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Corsica, Planaria[1500], so called from its appearance, being nearly
level with the sea, and consequently treacherous to mariners.

We next have Urgo[1501], a larger island, and Capraria, which the
Greeks have called Ægilion[1502]; then Igilium[1503] and Dianium[1504],
which they have also called Artemisia, both of them opposite the
coast of Cosa; also Barpana[1505], Mænaria, Columbaria, and
Venaria. We then come to Ilva[1506] with its iron mines, an island
100 miles in circumference, 10 miles distant from Populonium, and
called Æthalia by the Greeks: from it the island of Planasia[1507]
is distant 28 miles. After these, beyond the mouths of the Tiber,
and off the coast of Antium, we come to Astura[1508], then Palmaria
and Sinonia, and, opposite to Formiæ, Pontiæ. In the Gulf of Puteoli
are Pandateria[1509], and Prochyta, so called, not from the nurse of
Æneas, but because it has been poured forth[1510] or detached from
Ænaria[1511], an island which received its name from having been the
anchorage of the fleet of Æneas, though called by Homer Inarime[1512];
it is also called Pithecusa, not, as many have fancied, on account
of the multitudes of apes found there, but from its extensive
manufactories of pottery. Between Pausilipum[1513] and Neapolis lies
the island of Megaris[1514], and then, at a distance of eight miles
from Surrentum, Capreæ[1515], famous for the castle of the emperor
Tiberius: it is eleven miles in circumference.


Leucothea comes next, and after it, but out of sight, as it lies
upon the verge of the African Sea, Sardinia. It is situate somewhat
less[1516] than eight miles from the nearest point of Corsica, and
the Straits between them are even still more reduced by the small
islands there situate, called the Cuniculariæ[1517], as also those of
Phintonis[1518] and Fossæ, from which last the Straits themselves have
obtained the name of Taphros[1519].

(7.) Sardinia extends, upon the east side, a distance of 188 miles, on
the west 175, on the south 77, and on the north 125, being 565 miles in
circumference. Its promontory of Caralis[1520] is distant from Africa
200, and from Gades 1400 miles. Off the promontory of Gordis[1521] it
has two islands called the Isles of Hercules[1522], off that of Sulcis,
the island of Enosis[1523], and off that of Caralis, Ficaria[1524].
Some writers place Beleris not far from it, as also Callodis, and the
island known as Heras Lutra[1525].

The most celebrated peoples of this island are the Ilienses[1526], the
Balari, and the Corsi; and among its eighteen towns, there are those
of the Sulcitani[1527], the Valentini[1528], the Neapolitani[1529],
the Bosenses[1530], the Caralitani[1531], who enjoy the rights of
Roman citizens, and the Norenses[1532]. There is also one colony which
is called Ad Turrim Libysonis[1533]. Timæus has called this island
Sandaliotis, on account of the similarity of its shape to the sole of a
shoe, while Myrtilus has given it the name of Ichnusa[1534], from its
resemblance to the print of a footstep. Opposite to the Gulf of Pæstum
is Leucasia[1535], so called from a Siren who is buried there; opposite
to Velia are Pontia and Isacia, both known by one name, that of
Œnotrides, a proof that Italy was formerly possessed by the Œnotrians.
Opposite to Vibo are the little islands called Ithacesiæ[1536], from
the watch-tower of Ulysses situate there.

CHAP. 14. (8.)—SICILY.

But more celebrated than all is Sicily, called Sicania by
Thucydides, and by many writers Trinacria or Trinacia, from its
triangular appearance. According to Agrippa it is 618[1537] miles in
circumference. In former times it was a continuation of the territory
of Bruttium, but, in consequence of the overflowing of the sea, became
severed from it; thus forming a strait of 15 miles in length, and a
mile and a half in width in the vicinity of the Pillar of Rhegium.
It was from this circumstance of the land being severed asunder that
the Greeks gave the name of Rhegium[1538] to the town situate on the
Italian shore.

