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Suillates[1819], the Tadinates[1820], the Trebiates[1821], the
Tuficani[1822], the Tifernates[1823] surnamed Tiberini, and the
others called Metaurenses, the Vesinicates, the Urbinates, both those
surnamed Metaurenses[1824] and the others called Hortenses, the
Vettonenses[1825], the Vindinates, and the Viventani. In this district
there exist no longer the Feliginates who possessed Clusiolum above
Interamna, and the Sarranates, with their towns of Acerræ[1826],
surnamed Vafriæ, and Turocelum, also called Vettiolum; as also the
Solinates, the Curiates, the Fallienates, and the Apiennates. The
Arienates also have disappeared with the town of Crinovolum, as well as
the Usidicani, the Plangenses, the Pæsinates, and the Cælestini. Cato
writes that Ameria above-mentioned was founded 964 years before the war
with Perseus.


The eighth region is bounded by Ariminum, the Padus, and the Apennines.
Upon the coast we have the river Crustumium[1827], and the colony
of Ariminum[1828], with the rivers Ariminus and Aprusa. Next comes
the river Rubico[1829], once the boundary of Italy, and after it the
Sapis[1830], the Vitis, and the Anemo, and then, Ravenna, a town of
the Sabines[1831], with the river Bedesis, 105 miles from Ancona;
and, not far from the sea, Butrium[1832], a town of the Umbri. In
the interior there are the colonies of Bononia[1833], formerly
called Felsina, when it was the chief place of Etruria[1834],
Brixillum[1835], Mutina[1836], Parma[1837], and Placentia[1838]. There
are also the towns of Cæsena[1839], Claterna, Forum Clodî[1840],
Forum Livî, Forum Popilî, Forum Truentinorum[1841], Forum Cornelî,
Forum Licinî, the Faventini[1842], the Fidentini[1843], the Otesini,
the Padinates[1844], the Regienses[1845], who take their name from
Lepidus, the Solonates[1846], the Saltus Galliani[1847], surnamed
Aquinates, the Tannetani[1848], the Veliates[1849], who were anciently
surnamed Regiates, and the Urbanates[1850]. In this district the
Boii[1851] have disappeared, of whom there were 112 tribes according to
Cato; as also the Senones, who captured Rome.

(16.) The Padus[1852] descends from the bosom of Mount Vesulus, one of
the most elevated points of the chain of the Alps, in the territories
of the Ligurian Vagienni[1853], and rises at its source in a manner
that well merits an inspection by the curious; after which it hides
itself in a subterranean channel until it rises again in the country of
the Forovibienses. It is inferior in fame to none whatever among the
rivers, being known to the Greeks as the Eridanus and famous as the
scene of the punishment of Phaëton[1854]. At the rising of the Dog-star
it is swollen by the melted snows; but, though it proves more furious
in its course to the adjoining fields than to the vessels that are
upon it, still it takes care to carry away no portion of its banks,
and when it recedes, renders them additionally fertile. Its length
from its source is 300 miles, to which we must add eighty-eight for
its sinuosities; and it receives from the Apennines and Alps not only
several navigable rivers, but immense lakes as well, which discharge
themselves into its waters, thus conveying altogether as many as thirty
streams into the Adriatic Sea.

Of these the best known are the following—flowing from the range of
the Apennines, the Jactus, the Tanarus[1855], the Trebia which passes
Placentia, the Tarus, the Incia, the Gabellus, the Scultenna, and the
Rhenus: from the chain of the Alps, the Stura[1856], the Orgus, the two
Duriæ, the Sessites, the Ticinus, the Lambrus, the Addua, the Ollius,
and the Mincius. There is no river known to receive a larger increase
than this in so short a space; so much so indeed that it is impelled
onwards by this vast body of water, and, invading the land[1857], forms
deep channels in its course: hence it is that, although a portion
of its stream is drawn off by rivers and canals between Ravenna
and Altinum, for a space of 120 miles, still, at the spot where it
discharges the vast body of its waters, it is said to form seven seas.

By the Augustan Canal the Padus is carried to Ravenna, at which place
it is called the Padusa[1858], having formerly borne the name of
Messanicus. The nearest mouth to this spot forms the extensive port
known as that of Vatrenus, where Claudius Cæsar[1859], on his triumph
over the Britons, entered the Adriatic in a vessel that deserved rather
the name of a vast palace than a ship. This mouth, which was formerly
called by some the Eridanian, has been by others styled the Spinetic
mouth, from the city of Spina, a very powerful place which formerly
stood in the vicinity, if we may form a conclusion from the amount of
its treasure deposited at Delphi; it was founded by Diomedes. At this
spot the river Vatrenus[1860], which flows from the territory of Forum
Cornelî, swells the waters of the Padus.

