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it there were, in former times, the towns of Cytæ, Zephyrium, Acræ,
Nymphæum, and Dia. Panticapæum[2852], a city of the Milesians, by
far the strongest of them all, is still in existence; it lies at the
entrance of the Bosporus, and is distant from Theodosia eighty-seven
miles and a half, and from the town of Cimmerium, which lies on the
other side of the Strait, as we have previously[2853] stated, two miles
and a half. Such is the width here of the channel which separates Asia
from Europe, and which too, from being generally quite frozen over,
allows of a passage on foot. The width of the Cimmerian Bosporus[2854]
is twelve miles and a half: it contains the towns of Hermisium[2855],
Myrmecium, and, in the interior[2856] of it, the island of Alopece.
From the spot called Taphræ[2857], at the extremity of the isthmus,
to the mouth of the Bosporus, along the line of the Lake Mæotis, is a
distance of 260 miles.

Leaving Taphræ, and going along the mainland, we find in the interior
the Auchetæ[2858], in whose country the Hypanis has its rise, as
also the Neurœ, in whose district the Borysthenes has its source,
the Geloni[2859], the Thyssagetæ, the Budini, the Basilidæ, and
the Agathyrsi[2860] with their azure-coloured hair. Above them are
the Nomades, and then a nation of Anthropophagi or cannibals. On
leaving Lake Buges, above the Lake Mæotis we come to the Sauromatæ
and the Essedones[2861]. Along the coast, as far as the river
Tanais[2862], are the Mæotæ, from whom the lake derives its name,
and the last of all, in the rear of them, the Arimaspi. We then come
to the Riphæan[2863] mountains, and the region known by the name of
Pterophoros[2864], because of the perpetual fall of snow there, the
flakes of which resemble feathers; a part of the world which has been
condemned by the decree of nature to lie immersed in thick darkness;
suited for nothing but the generation of cold, and to be the asylum of
the chilling blasts of the northern winds.

Behind these mountains, and beyond the region of the northern winds,
there dwells, if we choose to believe it, a happy race, known as the
Hyperborei[2865], a race that lives to an extreme old age, and which
has been the subject of many marvellous stories[2866]. At this spot
are supposed to be the hinges upon which the world revolves, and the
extreme limits of the revolutions of the stars. Here we find light
for six months together, given by the sun in one continuous day, who
does not, however, as some ignorant persons have asserted, conceal
himself from the vernal equinox[2867] to autumn. On the contrary, to
these people there is but one rising of the sun for the year, and that
at the summer solstice, and but one setting, at the winter solstice.
This region, warmed by the rays of the sun, is of a most delightful
temperature, and exempt from every noxious blast. The abodes of the
natives are the woods and groves; the gods receive their worship singly
and in groups, while all discord and every kind of sickness are things
utterly unknown. Death comes upon them only when satiated with life;
after a career of feasting, in an old age sated with every luxury, they
leap from a certain rock there into the sea; and this they deem the
most desirable mode of ending existence. Some writers have placed these
people, not in Europe, but at the very verge of the shores of Asia,
because we find there a people called the Attacori[2868], who greatly
resemble them and occupy a very similar locality. Other writers again
have placed them midway between the two suns, at the spot where it sets
to the Antipodes and rises to us; a thing however that cannot possibly
be, in consequence of the vast tract of sea which there intervenes.
Those writers who place them nowhere[2869] but under a day which lasts
for six months, state that in the morning they sow, at mid-day they
reap, at sunset they gather in the fruits of the trees, and during the
night conceal themselves in caves. Nor are we at liberty to entertain
any doubts as to the existence of this race; so many authors[2870]
are there who assert that they were in the habit of sending their
first-fruits to Delos to present them to Apollo, whom in especial they
worship. Virgins used to carry them, who for many years were held in
high veneration, and received the rites of hospitality from the nations
that lay on the route; until at last, in consequence of repeated
violations of good faith, the Hyperboreans came to the determination
to deposit these offerings upon the frontiers of the people who
adjoined them, and they in their turn were to convey them on to their
neighbours, and so from one to the other, till they should have arrived
at Delos. However, this custom, even, in time fell into disuse.

The length of Sarmatia, Scythia, and Taurica, and of the whole of the
region which extends from the river Borysthenes, is, according to
Agrippa, 980 miles, and its breadth 717. I am of opinion, however, that
in this part of the earth all estimates of measurement are exceedingly


But now, in conformity with the plan which I originally proposed, the
remaining portions of this gulf must be described. As for its seas, we
have already made mention of them.