In these Straits is the rock of Scylla, as also Charybdis[1539], a
whirlpool of the sea, both of them noted for their perils. Of this
triangle, the promontory, which, as we have already[1540] mentioned,
is called Pelorus, faces Scylla and juts out towards Italy, while
Pachynum[1541] extends in the direction of Greece, Peloponnesus being
at a distance from it of 440 miles, and Lilybæum[1542], towards Africa,
being distant 180 miles from the promontory of Mercury[1543], and from
that of Caralis in Sardinia 190. These promontories and sides are
situate at the following distances from each other: by land it is 186
miles from Pelorus to Pachynum, from Pachynum to Lilybæum 200, and from
Lilybæum to Pelorus 170[1544].

In this island there are five colonies and sixty-three cities or
states. Leaving Pelorus and facing the Ionian Sea, we have the town
of Messana[1545], whose inhabitants are also called Mamertini and
enjoy the rights of Roman citizens; the promontory of Drepanum[1546],
the colony of Tauromenium[1547], formerly called Naxos, the river
Asines[1548], and Mount Ætna, wondrous for the flames which it emits
by night. Its crater is twenty stadia in circumference, and from
it red-hot cinders are thrown as far as Tauromenium and Catina,
the noise being heard even at Maroneum[1549] and the Gemellian
Hills. We then come to the three rocks of the Cyclopes[1550], the
Port of Ulysses[1551], the colony of Catina[1552], and the rivers
Symæthus[1553] and Terias; while more inland lie the Læstrygonian

To these rivers succeed the towns of Leontinum[1554] and Megaris, the
river Pantagies[1555], the colony of Syracuse[1556], with the fountain
of Arethusa[1557], (the people in the Syracusan territory drink too
of the fountains of Temenitis[1558], Archidemia, Magæa, Cyane, and
Milichie,) the port of Naustathmus[1559], the river Elorus, and the
promontory of Pachynum. This side[1560] of Sicily begins with the river
Hirminius[1561], then follow the town of Camarina[1562], the river
Gelas[1563], and the town of Agragas[1564], which our people have named
Agrigentum. We next come to the colony of Thermæ[1565], the rivers
Achates[1566], Mazara, and Hypsa; the town of Selinus[1567], and then
the Promontory of Lilybæum, which is succeeded by Drepana[1568], Mount
Eryx[1569], the towns of Panhormus[1570], Solus[1571] and Himera[1572],
with a river of the same name, Cephalœdis[1573], Aluntium[1574],
Agathyrnum, the colony of Tyndaris[1575], the town of Mylæ[1576], and
then Pelorus, the spot at which we began.

In the interior there are the following towns enjoying Latin
privileges, those of the Centuripini[1577], the Netini[1578], and the
Segestani[1579]; tributary towns are those of the Assorini[1580], the
Ætnenses[1581], the Agyrini[1582], the Acestæi, the Acrenses[1583], the
Bidini[1584], the Cetarini[1585], the Cacyrini[1586], the Drepanitani,
the Ergetini[1587], the Echetlienses[1588], the Erycini[1589],
the Entellini[1590], the Enini[1591], the Enguini[1592], the
Gelani[1593], the Galatini[1594], the Halesini[1595], the Hennenses,
the Hyblenses[1596], the Herbitenses[1597], the Herbessenses[1598],
the Herbulenses, the Halicyenses[1599], the Hadranitani[1600], the
Imacarenses, the Ipanenses, the Ietenses[1601], the Mytistratini[1602],
the Magellini, the Murgentini[1603], the Mutycenses[1604], the
Menanini[1605], the Naxii[1606], the Noæi[1607], the Petrini[1608],
the Paropini[1609], the Phthinthienses[1610], the Semellitani, the
Scherini, the Selinuntii[1611], the Symæthii, the Talarienses, the
Tissinenses[1612], the Triocalini[1613], the Tyracinenses, and the
Zanclæi[1614], a Messenian colony on the Straits of Sicily. Towards
Africa, its islands are Gaulos[1615], Melita, 87 miles from Camerina,
and 113 from Lilybæum, Cosyra[1616], Hieronnesos[1617], Cæne[1618],
Galata[1619], Lopadusa, Æthusa, written by some Ægusa, Bucinna[1620],
Osteodes[1621], distant from Soluntum 75 miles, and, opposite to
Paropus, Ustica.

