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Mistakes have also been made as to the more celebrated rivers. From
the Minius, which we have previously mentioned, according to Varro,
the river Æminius[3125] is distant 200 miles, which others[3126]
suppose to be situate elsewhere, and called Limæa. By the ancients it
was called the “River of Oblivion,” and it has been made the subject
of many fabulous stories. At a distance of 200 miles from the Durius
is the Tagus, the Munda[3127] lying between them. The Tagus is famous
for its golden sands[3128]. At a distance of 160 miles from it is the
Sacred Promontory[3129], projecting from nearly the very middle of the
front[3130] of Spain. From this spot to the middle of the Pyrenees,
Varro says, is a distance of 1400 miles; while to the Anas, by which we
have mentioned[3131] Lusitania as being separated from Bætica, is 126
miles, it being 102 more to Gades.

The peoples are the Celtici, the Turduli, and, about the Tagus, the
Vettones[3132]. From the river Anas to the Sacred Promontory[3133] are
the Lusitani. The cities worthy of mention on the coast, beginning
from the Tagus, are that of Olisipo[3134], famous for its mares, which
conceive[3135] from the west wind; Salacia[3136], which is surnamed
the Imperial City; Merobrica[3137]; and then the Sacred Promontory,
with the other known by the name of Cuneus[3138], and the towns of
Ossonoba[3139], Balsa[3140], and Myrtili[3141].

The whole of this province is divided into three jurisdictions, those
of Emerita, Pax, and Scalabis. It contains in all forty-six peoples,
among whom there are five colonies, one municipal town of Roman
citizens, three with the ancient Latin rights, and thirty-six that are
tributaries. The colonies are those of Augusta Emerita[3142], situate
on the river Anas, Metallinum[3143], Pax[3144], and Norba[3145],
surnamed Cæsariana. To this last place of jurisdiction the people
of Castra Servilia[3146] and Castra Cæcilia[3147] resort. The fifth
jurisdiction is that of Scalabis[3148], which also has the name of
Præsidium Julium[3149]. Olisipo, surnamed Felicitas Julia[3150],
is a municipal city, whose inhabitants enjoy the rights of Roman
citizens. The towns in the enjoyment of the ancient Latin rights are
Ebora[3151], which also has the name of Liberalitas Julia[3152],
and Myrtili and Salacia, which we have previously mentioned. Those
among the tributaries whom it may not be amiss to mention, in
addition to those already[3153] alluded to among the names of those
in Bætica, are the Augustobrigenses[3154], the Ammienses[3155], the
Aranditani, the Arabricenses, the Balsenses, the Cæsarobricenses, the
Caperenses[3156], the Caurenses[3157], the Colarni, the Cibilitani,
the Concordienses[3158], the Elbocorii, the Interannienses, the
Lancienses[3159], the Mirobrigenses, surnamed[3160] Celtici, the
Medubrigenses[3161], surnamed Plumbarii, the Ocelenses[3162] or
Lancienses, the Turduli, also called Barduli, and the Tapori. Agrippa
states, that Lusitania, with Asturia and Gallæcia, is 540 miles in
length, and 536 in breadth. The provinces of Spain, measured from the
two extreme[3163] promontories of the Pyrenees, along the sea-line of
the entire coast, are thought to be 3922 miles in circumference; while
some writers make them to be but 2600.


Opposite to Celtiberia are a number of islands, by the Greeks called
Cassiterides[3164], in consequence of their abounding in tin: and,
facing the Promontory[3165] of the Arrotrebæ, are the six Islands of
the Gods, which some persons have called the Fortunate Islands[3166].
At the very commencement of Bætica, and twenty-five miles from
the mouth of the Straits of Gades, is the island of Gadis, twelve
miles long and three broad, as Polybius states in his writings. At
its nearest part, it is less than 700 feet[3167] distant from the
mainland, while in the remaining portion it is distant more than
seven miles. Its circuit is fifteen miles, and it has on it a city
which enjoys the rights of Roman citizens[3168], and whose people
are called the Augustani of the city of Julia Gaditana. On the side
which looks towards Spain, at about 100 paces distance, is another
long island, three miles wide, on which the original city of Gades
stood. By Ephorus and Philistides it is called Erythia, by Timæus and
Silenus Aphrodisias[3169], and by the natives the Isle of Juno. Timæus
says, that the larger island used to be called Cotinusa[3170], from
its olives; the Romans call it Tartessos[3171]; the Carthaginians
Gadir[3172], that word in the Punic language signifying a hedge. It
was called Erythia because the Tyrians, the original ancestors of the
Carthaginians, were said to have come from the Erythræan, or Red Sea.
In this island Geryon is by some thought to have dwelt, whose herds
were carried off by Hercules. Other persons again think, that his
island is another one, opposite to Lusitania, and that it was there
formerly called by that name[3173].