(13.) The Hellespont has no islands belonging to Europe that are worthy
of mention. In the Euxine there are, at a distance of a mile and a half
from the European shore, and of fourteen from the mouth of the Strait,
the two Cyanæan[2871] islands, by some called the Symplegades[2872],
and stated in fabulous story to have run the one against the other;
the reason being the circumstance that they are separated by so short
an interval, that while to those who enter the Euxine opposite to them
they appear to be two distinct islands, but if viewed in a somewhat
oblique direction they have the appearance of becoming gradually united
into one. On this side of the Ister there is the single island[2873]
of the Apolloniates, eighty miles from the Thracian Bosporus; it was
from this place that M. Lucullus brought the Capitoline[2874] Apollo.
Those islands which are to be found between the mouths of the Ister we
have already mentioned[2875]. Before the Borysthenes is Achillea[2876]
previously referred to, known also by the names of Leuce and
Macaron[2877]. Researches which have been made at the present day place
this island at a distance of 140 miles from the Borysthenes, of 120
from Tyra, and of fifty from the island of Peuce. It is about ten miles
in circumference. The remaining islands in the Gulf of Carcinites are
Cephalonnesos, Rhosphodusa, and Macra. Before we leave the Euxine, we
must not omit to notice the opinion expressed by many writers that all
the interior[2878] seas take their rise in this one as the principal
source, and not at the Straits of Gades. The reason they give for this
supposition is not an improbable one—the fact that the tide is always
running out of the Euxine and that there is never any ebb.

We must now leave the Euxine to describe the outer portions[2879] of
Europe. After passing the Riphæan mountains we have now to follow
the shores of the Northern Ocean on the left, until we arrive at
Gades. In this direction a great number of islands[2880] are said to
exist that have no name; among which there is one which lies opposite
to Scythia, mentioned under the name of Raunonia[2881], and said
to be at a distance of the day’s sail from the mainland; and upon
which, according to Timæus, amber is thrown up by the waves in the
spring season. As to the remaining parts of these shores, they are
only known from reports of doubtful authority. With reference to the
Septentrional[2882] or Northern Ocean; Hecatæus calls it, after we
have passed the mouth of the river Parapanisus, where it washes the
Scythian shores, the Amalchian sea, the word ‘Amalchian’ signifying
in the language of these races, frozen. Philemon again says that it
is called Morimarusa or the “Dead Sea” by the Cimbri, as far as the
Promontory of Rubeas, beyond which it has the name of the Cronian[2883]
Sea. Xenophon of Lampsacus tells us that at a distance of three days’
sail from the shores of Scythia, there is an island of immense size
called Baltia[2884], which by Pytheas is called Basilia[2885]. Some
islands[2886] called Oönæ are said to be here, the inhabitants of
which live on the eggs of birds and oats; and others again upon which
human beings are produced with the feet of horses, thence called
Hippopodes. Some other islands are also mentioned as those of the
Panotii, the people of which have ears of such extraordinary size as to
cover the rest of the body, which is otherwise left naked.

Leaving these however, we come to the nation of the Ingævones[2887],
the first in Germany; at which we begin to have some information
upon which more implicit reliance can be placed. In their country is
an immense mountain called Sevo[2888], not less than those of the
Riphæan range, and which forms an immense gulf along the shore as
far as the Promontory of the Cimbri. This gulf, which has the name
of the ‘Codanian,’ is filled with islands; the most famous among
which is Scandinavia[2889], of a magnitude as yet unascertained: the
only portion of it at all known is inhabited by the nation of the
Hilleviones, who dwell in 500 villages, and call it a second world: it
is generally supposed that the island of Eningia[2890] is of not less
magnitude. Some writers state that these regions, as far as the river
Vistula, are inhabited by the Sarmati, the Venedi[2891], the Sciri,
and the Hirri[2892], and that there is a gulf there known by the name
of Cylipenus[2893], at the mouth of which is the island of Latris,
after which comes another gulf, that of Lagnus, which borders on the
Cimbri. The Cimbrian Promontory, running out into the sea for a great
distance, forms a peninsula which bears the name of Cartris[2894].
Passing this coast, there are three and twenty islands which have
been made known by the Roman arms[2895]: the most famous of which is
Burcana[2896], called by our people Fabaria, from the resemblance
borne[2897] by a fruit which grows there spontaneously. There are those
also called Glæsaria[2898] by our soldiers, from their amber; but by
the barbarians they are known as Austeravia and Actania.