On this side of Sicily, facing the river Metaurus, at a distance of
nearly 25[1622] miles from Italy, are the seven[1623] islands called
the Æolian, as also the Liparæan islands; by the Greeks they are called
the Hephæstiades, and by our writers the Vulcanian[1624] Isles; they
are called “Æolian” because in the Trojan times Æolus was king there.

(9.) Lipara[1625], with a town whose inhabitants enjoy the rights
of Roman citizens, is so called from Liparus, a former king who
succeeded[1626] Æolus, it having been previously called Melogonis
or Meligunis. It is 25 miles[1627] distant from Italy, and in
circumference a little less. Between this island and Sicily we find
another, the name of which was formerly Therasia, but now called Hiera,
because it is sacred to Vulcan[1628]: it contains a hill which at night
vomits forth flames. The third island is Strongyle[1629], lying one
mile[1630] to the east of Lipara, over which Æolus reigned as well;
it differs only from Lipara in the superior brilliancy of its flames.
From the smoke of this volcano it is said that some of the inhabitants
are able to predict three days beforehand what winds are about to
blow; hence arose the notion that the winds are governed by Æolus.
The fourth of these islands is Didyme[1631], smaller than Lipara, the
fifth Ericusa, the sixth Phœnicusa, left to be a pasture-ground for the
cattle of the neighbouring islands, and the last and smallest Euonymos.
Thus much as to the first great Gulf of Europe.


At Locri begins the fore-part of Italy, called Magna Græcia, whose
coast falls back in three bays[1632] formed by the Ausonian sea,
so called from the Ausones, who were the first inhabitants of the
country. According to Varro it is 86 miles in extent; but most writers
have made it only 75. Along this coast there are rivers innumerable,
but we shall mention those only that are worthy of remark. After
leaving Locri we come to the Sagra[1633], and the ruins of the town of
Caulon, Mystiæ[1634], Consilinum Castrum[1635], Cocinthum[1636], in
the opinion of some, the longest headland of Italy, and then the Gulf
of Scylacium[1637], and Scylacium[1638] itself, which was called by
the Athenians, when they founded it, Scylletium. This part of Italy
is nearly a peninsula, in consequence of the Gulf of Terinæum[1639]
running up into it on the other side; in it there is a harbour called
Castra Hannibalis[1640]: in no part is Italy narrower than here, it
being but twenty miles across. For this reason the Elder Dionysius
entertained the idea of severing[1641] this portion from the main-land
of Italy at this spot, and adding it to Sicily. The navigable rivers in
this district are the Carcines[1642], the Crotalus, the Semirus, the
Arocas, and the Targines. In the interior is the town of Petilia[1643],
and there are besides, Mount Clibanus[1644], the promontory of
Lacinium, in front of which lies the island of Dioscoron[1645], ten
miles from the main-land, and another called the Isle of Calypso, which
Homer is supposed to refer to under the name of Ogygia; as also the
islands of Tiris, Eranusa, and Meloessa. According to Agrippa, the
promontory of Lacinium[1646] is seventy miles from Caulon.

(11.) At the promontory of Lacinium begins the second Gulf of Europe,
the bend of which forms an arc of great depth, and terminates at
Acroceraunium, a promontory of Epirus, from which it is distant[1647]
seventy-five miles. We first come to the town of Croton[1648], and then
the river Neæthus[1649], and the town of Thurii[1650], situate between
the two rivers Crathis and Sybaris, upon the latter of which there was
once a city[1651] of the same name. In a similar manner Heraclia[1652],
sometimes called Siris, lies between the river of that name and the
Aciris. We next come to the rivers Acalandrus and Casuentum[1653], and
the town of Metapontum[1654], with which the third region of Italy
terminates. In the interior of Bruttium, the Aprustani[1655] are the
only people; but in Lucania we find the Atinates, the Bantini, the
Eburini[1656], the Grumentini, the Potentini, the Sontini[1657], the
Sirini, the Tergilani, the Ursentini, and the Volcentani[1658], whom
the Numestrani join. Besides these, we learn from Cato[1659] that
Thebes in Lucania has disappeared, and Theopompus informs us that there
was formerly a city of the Lucani called Pandosia[1660], at which
Alexander, the king of Epirus, died.