The next mouth to this is that of Caprasia[1861], then that of Sagis,
and then Volane, formerly called Olane; all of which are situate upon
the Flavian Canal[1862], which the Tuscans formerly made from Sagis,
thus drawing the impetuous stream of the river across into the marshes
of the Atriani, which they call the Seven Seas; and upon which is the
noble port of Atria[1863], a city of the Tuscans, from which place the
sea was formerly called the Atriatic, though now the Adriatic.

We next come to the overflowing mouths of Carbonaria, and the Fosses
of Philistina[1864], by some called Tartarus[1865], all of which
originate in the overflow of the waters in the Philistinian Canal,
swollen by the streams of the Atesis, descending from the Tridentine
Alps, and of the Togisonus[1866], flowing from the territory of
the Patavini. A portion of them also forms the adjoining port of
Brundulum[1867], in the same manner as Edron[1868] is formed by the
two rivers Meduacus and the Clodian Canal. With the waters of these
streams the Padus unites, and with them discharges itself into the
sea, forming, according to most writers, between the Alps and the
sea-shore a triangular figure, 2000 stadia in circumference, not unlike
the Delta formed by the Nile in Egypt. I feel somewhat ashamed to
have to borrow from the Greeks any statement in reference to Italy;
Metrodorus of Scepsos, however, informs us that this river has obtained
its name of Padus from the fact, that about its source there are
great numbers of pine-trees, which in the Gallic language are called
“padi.” In the tongue of the Ligurians this river is called “Bodincus,”
which signifies “the bottomless.” This derivation is in some measure
supported by the fact that near this river there is the town of
Industria[1869], of which the ancient name was Bodincomagum, and where
the river begins to be of greater depth than in other parts.


From the river Padus the eleventh region receives its name of
Transpadana; to which, situate as it is wholly in the interior, the
river, by its bounteous channel, conveys the gifts of all the seas.
The towns are Vibî Forum[1870] and Segusio; and, at the foot of the
Alps, the colony of Augusta Taurinorum[1871], at which place the Padus
becomes navigable, and which was founded by the ancient race of the
Ligurians, and of Augusta Prætoria[1872] of the Salassi, near the two
passes of the Alps, the Grecian[1873] and the Penine (by the latter
it is said that the Carthaginians passed into Italy, by the Grecian,
Hercules)—the town of Eporedia[1874], the foundation of which by the
Roman people was enjoined by the Sibylline books; the Gauls call
tamers of horses by the name of “Eporediæ”—Vercellæ[1875], the town of
the Libici, derived its origin from the Salluvii, and Novaria[1876],
founded by the Vertacomacori, is at the present day a district of the
Vocontii, and not, as Cato supposes, of the Ligurians; of whom two
nations, called the Lævi and the Marici, founded Ticinum[1877], not far
from the Padus, as the Boii, descended from the Transalpine nations,
have founded Laus Pompeia[1878] and the Insubres Mediolanum[1879].

From Cato we also learn that Comum, Bergomum[1880], and
Licinîforum[1881], and some other peoples in the vicinity, originated
with the Orobii, but he admits that he is ignorant as to the origin
of that nation. Cornelius Alexander however informs us that they came
from Greece, interpreting their name as meaning “those who live upon
the mountains[1882].” In this district, Parra has disappeared, a town
of the Orobii, from whom, according to Cato, the people of Bergomum are
descended; its site even yet shows that it was situate in a position
more elevated than fruitful[1883]. The Caturiges have also perished, an
exiled race of the Insubres, as also Spina previously mentioned; Melpum
too, a place distinguished for its opulence, which, as we are informed
by Cornelius Nepos, was destroyed by the Insubres, the Boii, and the
Senones, on the very day on which Camillus took Veii.


