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[902] Probably the Rio Guadalete.

[903] Either the present Sebrija, or in the vicinity of the city of San

[904] Probably the present Bonania.

[905] Probably between Trebujena and the city of Xeres. It was the
usual place of meeting for the people of the territory of Gades; and
its importance may be judged from its appellation ‘Regia’ or ‘royal,’
and its numerous coins. Its ruins are still to be seen on a hill there.

[906] It is not improbable that this was the present city of Xeres.
Some geographers however take it to be that of Medina Sidonia, and look
upon Xeres as the site of the ancient Asta.

[907] Now Ecija. It stood on the plain of the Bætis, some distance
south of the river, on its tributary the Singulis or Xenil.

[908] The site of this place is unknown. It probably obtained its name
from being a colony of one of the legions, the 7th, 10th, 13th or 14th;
which were called ‘geminæ’ or ‘gemellæ,’ from being composed of the men
of two legions originally.

[909] “The Valour of Julius.” Sanson places it not far from Miragenil.

[910] “The Fame of Julius.” Perhaps the present Olivera, or else Teba,
six leagues to the south of Estepa.

[911] The present city of Ossuna. “Genua Urbanorum” would seem to
mean “the knees of the citizens.” Though all the MSS. agree in this
reading, it probably is an error for “gemina Urbanorum,” and it may
have been a colony of one of the legions called ‘geminæ’ or ‘gemellæ,’
as previously mentioned. The other part of its appellation may possibly
have originated in the fact of its first inhabitants being all natives
of the city of Rome.

[912] The use of the word _fuit_, ‘was,’ implies that the place had
been destroyed. Cneius Pompeius, the eldest son of Pompey the Great,
was defeated at Munda, in the year B.C. 45, and the town destroyed.
Pompey escaped from the battle, but was taken a short time after and
put to death. The site of the ancient town is very generally supposed
to be the modern village of Monda, S.W. of Malaga, and about three
leagues from the sea. It is more probable however that it was in the
vicinity of Cordova, and there are ruins of ancient walls and towers
between Martos, Alcandete, Espejo and Baena, which are supposed to
denote its site.

[913] Now Alameda; eight leagues from the other Astiji or Ecija.

[914] Now Estepa, six leagues from Ecija.

[915] Perhaps Mancloua, between the towns of Ecija and Carmona; the
sites of all the other places here mentioned appear to be quite unknown.

[916] Sanson supposes the Alostigi to have inhabited the territory near
Almagia, between Malaga and Antiqueira.

[917] The Celtici are supposed to have inhabited the country between
the Guadiana and Guadalquivir, the eastern parts of Alentejo and the
west of Estremadura, as far as the city of Badajoz.

[918] Probably part of Estremadura, and the vicinity of Badajoz in an
easterly direction.

[919] The exact meaning of this passage is somewhat obscure, but he
probably means to say that the Celtici have an identity of sacred
rites, language, and names of towns with the Celtiberians; though it
had become the usage in Bætica more generally to distinguish the towns
by their Roman names.

[920] “The Fame of Julius.” Its site is not known.

[921] “The Concord of Julius.” Probably the same as the modern Valera
la Vega, near Frejenal.

[922] Probably meaning “Restored by Julius.” Nothing is known of its

[923] According to an authority quoted by Hardouin, this may possibly
be Medina de las Torres.

[924] Probably Constantina in Andalusia, to the north of Penaflor.

[925] The tribe or nation of the Tereses are supposed to have dwelt in
the vicinity of the modern San Nicolo del Puerto.

[926] Calentum was their town; probably the present Cazalla near
Alaniz. This place will be found mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxv. c. 14.

[927] The ruins two leagues north of Ronda la Vieja are supposed to be
those of this place. There are the remains of an aqueduct and theatre,
and numerous coins are found here.

[928] Probably the present Ronda la Vieja.

[929] Identified by inscriptions with the present Aroche. The sites of
several of the following places are unknown.

[930] The Azuaga of modern times; but, according to Hardouin, Argallen.

[931] According to Hardouin this was on the site of the modern Fuente
de la Ovejuna, fourteen leagues from Cordova.

[932] This has been identified by inscriptions with the modern Villa de

[933] According to Hardouin, the modern Almaden de la Plata.

[934] Probably the same as the modern Monte Major.

[935] The ruins of this place are probably those seen at Carixa, near
Bornos, in the vicinity of Seville.

[936] According to Hardouin, the same as the modern Las Cabezas, not
far from Lebrija.

[937] The sites of these two towns are unknown. Bæsippo, Barbesula and
Callet have been already mentioned.