Adjoining to this district is the second region of Italy, which
embraces the Hirpini, Calabria, Apulia, and the Salentini, extending a
distance of 250 miles along the Gulf of Tarentum, which receives its
name from a town of the Laconians so called, situate at the bottom of
the Gulf, to which was annexed the maritime colony which had previously
settled there. Tarentum[1661] is distant from the promontory of
Lacinium 136 miles, and throws out the territory of Calabria opposite
to it in the form of a peninsula. The Greeks called this territory
Messapia, from their leader[1662]; before which it was called Peucetia,
from Peucetius[1663], the brother of Œnotrius, and was comprised
in the territory of Salentinum. Between the two promontories[1664]
there is a distance of 100 miles. The breadth across the peninsula
from Tarentum[1665] to Brundusium by land is 35 miles, considerably
less if measured from the port of Sasina[1666]. The towns inland from
Tarentum are Varia[1667] surnamed Apulia, Messapia, and Aletium[1668];
on the coast, Senum, and Callipolis[1669], now known as Anxa, 75 miles
from Tarentum. Thence, at a distance of 32 miles, is the Promontory
of Acra Iapygia[1670], at which point Italy projects the greatest
distance into the sea. At a distance of 19 miles from this point is the
town of Basta[1671], and then Hydruntum[1672], the spot at which the
Ionian is separated from the Adriatic sea, and from which the distance
across to Greece is the shortest. The town of the Apolloniates[1673]
lies opposite to it, and the breadth of the arm of the sea which
runs between is not more than fifty miles. Pyrrhus, king of Epirus,
was the first who entertained the notion of uniting these two points
and making a passage on foot, by throwing a bridge across, and after
him M. Varro[1674], when commanding the fleet of Pompey in the war
against the Pirates. Other cares however prevented either of them from
accomplishing this design. Passing Hydruntum, we come to the deserted
site of Soletum[1675], then Fratuertium, the Portus Tarentinus, the
haven of Miltopa, Lupia[1676], Balesium[1677], Cælia[1678], and then
Brundusium[1679], fifty miles from Hydruntum. This last place is one
of the most famous ports of Italy, and, although more distant, affords
by far the safest passage across to Greece, the place of disembarkation
being Dyrrachium, a city of Illyria; the distance across is 225 miles.

Adjoining Brundusium is the territory of the Pediculi[1680]; nine
youths and as many maidens, natives of Illyria, became the parents
of sixteen nations. The towns of the Pediculi are Rudiæ[1681],
Egnatia[1682], and Barium[1683]; their rivers are the Iapyx (so called
from the son of Dædalus, who was king there, and who gave it the name
of Iapygia), the Pactius[1684], and the Aufidus, which rises in the
Hirpinian mountains and flows past Canusium[1685].

At this point begins Apulia, surnamed the Daunian, from the Daunii,
who take their name from a former chief, the father-in-law of
Diomedes. In this territory are the towns of Salapia[1686], famous
for Hannibal’s amour with a courtezan, Sipontum[1687], Uria, the
river Cerbalus[1688], forming the boundary of the Daunii, the port
of Agasus[1689], and the Promontory of Mount Garganus[1690], distant
from the Promontory of Salentinum or Iapygia 234 miles. Making the
circuit of Garganus, we come to the port of Garna[1691], the Lake
Pantanus[1692], the river Frento, the mouth of which forms a harbour,
Teanum of the Apuli[1693], and Larinum, Cliternia[1694], and the river
Tifernus, at which the district of the Frentani[1695] begins. Thus
there were three different nations of the Apulians, [the Daunii,] the
Teani, so called from their leader, and who sprang from the Greeks, and
the Lucani, who were subdued by Calchas[1696], and whose country is now
possessed by the Atinates. Besides those already mentioned, there are,
of the Daunii, the colonies of Luceria[1697] and Venusia[1698], the
towns of Canusium[1699] and Arpi, formerly called Argos Hippium[1700]
and founded by Diomedes, afterwards called Argyrippa. Here too Diomedes
destroyed the nations of the Monadi and the Dardi, and the two cities
of Apina and Trica[1701], whose names have passed into a by-word and a