We now come to the tenth region of Italy, situate on the Adriatic Sea.
In this district are Venetia[1884], the river Silis[1885], rising
in the Tarvisanian[1886] mountains, the town of Altinum[1887], the
river Liquentia rising in the mountains of Opitergium[1888], and a
port with the same name, the colony of Concordia[1889]; the rivers and
harbours of Romatinum[1890], the greater and less Tiliaventum[1891],
the Anaxum[1892], into which the Varamus flows, the Alsa[1893], and the
Natiso with the Turrus, which flow past the colony of Aquileia[1894]
at a distance of fifteen miles from the sea. This is the country of
the Carni[1895], and adjoining to it is that of the Iapydes, the
river Timavus[1896], the fortress of Pucinum[1897], famous for its
wines, the Gulf of Tergeste[1898], and the colony of that name,
thirty-three miles from Aquileia. Six miles beyond this place lies
the river Formio[1899], 189 miles distant from Ravenna, the ancient
boundary[1900] of enlarged Italy, and now the frontier of Istria. That
this region takes its name from the river Ister which flows from the
Danube, also called the Ister, into the Adriatic opposite the mouth of
the Padus, and that the sea which lies between them is rendered fresh
by their waters running from opposite directions, has been erroneously
asserted by many, and among them by Nepos even, who dwelt upon the
banks of the Padus. For it is the fact that no river which runs from
the Danube discharges itself into the Adriatic. They have been misled,
I think, by the circumstance that the ship Argo came down some river
into the Adriatic sea, not far from Tergeste; but what river that was
is now unknown. The most careful writers say that the ship was carried
across the Alps on men’s shoulders, having passed along the Ister,
then along the Savus, and so from Nauportus[1901], which place, lying
between Æmona[1902] and the Alps, from that circumstance derives its


Istria projects in the form of a peninsula. Some writers have stated
its length to be forty miles, and its circumference 125; and the same
as to Liburnia which adjoins it, and the Flanatic Gulf[1903], while
others make it 225[1904]; others again make the circumference of
Liburnia 180 miles. Some persons too extend Iapydia, at the back of
Istria, as far as the Flanatic Gulf, a distance of 130 miles, thus
making Liburnia but 150 miles. Tuditanus[1905], who subdued the Istri,
had this inscription on his statue which was erected there: “From
Aquileia to the river Titus is a distance of 1000 stadia.”

The towns of Istria with the rights of Roman citizens are Ægida[1906],
Parentium, and the colony of Pola[1907], now Pietas Julia, formerly
founded by the Colchians, and distant from Tergeste 100 miles:
after which we come to the town of Nesactium[1908], and the river
Arsia, now[1909] the boundary of Italy. The distance across from
Ancona to Pola is 120 miles. In the interior of the tenth region
are the colonies of Cremona, Brixia in the territory of the
Cenomanni[1910], Ateste[1911] belonging to the Veneti, and the towns
of Acelum[1912], Patavium[1913], Opitergium, Belunum[1914], and
Vicetia; with Mantua[1915], the only city of the Tuscans now left
beyond the Padus. Cato informs us that the Veneti are descendants
of the Trojans[1916], and that the Cenomanni[1917] dwelt among
the Volcæ in the vicinity of Massilia. There are also the towns
of the Fertini[1918], the Tridentini[1919], and the Beruenses,
belonging to the Rhæti, Verona[1920], belonging to the Rhæti and
the Euganei, and Julienses[1921] to the Carni. We then have the
following peoples, whom there is no necessity to particularize
with any degree of exactness, the Alutrenses, the Asseriates, the
Flamonienses[1922] with those surnamed Vanienses, and the others called
Culici, the Forojulienses[1923] surnamed Transpadani, the Foretani,
the Nedinates[1924], the Quarqueni[1925], the Taurisani[1926],
the Togienses, and the Varvari. In this district there have
disappeared—upon the coast—Iramene, Pellaon, and Palsatium, Atina and
Cælina belonging to the Veneti, Segeste and Ocra to the Carni, and
Noreia to the Taurisci. L. Piso also informs us that although the
senate disapproved of his so doing, M. Claudius Marcellus[1927] razed
to the ground a tower situate at the twelfth mile-stone from Aquileia.

In this region also and the eleventh there are some celebrated
lakes[1928], and several rivers that either take their rise in them or
else are fed by their waters, in those cases in which they again emerge
from them. These are the Addua[1929], fed by the Lake Larius, the
Ticinus by Lake Verbannus, the Mincius by Lake Benacus, the Ollius by
Lake Sebinnus, and the Lambrus by Lake Eupilis—all of them flowing into
the Padus.

Cælius states that the length of the Alps from the Upper Sea to the
Lower is 1000 miles, a distance which Timagenes shortens by twenty-two.
Cornelius Nepos assigns to them a breadth of 100 miles, and T. Livius
of 3000 stadia; but then in different places. For in some localities
they exceed 100 miles; where they divide Germany, for instance, from
Italy; while in other parts they do not reach seventy, being thus
narrowed by the providential dispensation of nature as it were. The
breadth of Italy, taken from the river Var at the foot of these
mountains, and passing along by the Vada[1930] Sabatia, the Taurini,
Comum, Brixia, Verona, Vicetia, Opitergium, Aquileia, Tergeste, Pola,
and Arsia, is 745 miles.