[938] The ruins of Saguntia are to be seen between Arcos and Xeres
della Frontera, on the river Guadalete; they bear their ancient name
under the form of Cigonza. Mela, B. iii. c. 1, says that Oleastro was a
grove near the Bay of Cadiz. Brana was probably the same place that is
mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Urbona.

[939] We may here mention for the more correct information of the
reader that the Roman mile consisted of 1000 paces, each pace being
five English feet. Hence its length was 1618 English yards (taking
the Roman foot at 11·6496 English inches), or 142 yards less than the
English statute mile.

[940] Nova Carthago, or New Carthage.

[941] Now Cazlona, on the confines of New Castile and the kingdom of
Granada. It was a place of great importance, and the chief town of the
Oretani. Himilce, the rich wife of Hannibal, was a native of this place.

[942] This was the ‘porticus Octaviæ,’ which, having been commenced by
his sister Octavia, the wife of Marcellus and Antony, was completed
by Augustus. It lay between the Circus Flaminius and the Theatre of
Marcellus, occupying the site of the former portico, which had been
built by Q. Cæcilius Metellus, and enclosing the two temples of Juno
and of Jupiter Stator. It contained a public library, in which the
Senate often met, and it was in this probably that the map or plan,
mentioned by Pliny, was deposited. It also contained a great number of
statues, paintings, and other works of art, which, with the library,
were destroyed by fire in the reign of Titus.

[943] Nova Carthago or New Carthage, now Carthagena.

[944] Now Zaragoza or Saragossa, on the right bank of the river
Ebro. Its original name was Salduba, but it was changed in honour of
Augustus, who colonized it after the Cantabrian war, B.C. 25.

[945] This was the most remote place of any consideration in
Celtiberia, on the west. Its ruins are still to be seen on the summit
of a hill surrounded with rocks, forming a natural wall between Corunna
del Conde and Pennalda de Castro.

[946] This was Asturica Augusta, the chief city of the nation of the
Astures, and situate on one of the tributaries of the Astura, now
Esta. On its site is situate the present Astorga: its ruins are very

[947] Now Lugo.

[948] Or Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of the ancient
city there are the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre.

[949] Probably the present town of Vera near Muxacra.

[950] The “Promontory of Saturn,” now Cabo de Palos.

[951] D’Anville takes this place to be the port of Vacur; if so, the
distance from Cape Palos is exactly 170 miles.

[952] Now Segura.

[953] The modern town of Elche was probably built from the ruins of
this place.

[954] Now called the Gulf of Alicant.

[955] With the Arabian _El_ prefixed, this has formed the name of the
famous port of Alicant.

[956] Now Denia, a thriving town.

[957] Now called the Xucar.

[958] Now called Albufera.

[959] The present city of Valencia.

[960] Or Turia, now the Guadalaviar.

[961] Or Saguntus, famed for the fidelity of its inhabitants to the
Roman cause: after a siege of nine months, rather than submit to the
Carthaginians under Hannibal, they set fire to their town and perished
in the flames, B.C. 219. It was rebuilt eight years afterwards and
made a Roman colony. The ruins of the ancient town, which was said to
have been originally founded by Greeks from Zacynthus, are still to be
seen, and the ancient walls (_muri veteres_) give name to the present
Murviedro, which is built on its site.

[962] Now the Murviedro, which flows past the city of that name and the
town of Segorbe.

[963] Dertosa, the present Tortosa, is supposed to have been inhabited
by them.

[964] Now the Ebro.

[965] Hardouin places this on the site of the modern Fuente de Ivero.
The Ebro takes its rise in the Val de Vieso.

[966] According to D’Anville, the present Logrono. At present the
Ebro only becomes navigable at Tudela, 216 miles from the sea. Other
writers, however, take Varia to be the present Valtierra, near Tudela.

[967] Or the Subur, now the Francoli. It flows into the sea at the port
of Tarraco, now Tarragona.

[968] The more ancient commentators think that Carthago Vetus, or the
colony of Old Carthage (now Carta la Vieja), is here alluded to, but
more probably it is Carthago Nova that is meant.

[969] On the Subi, previously mentioned; now called Villa Nova.

[970] Now the Llobregat.

[971] Their territory was situate around the present Gulf of Ampurias.

[972] Their chief cities were Gerunda, the present Gerona, and Ausa or
Vicus Ausæ, now Vic d’Osona.

[973] In the country beyond Gerona.

[974] Living in the upper valley of the river Sicoris or Segre, which
still retains, from them, the name of Cerdague.

[975] The people of the modern Navarre and Guipuzcoa.