Besides the above, there is in the interior of the second region one
colony of the Hirpini, Beneventum[1702], so called by an exchange
of a more auspicious name for its old one of Maleventum; also
the Æculani[1703], the Aquilonii[1704], the Abellinates surnamed
Protropi, the Compsani, the Caudini, the Ligures, both those called
the Corneliani and Bebiani, the Vescellani, the Æclani, the Aletrini,
the Abellinates[1705] surnamed Marsi, the Atrani, the Æcani[1706],
the Alfellani[1707], the Atinates[1708], the Arpani, the Borcani,
the Collatini, the Corinenses, the Cannenses[1709], rendered famous
by the defeat of the Romans, the Dirini, the Forentani[1710], the
Genusini[1711], the Herdonienses, the Hyrini[1712], the Larinates
surnamed Frentani[1713], the Merinates[1714] of Garganus, the
Mateolani, the Netini[1715], the Rubustini[1716], the Silvini[1717],
the Strapellini[1718], the Turmentini, the Vibinates[1719], the
Venusini, and the Ulurtini. In the interior of Calabria there are the
Ægetini, the Apamestini[1720], the Argentini, the Butuntinenses[1721],
the Deciani, the Grumbestini, the Norbanenses, the Palionenses, the
Sturnini[1722], and the Tutini: there are also the following Salentine
nations; the Aletini[1723], the Basterbini[1724], the Neretini, the
Uxentini, and the Veretini[1725].


We now come to the fourth region, which includes the most valiant
probably of all the nations of Italy. Upon the coast, in the territory
of the Frentani[1726], after the river Tifernus, we find the river
Trinium[1727], with a good harbour at its mouth, the towns of
Histonium[1728], Buca[1729], and Ortona, and the river Aternus[1730].
In the interior are the Anxani surnamed Frentani, the Higher and Lower
Carentini[1731], and the Lanuenses; in the territory of the Marrucini,
the Teatini[1732]; in that of the Peligni, the Corfinienses[1733],
the Superæquani[1734], and the Sulmonenses[1735]; in that of the
Marsi, the Anxantini[1736], the Atinates[1737], the Fucentes[1738],
the Lucenses[1739], and the Marruvini[1740]; in that of the Albenses,
the town of Alba on Lake Fucinus; in that of the Æquiculani, the
Cliternini[1741], and the Carseolani[1742]; in that of the Vestini,
the Angulani[1743], the Pinnenses, and the Peltuinates, adjoining to
whom are the Aufinates[1744] Cismontani; in that of the Samnites,
who have been called Sabelli[1745], and whom the Greeks have called
Saunitæ, the colony of old Bovianum[1746], and that of the Undecumani,
the Aufidenates[1747], the Esernini[1748], the Fagifulani, the
Ficolenses[1749], the Sæpinates[1750], and the Tereventinates; in
that of the Sabini, the Amiternini[1751], the Curenses[1752], Forum
Decî[1753], Forum Novum, the Fidenates, the Interamnates[1754], the
Nursini[1755], the Nomentani[1756], the Reatini[1757], the Trebulani,
both those called Mutusci[1758] and those called Suffenates[1759], the
Tiburtes, and the Tarinates.