Having thus made the circuit of Europe, we must now give the complete
measurement of it, in order that those who wish to be acquainted
with this subject may not feel themselves at a loss. Artemidorus and
Isidorus have given its length, from the Tanais to Gades, as 8214
miles. Polybius in his writings has stated the breadth of Europe, in
a line from Italy to the ocean, to be 1150 miles. But, even in his
day, its magnitude was but little known. The distance of Italy, as
we have previously[3174] stated, as for as the Alps, is 1120 miles,
from which, through Lugdunum to the British port of the Morini[3175],
the direction which Polybius seems to follow, is 1168 miles. But the
better ascertained, though greater length, is that taken from the Alps
through the Camp of the Legions[3176] in Germany, in a north-westerly
direction, to the mouth of the Rhine, being 1543 miles. We shall now
have to speak of Africa and Asia.

* * * * *

SUMMARY.—Towns and nations mentioned * * * *. Noted rivers * * * *.
Famous mountains * * * *. Islands * * * *. People or towns no longer in
existence * * * *. Remarkable events, narratives, and observations * *
* *.

* * * * *

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Cato the Censor[3177], M. Varro[3178], M.
Agrippa[3179], the late Emperor Augustus[3180], Varro Atacinus[3181],
Cornelius Nepos[3182], Hyginus[3183], L. Vetus[3184], Mela
Pomponius[3185], Licinius Mucianus[3186], Fabricius Tuscus[3187],
Ateius Capito[3188], Ateius the Philologist[3189].

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Polybius[3190], Hecatæus[3191],
Hellanicus[3192], Damastes[3193], Eudoxus[3194], Dicæarchus[3195],
Timosthenes[3196], Eratosthenes[3197], Ephorus[3198], Crates the
Grammarian[3199], Serapion[3200] of Antioch, Callimachus[3201],
Artemidorus[3202], Apollodorus[3203], Agathocles[3204], Eumachus[3205],
Timæus the Sicilian[3206], Myrsilus[3207], Alexander Polyhistor[3208],
Thucydides[3209], Dosiades[3210], Anaximander[3211], Philistides
Mallotes[3212], Dionysius[3213], Aristides[3214], Callidemus[3215],
Menæchmus[3216], Aglaosthenes[3217], Anticlides[3218],
Heraclides[3219], Philemon[3220], Xenophon[3221], Pytheas[3222],
Isidorus[3223], Philonides[3224], Xenagoras[3225], Astynomus[3226],
Staphylus[3227], Aristocritus[3228], Metrodorus[3229], Cleobulus[3230],




The Greeks have given the name of Libya[3232] to Africa, and have
called the sea that lies in front of it the Libyan Sea. It has Egypt
for its boundary, and no part of the earth is there that has fewer
gulfs or inlets, its shores extending in a lengthened line from the
west in an oblique direction. The names of its peoples, and its cities
in especial, cannot possibly be pronounced with correctness, except by
the aid of their own native tongues. Its population, too, for the most
part dwells only in fortresses[3233].