[976] In the later writers Barcelo, now Barcelona. It was said to have
been originally founded by Hercules, and afterwards rebuilt by Hamilcar
Barcas, who gave it the name of his family. Its name as a Roman colony
was Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino. The modern city stands
somewhat to the east of the ancient one.

[977] The modern Badalona, two leagues from Barcelona.

[978] On the sea-shore,—the present Pineda.

[979] Now the Tordera.

[980] The modern city of Blanos stands on its site.

[981] Probably the present Ter or Tet.

[982] The modern Ampurias. We learn from Strabo that a wall divided the
town of the Greeks from that of the old inhabitants. It was the usual
landing-place for travellers from Gaul. It was originally colonized by
the Phocæans from Massilia or Marseilles.

[983] Hardouin says that the Ticher or Tichis is the same with the
modern Ter, but in such case Pliny would have mentioned it before
coming to Emporiæ. Its present name however does not appear to be
accurately known.

[984] A promontory extending from the Pyrenæan chain, on which a temple
of Venus was situate. It is now called Cabo de Cruz. The distance
mentioned by Pliny is probably too great.

[985] The people of the present Tortosa.

[986] Probably not the same people as the Edetani, in whose district
Saguntum and Valencia were situate.

[987] The people of Gerunda or Gerona.

[988] They are nowhere else mentioned. Ukert supposes that their city
stood in the district between the Sicoris and Nucaria.

[989] Their city was Tiara Julia.

[990] The people of Aquæ Calidæ or the ‘Hot Springs,’ called at the
present day Caldes, four leagues from the city of Barcelona.

[991] Ptolemy places Bæcula between Ausa and Gerunda.

[992] The people of the present Belchite.

[993] The people of the present Xelsa, on the Ebro.

[994] The inhabitants of Calagurris, now Calahorra, a city of the
Vascones, on the banks of the Ebro. They remained faithful to Sertorius
to the last, and after slaughtering their wives and children and eating
their flesh, their city was taken and destroyed; which event put an end
to the Sertorian war. It was called “Nassica,” in contradistinction
to Calagurris Fibularia, which is afterwards mentioned by Pliny. The
latter is mentioned by Cæsar as forming one community with Osca (now
Huesca), and was probably the present Loarre, though some writers take
the first-named Calagurris to be that place, and the latter one to be
the present Calahorra.

[995] The people of Ilerda, the present Lerida, on the Sicoris or
Segre. It is memorable for its siege by Cæsar, when the Pompeian
forces under Afranius and Petreius had retired thither. It was a most
flourishing city, though in the times of the later Roman emperors it
had fallen into decay.

[996] The people of the present Huesca.

[997] The inhabitants of Turiazo, the present Tarazona, five leagues
south of Tudela.

[998] The people of Cascantum, the present town of Cascante in Navarre.

[999] The people of Ergavica. Its ruins, at the confluence of the
Guadiela and Tagus, are still to be seen, and are called Santaver. By
some writers this place is considered to be the same as the modern
Fraga, on the river Cinca, five leagues from Lerida.

[1000] The people of Graccuris. Its former name of Ilurcis was changed
in honour of Sempronius Gracchus, who placed new settlers there after
the conquest of Celtiberia. It is supposed to be the same as the modern
Agreda, four leagues from Tarazona.

[1001] The people of Leonica, probably the modern Alcaniz, on the river
Guadalope, in Arragon.

[1002] The people of Tarraga, the present Tarrega, nine leagues east of
Lerida, in Catalonia.

[1003] The people of Arcobriga, now Los Arcos, in Navarre, five leagues
south of Estella.

[1004] Perhaps the same as the Andosini, a people mentioned by
Polybius, B. iii. c. 35, as situate between the Iberus and the
Pyrenees. There is a small town of Navarre called Androilla.

[1005] The people probably of the site now occupied by Huarte Araquil,
six leagues to the west of Pampeluna.

[1006] Probably the same as the Bursaones of Livy, the Bursavolenses
of Hirtius, and the Bursadenses of Ptolemy. Their exact locality is

[1007] Mention has been made of Calagurris Fibularensis or Fibulicensis
under Calagurris Nassica: see p. 168.

[1008] The people of Complutum, the modern Alcala de Henares, on the
river Henares, six leagues to the east of Madrid. It is not quite
certain whether it stood on the exact site of Alcala, or on the hill of
Zulema, on the other side of the Henares.

[1009] The town of Cares, adjoining the more modern one of Puente la
Reyna, probably marks their site.

[1010] Probably so called from the river Cinga, the modern Cinca: or
they may have given their name thereto.

