentioned, and the

Next upon these touch the twenty-two nations of the Astures, who
are divided into the Augustani[1050] and the Transmontani, with the
magnificent city of Asturica. Among these we have the Cigurri[1051],
the Pæsici, the Lancienses[1052], and the Zoëlæ[1053]. The total number
of the free population amounts to 240,000 persons.

The jurisdiction of Lucus[1054] embraces, besides the Celtici and the
Lebuni, sixteen different nations, but little known and with barbarous
names. The number however of the free population amounts to nearly

In a similar manner the twenty-four states of the jurisdiction of
the Bracari contain a population of 175,000, among whom, besides the
Bracari[1055] themselves, we may mention, without wearying the reader,
the Bibali, the Cœlerni, the Gallæci, the Hequæsi, the Limici, and the

The length of the Nearer Spain, from the Pyrenees to the frontier
of Castulo, is 607[1056] miles, and a little more if we follow the
line of the coast; while its breadth, from Tarraco to the shore of
Olarson[1057], is 307[1058] miles. From the foot of the Pyrenees, where
it is wedged in by the near approach of the two seas, it gradually
expands until it touches the Farther Spain, and thereby acquires a
width more than double[1059].

Nearly the whole of Spain abounds in mines[1060] of lead, iron,
copper, silver, and gold; in the Nearer Spain there is also found lapis
specularis[1061]; in Bætica there is cinnabar. There are also quarries
of marble. The Emperor Vespasianus Augustus, while still harassed by
the storms that agitated the Roman state, conferred the Latian rights
on the whole of Spain. The Pyrenean mountains divide Spain from Gaul,
their extremities projecting into the two seas on either side.


That part of the Gallias which is washed by the inland sea[1062] is
called the province of [Gallia] Narbonensis[1063], having formerly
borne the name of Braccata[1064]. It is divided from Italy by the river
Varus[1065], and by the range of the Alps, the great safeguards of the
Roman Empire. From the remainder of Gaul, on the north, it is separated
by the mountains Cebenna[1066] and Jura[1067]. In the cultivation of
the soil, the manners and civilization of the inhabitants, and the
extent of its wealth, it is surpassed by none of the provinces, and, in
short, might be more truthfully described as a part of Italy than as a
province. On the coast we have the district of the Sordones[1068], and
more inland that of the Consuarani[1069]. The rivers are the Tecum
and the Vernodubrum[1070]. The towns are Illiberis[1071], the scanty
remains of what was formerly a great city, and Ruscino[1072], a town
with Latian rights. We then come to the river Atax[1073], which flows
from the Pyrenees, and passes through the Rubrensian Lake[1074], the
town of Narbo Martius, a colony of the tenth legion, twelve miles
distant from the sea, and the rivers Arauris[1075] and Liria[1076].
The towns are otherwise but few in number, in consequence of the
numerous lakes[1077] which skirt the sea-shore. We have Agatha[1078],
formerly belonging to the Massilians, and the district of the Volcæ
Tectosages[1079]; and there is the spot where Rhoda[1080], a Rhodian
colony, formerly stood, from which the river takes its name of
Rhodanus[1081]; a stream by far the most fertilizing of any in either
of the Gallias. Descending from the Alps and rushing through lake
Lemanus[1082], it carries along with it the sluggish Arar[1083], as
well as the torrents of the Isara and the Druentia[1084], no less rapid
than itself. Its two smaller mouths are called Libica[1085], one being
the Spanish, and the other the Metapinian mouth; the third and largest
is called the Massiliotic[1086]. There are some authors who state that
there was formerly a town called Heraclea[1087] at the mouth of the
Rhodanus or Rhone.