The whole of the shores of this sea as far as the Scaldis[2899], a
river of Germany, is inhabited by nations, the dimensions of whose
respective territories it is quite impossible to state, so immensely
do the authors differ who have touched upon this subject. The Greek
writers and some of our own countrymen have stated the coast of
Germany to be 2500 miles in extent, while Agrippa, comprising Rhætia
and Noricum in his estimate, makes the length to be 686[2900] miles,
and the breadth 148[2901]. (14.) The breadth of Rhætia alone however
very nearly exceeds that number of miles, and indeed we ought to state
that it was only subjugated at about the period of the death of that
general; while as for Germany, the whole of it was not thoroughly known
to us for many years after his time. If I may be allowed to form a
conjecture, the margin of the coast will be found to be not far short
of the estimate of the Greek writers, while the distance in a straight
line will nearly correspond with that mentioned by Agrippa.

There are five German races; the Vandili[2902], parts of whom are
the Burgundiones[2903], the Varini[2904], the Carini[2905], and the
Gutones[2906]: the Ingævones, forming a second race, a portion of
whom are the Cimbri[2907], the Teutoni[2908], and the tribes of the
Chauci[2909]. The Istævones[2910], who join up to the Rhine, and to
whom the Cimbri[2911] belong, are the third race; while the Hermiones,
forming a fourth, dwell in the interior, and include the Suevi[2912],
the Hermunduri[2913], the Chatti[2914], and the Cherusci[2915]: the
fifth race is that of the Peucini[2916], who are also the Basternæ,
adjoining the Daci previously mentioned. The more famous rivers
that flow into the ocean are the Guttalus[2917], the Vistillus or
Vistula, the Albis[2918], the Visurgis[2919], the Amisius[2920], the
Rhine, and the Mosa[2921]. In the interior is the long extent of the
Hercynian[2922] range, which in grandeur is inferior to none.


In the Rhine itself, nearly 100 miles in length, is the most famous
island[2923] of the Batavi and the Canninefates, as also other
islands of the Frisii[2924], the Chauci, the Frisiabones[2925], the
Sturii[2926], and the Marsacii, which lie between Helium[2927] and
Flevum[2928]. These are the names of the mouths into which the Rhine
divides itself, discharging its waters on the north into the lakes
there, and on the west into the river Mosa. At the middle mouth which
lies between these two, the river, having but a very small channel,
preserves its own name.

CHAP. 30. (16.)—BRITANNIA.

Opposite to this coast is the island called Britannia, so celebrated
in the records of Greece[2929] and of our own country. It is situate
to the north-west, and, with a large tract of intervening sea, lies
opposite to Germany, Gaul, and Spain, by far the greater part of
Europe. Its former name was Albion[2930]; but at a later period, all
the islands, of which we shall just now briefly make mention, were
included under the name of “Britanniæ.” This island is distant from
Gesoriacum, on the coast of the nation of the Morini[2931], at the
spot where the passage across is the shortest, fifty miles. Pytheas
and Isidorus say that its circumference is 4875 miles. It is barely
thirty years since any extensive knowledge of it was gained by the
successes of the Roman arms, and even as yet they have not penetrated
beyond the vicinity of the Caledonian[2932] forest. Agrippa believes
its length to be 800 miles, and its breadth 300; he also thinks that
the breadth of Hibernia is the same, but that its length is less by
200 miles. This last island is situate beyond Britannia, the passage
across being the shortest from the territory of the Silures[2933],
a distance of thirty miles. Of the remaining islands none is said
to have a greater circumference than 125 miles. Among these there
are the Orcades[2934], forty in number, and situate within a short
distance of each other, the seven islands called Acmodæ[2935], the
Hæbudes, thirty in number, and, between Hibernia and Britannia, the
islands of Mona[2936], Monapia[2937], Ricina[2938], Vectis[2939],
Limnus[2940], and Andros[2941]. Below it are the islands called Samnis
and Axantos[2942], and opposite, scattered in the German Sea, are those
known as the Glæsariæ[2943], but which the Greeks have more recently
called the Electrides, from the circumstance of their producing
_electrum_ or amber. The most remote of all that we find mentioned is
Thule[2944], in which, as we have previously stated[2945], there is no
night at the summer solstice, when the sun is passing through the sign
of Cancer, while on the other hand at the winter solstice there is no
day. Some writers are of opinion that this state of things lasts for
six whole months together. Timæus the historian says that an island
called Mictis[2946] is within six days’ sail of Britannia, in which
white lead[2947] is found; and that the Britons sail over to it in
boats of osier[2948], covered with sewed hides. There are writers also
who make mention of some other islands, Scandia[2949] namely, Dumna,
Bergos, and, greater than all, Nerigos, from which persons embark for
Thule. At one day’s sail from Thule is the frozen ocean, which by some
is called the Cronian Sea.