[1011] The people probably of the present Mediana on the Ebro, six
leagues below Zaragoza.

[1012] Their town was Larnum, situate on a river of the same name. It
was probably the present Torderas, situate on the river of that name.

[1013] Of this people nothing appears to be known. In the old editions
the next people mentioned are the “Ispalenses,” but since the time of
Hardouin, they have been generally omitted, as wrongly introduced,
and as utterly unknown. Spanish coins have however been more recently
discovered with the name ‘Sblaie’ or ‘Splaie,’ inscribed in Celtiberian
characters, and numismatists are of opinion that they indicate the name
of the town of this people, which in Latin would be Ispala. This at all
events is the opinion of M. de Sauley.

[1014] The people of the present town of Lumbier in Navarre, called by
its inhabitants Irumberri.

[1015] The people of the present city of Pampeluna.

[1016] Carthago Nova, or New Carthage.

[1017] The colony of Acci was called Colonia Julia Gemella Accitana.
The town of Acci or Accis was on the site of the present Guadix el
Viejo, between Granada and Baza. It was colonized by the third and
sixth legions under Julius or Augustus, from which it obtained the name
of ‘Gemella,’ the origin of which name is previously mentioned, p. 161.

[1018] The ruins of this place are supposed to be those seen at
Lebazuza or Lezuza, not far from the city of Cuença.

[1019] The “jus Italicum” or “Italiæ,” “Italian rights” or
“privileges,” differed from the “jus Latinum.” It was granted to
provincial towns which were especially favoured by the magistracy of
Rome, and consisted of exemption from taxes, a municipal constitution,
after the manner of the Italian towns, and many other rights and

[1020] According to Hardouin, the people of the town formerly called
Saliotis, now Cazorla. They are called “Cæsari venales,” from the
circumstance of their territory having been purchased by Cæsar.—Castulo
or Cazlona has been previously mentioned.

[1021] The people of Sætabis, now Xativa in Valencia. This town was
famous for its manufacture of fine table-napkins, to which reference
is made by Pliny at the beginning of his Introduction addressed to
Titus, in his quotation from the lament of Catullus on the loss of his
table-napkins which his friends had filched from him. See p. 1 of the
present volume.

[1022] According to some writers, the present Cuença was the ancient
Valeria; but perhaps it was situate at the present village of Valera la
Vieja, or Old Valeria, eight leagues south of Cuença.

[1023] The people of Alaba, not far from the present town of Ergavica.

[1024] They were so called from their town of Basti, now Baza, on the
river Guadalentin in Granada.

[1025] Their town was probably the present Consuegra, twelve leagues
from the city of Toledo.

[1026] So called from the promontory Dianium or Artemisium, named from
a temple of Diana there situate, and having in its vicinity a town
of the same name. The present town of Denia still retains nearly the
original name. Its lake, now called Albufera de Valencia, has been
previously mentioned, p. 166.

[1027] The modern Yniesta marks the site of their town.

[1028] The people probably of Eliocroca, now Lorca, on the high road,
from Carthago Nova to Castulo.

[1029] There were two places of the name of Mentesa, one in the
district of the Oritani, and the other in that of the Bastitani or

[1030] Ptolemy, B. ii., mentions a city of this nation, called ‘Oretum
Germanorum.’ It has been supposed that it was the present Calatrava,
five leagues from Ciudad Real.

[1031] Supposed to be in the vicinity of the present Calatajud.

[1032] The present Toledo.

[1033] Their town is supposed to have stood on the site of the present

[1034] Now Coruña del Conde.

[1035] The people of the present Alava on the Ebro.—A small town there
still bears the name of Alvana.

[1036] This nation is not mentioned elsewhere. Possibly they are the
Murbogi, mentioned by Ptolemy.

[1037] Their town Segisamon was either the present Veyzama in
Guipuzcoa, or, more probably, Sasamon, eight leagues north-west of

[1038] The people of Carissa, on the site of the present Carixa near

[1039] Strabo assigns the Numantini to the Arevacæ, and not the
Pelendones. The ruins of the city of Numantia were still to be seen
at Puente Garray near the city of Soria, in Hardouin’s time, the 17th

[1040] D’Anville places their city, Intercatia, at the place called
Villa nueva de Azuague, forty miles from the present Astorga; others
again make it to have been sixty miles from that place.

[1041] Their town was on the site of the modern city of Palencia, on
the river Carion.

[1042] The people of Cauca, the present Coca, situate between Segovia
and Valladolid, on the river Eresma.