Beyond this are the Canals[1088] leading out of the Rhone, a famous
work of Caius Marius, and still distinguished by his name; the Lake of
Mastramela[1089], the town of Maritima[1090] of the Avatici, and, above
this, the Stony Plains[1091], memorable for the battles of Hercules;
the district of the Anatilii[1092], and more inland, that of the
Desuviates[1093] and the Cavari. Again, close upon the sea, there is
that of the Tricorii[1094], and inland, there are the Tricolli[1095],
the Vocontii[1096], and the Segovellauni, and, after them, the

On the coast is Massilia, a colony of Phocæan[1098] Greeks, and a
federate[1099] city; we then have the Promontory of Zao[1100], the
port of Citharista[1101], and the district of the Camatullici[1102];
then the Suelteri[1103], and above them the Verrucini[1104]. Again,
on the coast, we find Athenopolis[1105], belonging to the Massilians,
Forum Julii[1106] Octavanorum, a colony, which is also called Pacensis
and Classica, the river Argenteus[1107], which flows through it, the
district of the Oxubii[1108] and that of the Ligauni[1109]; above whom
are the Suetri[1110], the Quariates[1111] and the Adunicates[1112].
On the coast we have Antipolis[1113], a town with Latian rights, the
district of the Deciates, and the river Varus, which proceeds from
Mount Cema, one of the Alps.

The colonies in the interior are Arelate Sextanorum[1114], Beterræ
Septimanorum[1115], and Arausio[1116] Secundanorum; Valentia[1117]
in the territory of the Cavari, and Vienna[1118] in that of the
Allobroges. The towns that enjoy Latian rights are Aquæ Sextiæ[1119] in
the territory of the Saluvii, Avenio[1120] in that of the Cavari, Apta
Julia[1121] in that of the Volgientes, Alebece[1122] in that of the
Reii Apollinares, Alba[1123] in that of the Helvi, and Augusta[1124]
in that of the Tricastini, Anatilia, Aeria[1125], the Bormanni[1126],
the Comaci, Cabellio[1127], Carcasum[1128] in the territory of
the Volcæ Tectosages, Cessero[1129], Carpentoracte[1130] in the
territory of the Memini, the Cenicenses[1131], the Cambolectri[1132],
surnamed the Atlantici, Forum[1133] Voconi, Glanum Livi[1134], the
Lutevani[1135], also called the Foroneronienses[1136], Nemausum[1137]
in the territory of the Arecomici, Piscenæ[1138], the Ruteni[1139],
the Sanagenses[1140], the Tolosani[1141] in the territory of the
Tectosages on the confines of Aquitania, the Tasconi[1142], the
Tarusconienses[1143], the Umbranici[1144], Vasio[1145] and Lucus
Augusti[1146], the two capitals of the federate state of the Vocontii.
There are also nineteen towns of less note, as well as twenty-four
belonging to the people of Nemausum. To this list[1147] the Emperor
Galba added two tribes dwelling among the Alps, the Avantici[1148] and
the Bodiontici, to whom belongs the town of Dinia[1149]. According to
Agrippa the length of the province of Gallia Narbonensis is 370 miles,
and its breadth 248[1150].

CHAP. 6. (5.)—OF ITALY.

Next comes Italy, and we begin with the Ligures[1151], after whom
we have Etruria, Umbria, Latium, where the mouths of the Tiber are
situate, and Rome, the Capital of the world, sixteen miles distant from
the sea. We then come to the coasts of the Volsci and of Campania, and
the districts of Picenum, of Lucania, and of Bruttium, where Italy
extends the farthest in a southerly direction, and projects into the
[two] seas with the chain of the Alps[1152], which there forms pretty
nearly the shape of a crescent. Leaving Bruttium we come to the coast
of [Magna] Græcia, then the Salentini, the Pediculi, the Apuli, the
Peligni, the Frentani, the Marrucini, the Vestini, the Sabini, the
Picentes, the Galli, the Umbri, the Tusci, the Veneti, the Carni, the
Iapydes, the Histri, and the Liburni.

I am by no means unaware that I might be justly accused of ingratitude
and indolence, were I to describe thus briefly and in so cursory a
manner the land which is at once the foster-child[1153] and the parent
of all lands; chosen by the providence of the Gods to render even
heaven itself more glorious[1154], to unite the scattered empires
of the earth, to bestow a polish upon men’s manners, to unite the
discordant and uncouth dialects of so many different nations by the
powerful ties of one common language, to confer the enjoyments of
discourse and of civilization upon mankind, to become, in short, the
mother-country of all nations of the Earth.