In these districts, the Comini[1760], the Tadiates, the Cædici, and
the Alfaterni, tribes of the Æquiculi, have disappeared. From Gellianus
we learn that Archippe[1761], a town of the Marsi, built by Marsyas, a
chieftain of the Lydians, has been swallowed up by Lake Fucinus, and
Valerianus informs us that the town of the Viticini in Picenum was
destroyed by the Romans. The Sabini (called, according to some writers,
from their attention to religious[1762] observances and the worship
of the gods, Sevini) dwell on the dew-clad hills in the vicinity of
the Lakes of the Velinus[1763]. The Nar, with its sulphureous waters,
exhausts these lakes, and, descending from Mount Fiscellus[1764],
unites with them near the groves of Vacuna[1765] and Reate, and
then directs its course towards the Tiber, into which it discharges
itself. Again, in another direction, the Anio[1766], taking its rise
in the mountain of the Trebani, carries into the Tiber the waters of
three lakes remarkable for their picturesque beauty, and to which
Sublaqueum[1767] is indebted for its name. In the territory of Reate
is the Lake of Cutiliæ[1768], in which there is a floating island, and
which, according to M. Varro, is the navel or central point of Italy.
Below the Sabine territory lies that of Latium, on one side Picenum,
and behind it Umbria, while the range of the Apennines flanks it on
either side.


The fifth region is that of Picenum, once remarkable for the denseness
of its population; 360,000 Picentines took the oaths of fidelity to
the Roman people. They are descended from the Sabines, who had made
a vow to celebrate a holy spring[1769]. Their territory commenced at
the river Aternus[1770], where the present district and colony of
Adria[1771] is, at a distance of six miles from the sea. Here we find
the river Vomanus, the territories of Prætutia and Palma[1772], Castrum
Novum[1773], the river Batinus; Truentum[1774], with its river of
the same name, which place is the only remnant of the Liburni[1775]
in Italy; the river Albula[1776]; Tervium, at which the Prætutian
district ends, and that of Picenum begins; the town of Cupra[1777],
Castellum Firmanorum[1778], and above it the colony of Asculum[1779],
the most illustrious in Picenum; in the interior there is the town of
Novana[1780]. Upon the coast we have Cluana[1781], Potentia, Numana,
founded by the Siculi, and Ancona[1782], a colony founded by the same
people on the Promontory of Cumerus, forming an elbow of the coast,
where it begins to bend inwards, and distant from Garganus 183 miles.
In the interior are the Auximates[1783], the Beregrani[1784], the
Cingulani, the Cuprenses surnamed Montani[1785], the Falarienses[1786],
the Pausulani, the Planinenses, the Ricinenses, the Septempedani[1787],
the Tollentinates, the Treienses, and the Pollentini of Urbs


Adjoining to this is the sixth region, which includes Umbria and the
Gallic territory in the vicinity of Ariminum. At Ancona begins the
coast of that part of Gaul known as Gallia Togata[1789]. The Siculi
and the Liburni possessed the greater part of this district, and more
particularly the territories of Palma, of Prætutia, and of Adria. These
were expelled by the Umbri, these again by the Etrurians, and these in
their turn by the Gauls. The Umbri are thought to have been the most
ancient race in Italy, it being supposed that they were called “Ombrii”
by the Greeks, from the fact of their having survived the rains[1790]
which had inundated the earth. We read that 300 of their towns were
conquered by the Tusci; at the present day we find on their coast the
river Æsis[1791], Senogallia[1792], the river Metaurus, the colonies of
Fanum Fortunæ[1793] and Pisaurum[1794], with a river of the same name;
and, in the interior, those of Hispellum[1795] and Tuder.

Besides the above, there are the Amerini[1796], the Attidiates[1797],
the Asisinates[1798], the Arnates[1799], the Æsinates[1800], the
Camertes[1801], the Casuentillani, the Carsulani[1802], the Dolates
surnamed Salentini, the Fulginiates[1803], the Foroflaminienses[1804],
the Forojulienses surnamed Concupienses, the Forobrentani, the
Forosempronienses[1805], the Iguvini[1806], the Interamnates surnamed
Nartes, the Mevanates[1807], the Mevanionenses, the Matilicates[1808],
the Narnienses[1809], whose town used formerly to be called Nequinum;
the Nucerini[1810], both those surnamed Favonienses and those called
Camellani; the Ocriculani[1811], the Ostrani[1812], the Pitulani,
both those surnamed Pisuertes and the others called Mergentini;
the Plestini[1813], the Sentinates[1814], the Sarsinates[1815],
the Spoletini[1816], the Suasini[1817], the Sestinates[1818], the

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