[1043] This was the chief city of the Cantabri. It has been already
mentioned, but we may add that it stood near the sources of the Ebro,
on the eminence of Retortillo, south of Reynosa. Five stones still mark
the boundaries which divided the territory from that of the Fourth

[1044] Supposed to be the present Briviesca; the site of Tritium does
not appear to be known, but it has been suggested that it was near
Najara, in the vicinity of Logrono.

[1045] It does not appear to be certain whether the Areva was the
present Ucero, or the Arlanzon, which flows near Valladolid.

[1046] The modern Siguenza.

[1047] Now El Burgo d’Osma, in the province of Soria.

[1048] This must not be mistaken for the modern Segovia, between Madrid
and Valladolid: it was a small town in the vicinity of Numantia.

[1049] Probably the present Lerma, on the river Arlanza.

[1050] The people of Asturica Augusta, now Astorga, in the province of
Leon. The ruins of this fine city are said still to give a perfect idea
of a fortified Roman town.

[1051] Their chief city stood on the site of the present Cigarrosa,
or San Estevan de Val de Orres. Its ruins are still to be seen, and a
Roman bridge, the people preserving a tradition that an old town once
stood there called Guigurra.

[1052] The people of Lance or Lancia, probably the present Lollanco or
Mansilla; though Oviedo has been suggested. This however may be the
Ovetum mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxiv. c. 17.

[1053] Mentioned by Pliny in B. xix. c. 2, as famous for their flax.
Their locality near the coast does not appear to be exactly known. The
Pæsici previously mentioned were situate on the peninsula of Cabo de

[1054] Now the city of Lugo in Gallicia.

[1055] The people of Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of
the ancient city are the remains of an aqueduct and an amphitheatre.
This people probably derived their name from their fashion of wearing
braccæ, “breeches” or “trowsers,” like their neighbours of Gallia
Braccata. The exact localities of the various other tribes here
mentioned do not appear to be exactly known.

[1056] Our author is mistaken here, even making allowance for the
shortness of the Roman mile (1618 yards), as the length is only 470
miles. Coastwise it is 620.

[1057] Now Oyarzun. It is also mentioned in B. iv. c. 34.

[1058] He is also in error here; for, taken in a straight line, this
distance is but 210 miles.

[1059] The distance is about 560 miles.

[1060] It may be worth while here to take some notice of the mineral
productions of Spain in modern times, from which we shall be able to
form a more accurate judgement as to the correctness of the statement
here made by Pliny. Grains of gold are still to be found in the rivers
Tagus and Douro; but there is not found sufficient of the precious
metal to pay for the search. Silver is found in the mines of the Guadal
canal. Copper and lead are to be found in abundance. There is a mine
of plumbago four leagues from Ronda; and tin is found in Gallicia. In
every province there are iron mines, those in Biscay being the most
remarkable. Lodestone is found in Seville, cobalt on the Pyrenees,
quicksilver and cinnabar at Almaden, arsenic in Asturias, and coal in
Asturias and Arragon. There are salt-mines at Mingrilla and Cardona;
alum is found in Arragon, antimony at Alcaraz. On the Sierra Morena,
and in Gallicia, there is saltpetre in numerous localities; amber in
Asturias and Valencia, and sulphur in Murcia, Arragon, and Seville.
Pipe-clay of a peculiar quality is found in the vicinity of Andujar.
Gypsum and marble are found in great abundance, and stone for budding
purposes, of the best quality. Amethysts, white cornelians, rubies,
agates, garnets, and rock crystals, with other precious stones, are
also found in abundance and of the finest quality.

[1061] Transparent stone. Further mention is made of it by Pliny in B.
xxxv. c. 45.

[1062] Or Mediterranean.

[1063] From the chief city Narbo Martius, and later Narbona, now
Narbonne, situate on the river Atax, now Aude. It was made a Roman
colony by the Consul Q. Martius B.C. 118, and from him received its
surname. It was the residence of the Roman governor of the province and
a place of great commercial importance. There are scarcely any remains
of the ancient city, but some vestiges of the canal, by which it was
connected with the sea at twelve miles’ distance.

[1064] From the linen breeches which the inhabitants wore, a fashion
which was not adopted by the Romans till the time of the Emperors.
Severus wore them, but the use of them was restricted by Honorius.

[1065] Still called the ‘Var.’ It divides France from Nice, a province
of Sardinia.

[1066] Now the Cevennes. They lie as much to the west as the north of
Gallia Narbonensis.

[1067] The range of the Jura, north of the Lake of Geneva.

[1068] Inhabiting the former Comté de Roussillon, or Département des
Pyrénées Orientales. They were said to have been originally a Bebrycian

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