(1.) On our entrance into Africa, we find the two Mauritanias, which,
until the time of Caius Cæsar[3234], the son of Germanicus, were
kingdoms; but, suffering under his cruelty, they were divided into two
provinces. The extreme promontory of Africa, which projects into the
ocean, is called Ampelusia[3235] by the Greeks. There were formerly
two towns, Lissa and Cotte[3236], beyond the Pillars of Hercules;
but, at the present day, we only find that of Tingi[3237], which was
formerly founded by Antæus, and afterwards received the name of
Traducta Julia[3238], from Claudius Cæsar, when he established a colony
there. It is thirty miles distant from Belon[3239], a town of Bætica,
where the passage across is the shortest. At a distance of twenty-five
miles from Tingi, upon the shores of the ocean[3240], we come to Julia
Constantia Zilis[3241], a colony of Augustus. This place is exempt from
all subjection to the kings of Mauritania, and is included in the legal
jurisdiction of Bætica. Thirty-two miles distant from Julia Constantia
is Lixos[3242], which was made a Roman colony by Claudius Cæsar, and
which has been the subject of such wondrous fables, related by the
writers of antiquity. At this place, according to the story, was the
palace of Antæus; this was the scene of his combat with Hercules, and
here were the gardens of the Hesperides[3243]. An arm of the sea flows
into the land here, with a serpentine channel, and, from the nature
of the locality, this is interpreted at the present day as having been
what was really represented by the story of the dragon keeping guard
there. This tract of water surrounds an island, the only spot which
is never overflowed by the tides of the sea, although not quite so
elevated as the rest of the land in its vicinity. Upon this island,
also, there is still in existence the altar of Hercules; but of the
grove that bore the golden fruit, there are no traces left, beyond some
wild olive-trees. People will certainly be the less surprised at the
marvellous falsehoods of the Greeks, which have been related about this
place and the river Lixos[3244], when they reflect that some of our
own[3245] countrymen as well, and that too very recently, have related
stories in reference to them hardly less monstrous; how that this city
is remarkable for its power and extensive influence, and how that it is
even greater than Great Carthage ever was; how, too, that it is situate
just opposite to Carthage, and at an almost immeasurable distance from
Tingi, together with other details of a similar nature, all of which
Cornelius Nepos has believed with the most insatiate credulity[3246].

In the interior, at a distance of forty miles from Lixos, is
Babba[3247], surnamed Julia Campestris, another colony of Augustus;
and, at a distance of seventy-five, a third, called Banasa[3248],
with the surname of Valentia. At a distance of thirty-five miles from
this last is the town of Volubilis, which is just that distance also
from both[3249] seas. On the coast, at a distance of fifty miles from
Lixos, is the river Subur[3250], which flows past the colony of Banasa,
a fine river, and available for the purposes of navigation. At the
same distance from it is the city of Sala[3251], situate on a river
which bears the same name, a place which stands upon the very verge of
the desert, and though infested by troops of elephants, is much more
exposed to the attacks of the nation of the Autololes, through whose
country lies the road to Mount Atlas, the most fabulous[3252] locality
even in Africa.

It is from the midst of the sands, according to the story, that this
mountain[3253] raises its head to the heavens; rugged and craggy on the
side which looks toward the shores of the ocean to which it has given
its name, while on that which faces the interior of Africa it is shaded
by dense groves of trees, and refreshed by flowing streams; fruits of
all kinds springing up there spontaneously to such an extent, as to
more than satiate every possible desire. Throughout the daytime, no
inhabitant is to be seen; all is silent, like that dreadful stillness
which reigns in the desert. A religious horror steals imperceptibly
over the feelings of those who approach, and they feel themselves
smitten with awe at the stupendous aspect of its summit, which reaches
beyond the clouds, and well nigh approaches the very orb of the moon.
At night, they say, it gleams with fires innumerable lighted up; it is
then the scene of the gambols of the Ægipans[3254] and the Satyr crew,
while it re-echoes with the notes of the flute and the pipe, and the
clash of drums and cymbals. All this is what authors of high character
have stated, in addition to the labours which Hercules and Perseus
there experienced. The space which intervenes before you arrive at this
mountain is immense, and the country quite unknown.

There formerly existed some Commentaries written by Hanno[3255], a
Carthaginian general, who was commanded, in the most flourishing times
of the Punic state, to explore the sea-coast of Africa. The greater
part of the Greek and Roman writers have followed him, and have
related, among other fabulous stories, that many cities there were
founded by him, of which no remembrance, nor yet the slightest vestige,
now exists.

While Scipio Æmilianus held the command in Sicily, Polybius the
historian received a fleet from him for the purpose of proceeding on
a voyage of discovery in this part of the world. He relates, that
beyond[3256] Mount Atlas, proceeding in a westerly direction, there
are forests filled with wild beasts, peculiar to the soil of Africa,
as far as the river Anatis[3257], a distance of 485 miles, Lixos being
distant from it 205 miles. Agrippa says, that Lixos is distant from
the Straits of Gades 112 miles. After it we come to a gulf which is
called the Gulf of Saguti[3258], a town situate on the Promontory
of Mulelacha[3259], the rivers Subur and Salat[3260], and the port
of Rutubis[3261], distant from Lixos 213 miles. We then come to the
Promontory of the Sun[3262], the port of Risardir[3263], the Gætulian
Autololes, the river Cosenus[3264], the nations of the Selatiti and
the Masati, the river Masathat[3265], and the river Darat[3266],
in which crocodiles are found. After this we come to a large gulf,
616[3267] miles in extent, which is enclosed by a promontory of Mount
Barce[3268], which runs out in a westerly direction, and is called
Surrentium[3269]. Next comes the river Salsus[3270], beyond which lie
the Æthiopian Perorsi, at the back of whom are the Pharusii[3271], who
are bordered upon by the Gætulian Daræ[3272], lying in the interior.
Upon the coast again, we find the Æthiopian Daratitæ, and the river
Bambotus[3273], teeming with crocodiles and hippopotami. From this
river there is a continuous range[3274] of mountains till we come to
the one which is known by the name of Theon Ochema[3275], from which
to the Hesperian Promontory[3276] is a voyage of ten days and nights;
and in the middle of this space he[3277] has placed Mount Atlas, which
by all other writers has been stated to be in the extreme parts of