The whole of Gaul that is comprehended under the one general name of
_Comata_[2950], is divided into three races of people, which are more
especially kept distinct from each other by the following rivers. From
the Scaldis to the Sequana[2951] it is Belgic Gaul; from the Sequana
to the Garumna[2952] it is Celtic Gaul or Lugdunensis[2953]; and from
the Garumna to the promontory of the Pyrenæan range it is Aquitanian
Gaul, formerly called Aremorica[2954]. Agrippa makes the entire length
of the coast of Gaul to be 1800 miles, measured from the Rhine to the
Pyrenees: and its length, from the ocean to the mountains of Gebenna
and Jura, excluding therefrom Gallia Narbonensis, he computes at 420
miles, the breadth being 318.

Beginning at the Scaldis, the parts beyond[2955] are inhabited by the
Toxandri, who are divided into various peoples with many names; after
whom come the Menapii[2956], the Morini[2957], the Oromarsaci[2958],
who are adjacent to the burgh which is known as Gesoriacum[2959],
the Britanni[2960], the Ambiani[2961], the Bellovaci[2962], the
Hassi[2963], and, more in the interior, the Catoslugi[2964], the
Atrebates[2965], the Nervii[2966], a free people, the Veromandui[2967],
the Suæuconi[2968], the Suessiones[2969], a free people, the
Ulmanetes[2970], a free people, the Tungri[2971], the Sunuci[2972], the
Frisiabones[2973], the Betasi[2974], the Leuci[2975], a free people,
the Treveri[2976], who were formerly free, and the Lingones[2977],
a federal state, the federal Remi[2978], the Mediomatrici[2979], the
Sequani[2980], the Raurici[2981], and the Helvetii[2982]. The Roman
colonies are Equestris[2983] and Rauriaca[2984]. The nations of
Germany which dwell in this province, near the sources of the Rhine,
are the Nemetes[2985], the Triboci[2986], and the Vangiones[2987];
nearer again[2988], the Ubii[2989], the Colony[2990] of Agrippina, the
Cugerni[2991], the Batavi[2992], and the peoples whom we have already
mentioned as dwelling on the islands of the Rhine.


That part of Gaul which is known as Lugdunensis[2993] contains
the Lexovii[2994], the Vellocasses[2995], the Galeti[2996], the
Veneti[2997], the Abrincatui[2998], the Ossismi[2999], and the
celebrated river Ligeris[3000], as also a most remarkable peninsula,
which extends into the ocean at the extremity[3001] of the territory
of the Ossismi, the circumference of which is 625[3002] miles, and its
breadth at the neck 125[3003]. Beyond this are the Nannetes[3004],
and in the interior are the Ædui[3005], a federal people, the
Carnuti[3006], a federal people, the Boii[3007], the Senones[3008],
the Aulerci, both those surnamed Eburovices[3009] and those called
Cenomanni[3010], the Meldi[3011], a free people, the Parisii[3012],
the Tricasses[3013], the Andecavi[3014], the Viducasses[3015],
the Bodiocasses[3016], the Venelli[3017], the Cariosvelites[3018],
the Diablinti[3019], the Rhedones[3020], the Turones[3021], the
Atesui[3022], and the Secusiani[3023], a free people, in whose
territory is the colony of Lugdunum[3024].


In Aquitanica are the Ambilatri[3025], the Anagnutes[3026], the
Pictones[3027], the Santoni[3028], a free people, the Bituriges[3029],
surnamed Vivisci, the Aquitani[3030], from whom the province derives
its name, the Sediboviates[3031], the Convenæ[3032], who together form
one town, the Begerri[3033], the Tarbelli Quatuorsignani[3034], the
Cocosates Sexsignani[3035], the Venami[3036], the Onobrisates[3037],
the Belendi[3038], and then the Pyrenæan range. Below these
are the Monesi[3039], the Oscidates[3040] a mountain race, the
Sibyllates[3041], the Camponi[3042], the Bercorcates[3043],
the Pindedunni[3044], the Lassunni[3045], the Vellates[3046],
the Tornates[3047], the Consoranni[3048], the Ausci[3049], the
Elusates[3050], the Sottiates[3051], the Oscidates Campestres[3052],
the Succasses[3053], the Tarusates[3054], the Basabocates[3055], the
Vassei[3056], the Sennates, and the Cambolectri Agessinates[3057].
Joining up to the Pictones are the Bituriges[3058], a free people,
who are also known as the Cubi, and then the Lemovices[3059], the
Arverni[3060], a free people, and the Gabales[3061].