But how shall I commence this undertaking? So vast is the number of
celebrated places (what man living could enumerate them all?), and
so great the renown attached to each individual nation and subject,
that I feel myself quite at a loss. The city of Rome alone, which
forms a portion of it, a face well worthy of shoulders so beauteous,
how large a work would it require for an appropriate description! And
then too the coast of Campania, taken singly by itself! so blest with
natural beauties and opulence, that it is evident that when nature
formed it she took a delight in accumulating all her blessings in
a single spot—how am I to do justice to it? And then the climate,
with its eternal freshness and so replete with health and vitality,
the sereneness of the weather so enchanting, the fields so fertile,
the hill sides so sunny, the thickets so free from every danger, the
groves so cool and shady, the forests with a vegetation so varying
and so luxuriant, the breezes descending from so many a mountain, the
fruitfulness of its grain, its vines, and its olives so transcendent;
its flocks with fleeces so noble, its bulls with necks so sinewy,
its lakes recurring in never-ending succession, its numerous rivers
and springs which refresh it with their waters on every side, its
seas so many in number, its havens and the bosom of its lands opening
everywhere to the commerce of all the world, and as it were eagerly
stretching forth into the very midst of the waves, for the purpose of
aiding as it were the endeavours of mortals!

For the present I forbear to speak of its genius, its manners, its men,
and the nations whom it has conquered by eloquence and force of arms.
The very Greeks themselves, a race fond in the extreme of expatiating
on their own praises, have amply given judgment in its favour, when
they named but a small part of it ‘Magna Græcia[1155].’ But we must be
content to do on this occasion as we have done in our description of
the heavens; we must only touch upon some of these points, and take
notice of but a few of its stars. I only beg my readers to bear in
mind that I am thus hastening on for the purpose of giving a general
description of everything that is known to exist throughout the whole

I may premise by observing that this land very much resembles in shape
an oak leaf, being much longer than it is broad; towards the top it
inclines to the left[1156], while it terminates in the form of an
Amazonian buckler[1157], in which the spot at the central projection
is the place called Cocinthos, while it sends forth two horns at the
end of its crescent-shaped bays, Leucopetra on the right and Lacinium
on the left. It extends in length 1020 miles, if we measure from the
foot of the Alps at Prætoria Augusta, through the city of Rome and
Capua to the town of Rhegium, which is situate on the shoulder of the
Peninsula, just at the bend of the neck as it were. The distance would
be much greater if measured to Lacinium, but in that case the line,
being drawn obliquely, would incline too much to one side. Its breadth
is variable; being 410 miles between the two seas, the Lower and the
Upper[1158], and the rivers Varus and Arsia[1159]: at about the middle,
and in the vicinity of the city of Rome, from the spot where the river
Aternus[1160] flows into the Adriatic sea, to the mouth of the Tiber,
the distance is 136 miles, and a little less from Castrum-novum on the
Adriatic sea to Alsium[1161] on the Tuscan; but in no place does it
exceed 200 miles in breadth. The circuit of the whole, from the Varus
to the Arsia, is 3059 miles[1162].

As to its distance from the countries that surround it—Istria and
Liburnia are, in some places[1163], 100 miles from it, and Epirus
and Illyricum 50; Africa is less than 200, as we are informed by M.
Varro; Sardinia[1164] is 120, Sicily 1-1/2, Corsica less than 80, and
Issa[1165] 50. It extends into the two seas towards the southern parts
of the heavens, or, to speak with more minute exactness, between the
sixth[1166] hour and the first hour of the winter solstice.

We will now describe its extent and its different cities; in doing
which, it is necessary to premise, that we shall follow the arrangement
of the late Emperor Augustus, and adopt the division which he made
of the whole of Italy into eleven districts; taking them, however,
according to their order on the sea-line, as in so hurried a detail it
would not be possible otherwise to describe each city in juxtaposition
with the others in its vicinity. And for the same reason, in describing
the interior, I shall follow the alphabetical order which has been
adopted by that Emperor, pointing out the colonies of which he has
made mention in his enumeration. Nor is it a very easy task to trace

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