The Roman arms, for the first time, pursued their conquests into
Mauritania, under the Emperor Claudius, when the freedman Ædemon took
up arms to avenge the death of King Ptolemy[3278], who had been put
to death by Caius Cæsar; and it is a well-known fact, that on the
flight of the barbarians our troops reached Mount Atlas. It became
a boast, not only among men of consular rank, and generals selected
from the senate, who at that time held the command, but among persons
of equestrian rank as well, who after that period held the government
there, that they had penetrated as far as Mount Atlas. There are, as we
have already stated, five Roman colonies in this province; and it may
very possibly appear, if we listen only to what report says, that this
mountain is easily accessible. Upon trial, however, it has been pretty
generally shown, that all such statements are utterly fallacious; and
it is too true, that men in high station, when they are disinclined
to take the trouble of inquiring into the truth, through a feeling of
shame at their ignorance are not averse to be guilty of falsehood; and
never is implicit credence more readily given, than when a falsehood
is supported by the authority of some personage of high consideration.
For my own part, I am far less surprised that there are still some
facts remaining undiscovered by men of the equestrian order, and even
those among them who have attained senatorial rank, than that the love
of luxury has left anything unascertained; the impulse of which must
be great indeed, and most powerfully felt, when the very forests are
ransacked for their ivory and citron-wood[3279], and all the rocks of
Gætulia are searched for the murex and the purple.

From the natives, however, we learn, that on the coast, at a distance
of 150 miles from the Salat, the river Asana[3280] presents itself; its
waters are salt, but it is remarkable for its fine harbour. They also
say that after this we come to a river known by the name of Fut[3281],
and then, after crossing another called Vior which lies on the road, at
a distance of 200 miles we arrive at Dyris[3282], such being the name
which in their language they give to Mount Atlas. According to their
story there are still existing in its vicinity many vestiges which tend
to prove that the locality was once inhabited; such as the remains of
vineyards and plantations of palm-trees.

Suetonius Paulinus[3283], whom we have seen Consul in our own time,
was the first Roman general who advanced a distance of some miles
beyond Mount Atlas. He has given us the same information as we have
received from other sources with reference to the extraordinary height
of this mountain, and at the same time he has stated that all the
lower parts about the foot of it are covered with dense and lofty
forests composed of trees of species hitherto unknown. The height of
these trees, he says, is remarkable; the trunks are without knots,
and of a smooth and glossy surface; the foliage is like that of the
cypress, and besides sending forth a powerful odour, they are covered
with a flossy down, from which, by the aid of art, a fine cloth might
easily be manufactured, similar to the textures made from the produce
of the silk-worm. He informs us that the summit of this mountain is
covered with snow even in summer, and says that having arrived there
after a march of ten days, he proceeded some distance beyond it as far
as a river which bears the name of Ger[3284]; the road being through
deserts covered with a black sand[3285], from which rocks that bore
the appearance of having been exposed to the action of fire, projected
every here and there; localities rendered quite uninhabitable by the
intensity of the heat, as he himself experienced, although it was in
the winter season that he visited them. We also learn from the same
source that the people who inhabit the adjoining forests, which are
full of all kinds of elephants, wild beasts, and serpents, have the
name of Canarii; from the circumstance that they partake of their food
in common with the canine race, and share with it the entrails of wild

It is a well-known fact, that adjoining to these localities is a
nation of Æthiopians, which bears the name of Perorsi. Juba, the
father of Ptolemy, who was the first king[3286] who reigned over
both the Mauritanias, and who has been rendered even more famous by
the brilliancy of his learning than by his kingly rank, has given us
similar information relative to Mount Atlas, and states that a certain
herb grows there, which has received the name of ‘euphorbia’[3287]
from that of his physician, who was the first to discover it. Juba
extols with wondrous praises the milky juice of this plant as tending
to improve the sight, and acting as a specific against the bites of
serpents and all kinds of poison; and to this subject alone he has
devoted an entire book. Thus much, if indeed not more than enough,
about Mount Atlas.