Many nations dwell among the Alps; but the more remarkable, between
Pola and the district of Tergeste, are the Secusses, the Subocrini, the
Catali, the Menocaleni, and near the Carni the people formerly called
the Taurisci, but now the Norici. Adjoining to these are the Rhæti and
the Vindelici, who are all divided into a multitude of states. It is
supposed that the Rhæti are the descendants of the Tuscans, who were
expelled by the Gauls and migrated hither under the command of their
chief, whose name was Rhætus. Turning then to the side of the Alps
which fronts Italy, we have the Euganean[1931] nations enjoying Latin
rights, and of whom Cato enumerates thirty-four towns. Among these are
the Triumpilini, a people who were sold[1932] with their territory;
and then the Camuni, and several similar tribes, each of them in the
jurisdiction of its neighbouring municipal town. The same author also
considers the Lepontii[1933] and the Salassi to be of Tauriscan
origin, but most other writers, giving a Greek[1934] interpretation to
their name, consider the Lepontii to have been those of the followers
of Hercules who were left behind in consequence of their limbs being
frozen by the snow of the Alps. They are also of opinion that the
inhabitants of the Grecian Alps are descended from a portion of the
Greeks of his army, and that the Euganeans, being sprung from an origin
so illustrious, thence took their name[1935]. The head of these are the
Stœni[1936]. The Vennonenses[1937] and the Sarunetes[1938], peoples
of the Rhæti, dwell about the sources of the river Rhenus, while the
tribe of the Lepontii, known as the Uberi, dwell in the vicinity of the
sources of the Rhodanus, in the same district of the Alps. There are
also other native tribes here, who have received Latin rights, such
as the Octodurenses[1939], and their neighbours the Centrones[1940],
the Cottian[1941] states, the Ligurian Vagienni, descended from the
Caturiges[1942], as also those called Montani[1943]; besides numerous
nations of the Capillati[1944], on the confines of the Ligurian Sea.

It may not be inappropriate in this place to subjoin the inscription
now to be seen upon the trophy[1945] erected on the Alps, which is
to the following effect:—“TO THE EMPEROR CÆSAR—THE SON[1946] OF

The twelve states of the Cottiani[1955] were not included in the list,
as they had shown no hostility, nor yet those which had been placed by
the Pompeian law under the jurisdiction of the municipal towns.

Such then is Italy, sacred to the gods, such are the nations, such the
cities of her peoples; to which we may add, that this is that same
Italy, which, when L. Æmilius Paulus[1956] and C. Attilius Regulus
were Consuls, on hearing of the rising in Gaul, unaided, and without
any foreign assistance whatever, without the help even of that portion
which lies beyond the Padus, armed 80,000 horse and 700,000 foot. In
abundance of metals of every kind Italy yields to no land whatever; but
all search for them has been prohibited by an ancient decree of the
Senate, who gave orders thereby that Italy shall be exempted[1957] from
such treatment.


The nation of the Liburni adjoins the river Arsia[1958], and extends
as far as the river Titus. The Mentores, the Hymani[1959], the
Encheleæ, the Buni, and the people whom Callimachus calls the Peucetiæ,
formerly formed part of it; but now the whole in general are comprised
under the one name of Illyricum. But few of the names of these nations
are worthy of mention, or indeed very easy of pronunciation. To the
jurisdiction of Scardona[1960] resort the Iapydes and fourteen cities
of the Liburni, of which it may not prove tedious if I mention the
Lacinienses, the Stlupini, the Burnistæ, and the Olbonenses. Belonging
to the same jurisdiction there are, in the enjoyment of Italian rights,
the Alutæ[1961], the Flanates[1962], from whom the Gulf takes its name,
the Lopsi, and the Varvarini; the Assesiates, who are exempt from
tribute; and upon the islands, the Fertinates and the Curictæ[1963].

Besides these, there are on the coast, after leaving Nesactium,
Alvona[1964], Flanona, Tarsatica, Senia, Lopsica, Ortopula, Vegium,
Argyruntum, Corinium[1965], Ænona, the city of Pasinum, and the river
Tedanius, at which Iapydia terminates. The islands of this Gulf, with
their towns, besides those above mentioned, are Absyrtium[1966],
Arba[1967], Crexa, Gissa, and Portunata. Again, on the mainland there
is the colony of Iadera[1968], distant from Pola 160 miles; then,
at a distance of thirty miles, the island of Colentum[1969], and of
eighteen, the mouth of the river Titus.