Again, adjoining the province of Narbonensis are the Ruteni[3062],
the Cadurci[3063], the Nitiobriges[3064], and the Petrocori[3065],
separated by the river Tarnis from the Tolosani. The seas around the
coast are the Northern Ocean, flowing up to the mouth of the Rhine,
the Britannic Ocean between the Rhine and the Sequana, and, between it
and the Pyrenees, the Gallic Ocean. There are many islands belonging
to the Veneti, which bear the name of “Veneticæ[3066],” as also in the
Aquitanic Gulf, that of Uliarus[3067].


At the Promontory of the Pyrenees Spain begins, more narrow, not only
than Gaul, but even than itself[3068] in its other parts, as we have
previously mentioned[3069], seeing to what an immense extent it is
here hemmed in by the ocean on the one side, and by the Iberian Sea
on the other. A chain of the Pyrenees, extending from due east to
south-west[3070], divides Spain into two parts, the smaller one to
the north, the larger to the south. The first coast that presents
itself is that of the Nearer Spain, otherwise called Tarraconensis.
On leaving the Pyrenees and proceeding along the coast, we meet with
the forest ranges of the Vascones[3071], Olarso[3072], the towns of
the Varduli[3073], the Morosgi[3074], Menosca[3075], Vesperies[3076],
and the Port of Amanus[3077], where now stands the colony of
Flaviobriga. We then come to the district of the nine states of the
Cantabri[3078], the river Sauga[3079], and the Port of Victoria of the
Juliobrigenses[3080], from which place the sources of the Iberus[3081]
are distant forty miles. We next come to the Port of Blendium[3082],
the Orgenomesci[3083], a people of the Cantabri, Vereasueca[3084]
their port, the country of the Astures[3085], the town of
Noega[3086], and on a peninsula[3087], the Pæsici. Next to these we
have, belonging to the jurisdiction of Lucus[3088], after passing
the river Navilubio[3089], the Cibarci[3090], the Egovarri, surnamed
Namarini, the Iadoni, the Arrotrebæ[3091], the Celtic Promontory,
the rivers Florius[3092] and Nelo, the Celtici[3093], surnamed Neri,
and above them the Tamarici[3094], in whose peninsula[3095] are the
three altars called Sestianæ, and dedicated[3096] to Augustus; the
Capori[3097], the town of Noela[3098], the Celtici surnamed Præsamarci,
and the Cileni[3099]: of the islands, those worthy of mention are
Corticata[3100] and Aunios. After passing the Cileni, belonging to
the jurisdiction of the Bracari[3101], we have the Heleni[3102], the
Gravii[3103], and the fortress of Tyde, all of them deriving their
origin from the Greeks. Also, the islands called Cicæ[3104], the
famous city of Abobrica[3105], the river Minius[3106], four miles wide
at its mouth, the Leuni, the Seurbi[3107], and Augusta[3108], a town
of the Bracari, above whom lies Gallæcia. We then come to the river
Limia[3109], and the river Durius[3110], one of the largest in Spain,
and which rises in the district of the Pelendones[3111], passes near
Numantia, and through the Arevaci and the Vaccæi, dividing the Vettones
from Asturia, the Gallæci from Lusitania, and separating the Turduli
from the Bracari. The whole of the region here mentioned from the
Pyrenees is full of mines of gold, silver, iron, and lead, both black
and white[3112].

CHAP. 35. (21.)—LUSITANIA.

After passing the Durius, Lusitania[3113] begins. We here have
the ancient Turduli[3114], the Pæsuri, the river Vaga[3115], the
town of Talabrica, the town and river[3116] of Æminium, the towns
of Conimbrica[3117], Collippo[3118], and Eburobritium[3119]. A
promontory[3120] then advances into the sea in shape of a large
horn; by some it has been called Artabrum[3121], by others the Great
Promontory, while many call it the Promontory of Olisipo, from the
city[3122] near it. This spot forms a dividing line in the land, the
sea, and the heavens. Here ends one side[3123] of Spain; and, when we
have doubled the promontory, the front of Spain begins. (22.) On one
side of it lie the North and the Gallic Ocean, on the other the West
and the Atlantic. The length of this promontory has been estimated
by some persons at sixty miles, by others at ninety. A considerable
number of writers estimate the distance from this spot to the Pyrenees
at 1250 miles; and, committing a manifest error, place here the nation
of the Artabri, a nation that never[3124] was here. For, making a
slight change in the name, they have placed at this spot the Arrotrebæ,
whom we have previously spoken of as dwelling in front of the Celtic

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