(2.) The province of Tingitana is 170 miles in length[3288]. Of the
nations in this province the principal one was formerly that of the
Mauri[3289], who have given to it the name of Mauritania, and have
been by many writers called the Maurusii[3290]. This nation has been
greatly weakened by the disasters of war, and is now dwindled down
to a few families only[3291]. Next to the Mauri was formerly the
nation of the Massæsyli[3292]; they in a similar manner have become
extinct. Their country is now occupied by the Gætulian nations[3293],
the Baniuræ[3294], the Autololes[3295], by far the most powerful
people among them all, and the Vesuni, who formerly were a part of
the Autololes, but have now separated from them, and, turning their
steps towards the Æthiopians[3296], have formed a distinct nation of
their own. This province, in the mountainous district which lies on
its eastern side, produces elephants, as also on the heights of Mount
Abyla[3297] and among those elevations which, from the similarity of
their height, are called the Seven Brothers[3298]. Joining the range of
Abyla these mountains overlook the Straits of Gades. At the extremity
of this chain begin the shores of the inland sea[3299], and we come to
the Tamuda[3300], a navigable stream, with the site of a former town of
the same name, and then the river Laud[3301], which is also navigable
for vessels, the town and port of Rhysaddir[3302], and Malvane[3303], a
navigable stream.

The city of Siga[3304], formerly the residence of King Syphax, lies
opposite to that of Malaca[3305] in Spain: it now belongs to the
second[3306] Mauritania. But these countries, I should remark, for a
long time retained the names of their respective kings, the further
Mauritania being called the “land of Bogud[3307],” while that which
is now called Cæsariensis was called the “country of Bocchus.” After
passing Siga we come to the haven called “Portus Magnus[3308]” from
its great extent, with a town whose people enjoy the rights of Roman
citizens, and then the river Mulucha[3309], which served as the limit
between the territory of Bocchus and that of the Massæsyli. Next
to this is Quiza Xenitana[3310], a town founded by strangers, and
Arsenaria[3311], a place with the ancient Latin rights, three miles
distant from the sea. We then come to Cartenna[3312], a colony founded
under Augustus by the second legion, and Gunugum[3313], another colony
founded by the same emperor, a prætorian cohort being established
there; the Promontory of Apollo[3314], and a most celebrated city,
now called Cæsarea[3315], but formerly known by the name of Iol; this
place was the residence of King Juba, and received the rights of a
colony from the now deified Emperor Claudius. Oppidum Novum[3316] is
the next place; a colony of veterans was established here by command
of the same emperor. Next to it is Tipasa[3317], which has received
Latin rights, as also Icasium[3318], which has been presented by the
Emperor Vespasianus with similar rights; Rusconiæ[3319], a colony
founded by Augustus; Rusucurium[3320], honoured by Claudius with
the rights of Roman citizens; Ruzacus[3321], a colony founded by
Augustus; Salde[3322], another colony founded by the same emperor;
Igilgili[3323], another; and the town of Tucca[3324], situate on the
sea-shore and upon the river Ampsaga. In the interior are the colony
of Augusta, also called Succabar[3325], Tubusuptus[3326], the cities
of Timici and Tigavæ[3327], the rivers Sardabal[3328], Aves[3329], and
Nabar[3330], the nation of the Macurebi, the river Usar[3331], and
the nation of the Nababes. The river Ampsaga is distant from Cæsarea
322[3332] miles. The length of the two Mauritanias is 1038, and their
breadth 467 miles.

CHAP. 2. (3.)—NUMIDIA.

At the river Ampsaga Numidia begins, a country rendered illustrious
by the fame of Masinissa. By the Greeks this region was called
Metagonitis[3333]; and the Numidians received the name of “Nomades”
from their frequent changes of pasturage; upon which occasions they
were accustomed to carry[3334] their _mapalia_, or in other words,
their houses, upon waggons. The towns of this country are Cullu[3335]
and Rusicade[3336]; and at a distance of forty-eight miles from the
latter, in the interior, is the colony of Cirta[3337], surnamed “of the
Sitiani;” still more inland is another colony called Sicca[3338], with

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