CHAP. 26. (22.)—DALMATIA.

Scardona, situate upon the river[1970], at a distance of twelve
miles from the sea, forms the boundary of Liburnia and the beginning
of Dalmatia. Next to this place comes the ancient country of
the Autariatares and the fortress of Tariona, the Promontory of
Diomedes[1971], or, as others call it, the peninsula of Hyllis, 100
miles[1972] in circuit. Then comes Tragurium, a place with the rights
of Roman citizens, and celebrated for its marble, Sicum, a place to
which Claudius, the emperor lately deified, sent a colony of his
veterans, and Salona[1973], a colony, situate 112 miles from Iadera.
To this place resort for legal purposes, having the laws dispensed
according to their divisions into decuries or tithings, the Dalmatæ,
forming 342 decuries, the Deurici 22, the Ditiones 239, the Mazæi 269,
and the Sardiates 52. In this region are Burnum[1974], Andetrium[1975],
and Tribulium, fortresses ennobled by the battles of the Roman people.
To the same jurisdiction also belong the Issæi[1976], the Colentini,
the Separi, and the Epetini, nations inhabiting the islands. After
these come the fortresses of Peguntium[1977] and of Rataneum, with the
colony of Narona[1978], the seat of the third jurisdiction, distant
from Salona eighty-two miles, and situate upon a river of the same
name, at a distance of twenty miles from the sea. M. Varro states that
eighty-nine states used to resort thither, but now nearly the only ones
that are known are the Cerauni[1979] with 24 decuries, the Daorizi with
17, the Dæsitiates with 103, the Docleatæ with 33, the Deretini with
14, the Deremistæ with 30, the Dindari with 33, the Glinditiones with
44, the Melcomani with 24, the Naresii with 102, the Scirtarii with
72, the Siculotæ with 24, and the Vardæi, once the scourges of Italy,
with no more than 20 decuries. In addition to these, this district
was possessed by the Ozuæi, the Partheni, the Hemasini, the Arthitæ,
and the Armistæ. The colony of Epidaurum[1980] is distant from the
river Naron 100 miles. After Epidaurum come the following towns, with
the rights of Roman citizens:—Rhizinium[1981], Acruvium[1982], Butua,
Olcinium, formerly called Colchinium, having been founded by the
Colchians; the river Drilo[1983], and, upon it, Scodra[1984], a town
with the rights of Roman citizens, situate at a distance of eighteen
miles from the sea; besides in former times many Greek towns and once
powerful states, of which all remembrance is fast fading away. For in
this region there were formerly the Labeatæ, the Enderini[1985], the
Sasæi, the Grabæi[1986], properly called Illyrii, the Taulantii[1987],
and the Pyræi. The Promontory of Nymphæum on the sea-coast still
retains its name[1988]; and there is Lissum, a town enjoying the rights
of Roman citizens, at a distance from Epidaurum of 100 miles.

(23.) At Lissum begins the province of Macedonia[1989], the nations
of the Parthini[1990], and behind them the Dassaretæ[1991]. The
mountains of Candavia[1992] are seventy-eight miles from Dyrrhachium.
On the coast lies Denda, a town with the rights of Roman citizens,
the colony of Epidamnum[1993], which, on account of its inauspicious
name, was by the Romans called Dyrrhachium, the river Aöus[1994],
by some called Æas, and Apollonia[1995], formerly a colony of the
Corinthians, at a distance of four miles from the sea, in the
vicinity of which the celebrated Nymphæum[1996] is inhabited by the
barbarous Amantes[1997] and Buliones. Upon the coast too is the town
of Oricum[1998], founded by the Colchians. At this spot begins Epirus,
with the Acroceraunian[1999] mountains, by which we have previously
mentioned[2000] this Gulf of Europe as bounded. Oricum is distant from
the Promontory of Salentinum in Italy eighty[2001] miles.

CHAP. 27. (24.)—THE NORICI.

In the rear of the Carni and the Iapydes, along the course of the great
river Ister[2002], the Rhæti touch upon the Norici[2003]: their towns
are Virunum[2004], Celeia, Teurnia, Aguntum[2005], Vianiomina[2006],
Claudia[2007], and Flavium Solvense[2008]. Adjoining to the Norici is

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