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or Thracian colony.

[1069] Probably the inhabitants of the present Conserans, on the west
of the Département de l’Arriége.

[1070] Probably the Tech, and the Verdouble, which falls into the Gly.

[1071] Probably the present Elne, on the Tech.

[1072] The present Castel Roussillon.

[1073] The Aude of the present day.

[1074] The bodies of water now called Etangs de Bages et de Sigean.

[1075] Now the Herault.

[1076] Now called the Lez, near the city of Montpellier.

[1077] Now called Etangs de Leucate, de Sigean, de Gruissan, de
Vendres, de Thau, de Maguelonne, de Perols, de Mauguio, du Repausset;
Marais d’Escamandre, de Lermitane et de la Souteyrane, and numerous

[1078] Now the town of Agde. Strabo also informs us that this place was
founded by the Massilians.

[1079] This people seems to have inhabited the eastern parts of the
departments of l’Arriége and the Haute Garonne, that of Aude, the south
of that of Tarn, and of that of Herault, except the arrondissement of

[1080] Dalechamp takes this to be Foz les Martigues; but the locality
is doubtful. Most probably this is the same place that is mentioned by
Strabo as Rhoë, in conjunction with the town of Agathe or Agde, and the
Rodanusia of Stephen of Byzantium, who places it in the district of
Massilia or Marseilles.

[1081] Now the Rhone.

[1082] Now the Lake of Geneva.

[1083] The modern Saone.

[1084] Now the rivers Isère and Durance.

[1085] Most probably from Libici, a town in the south of Gaul, of which
there are coins in existence, but nothing else seems to be known. At
the present day there are four mouths of the Rhone, the most westerly
of which is called the “Dead” Rhone; the next the “Lesser” Rhone; the
third the “Old” Rhone; and the fourth simply the Rhone. D’Anville
considers the “Lesser” Rhone to have been the “Spanish” mouth of the
ancients. In consequence of the overflowings of this river there is
great confusion upon this subject.

[1086] This mouth of the Rhone was much used by the Massilians for the
purposes of commerce with the interior of Gaul, and the carriage of the
supplies of tin which they obtained thence.

[1087] The manner in which Pliny here expresses himself shows that he
doubts the fact of such a place having even existed; it is mentioned
by none of the preceding geographers, and of those who followed him
Stephen of Byzantium is the only one who notices it. An inscription was
found however in the reign of Charles V. of France, in which it was
stated that Ataulphus, king of the Visigoths, selected Heraclea as his
place of residence. On the faith of this inscription, Spon and Ducange
have placed Heraclea at the modern Saint-Gilles, and other writers at
Saint-Remy, where the inscription was found. Unfortunately, however,
Messrs. Devic and Vaissette, in their “History of Languedoc,” have
proved that this inscription is of spurious origin.

[1088] The “Fossæ Marianæ” are also mentioned by Ptolemy and Solinus;
though they differ in the situation which they have respectively
assigned them. They were formed by Marius when advancing to dispute the
passage of the Rhone with the Cimbri, who had quitted Spain for the
purpose of passing the Pyrenees and invading Italy, in the year B.C.
102. There is considerable difficulty in determining their position,
but they are supposed to have commenced at the place now called the
Camp of Marius, and to have terminated at the eastern mouth of the
Rhone near the present Arles.

[1089] Pliny is the first who mentions the name of this lake, though
previous writers had indicated its existence. Strabo informs us that
above the mouth of the Rhone there is a large lake that communicates
with the sea, and abounds in fish and oysters. Brotier and D’Anville
identify it with the present lake of Martigues or of Berre.

[1090] D’Anville takes this place to be the present town of Martigues;
Brotier thinks that it was situate on the spot now called Le Cap
d’Œil, near the town of Saint-Chamas; and Bouche, the historian of the
Province, places it at Marignane, on the east side of the lake already

[1091] “Campi Lapidei,” called by the natives at the present day “La
Crau;” probably from the same Celtic root as our word “Crags;” though
Bochart derives it from the Hebrew. Æschylus and Hyginus speak of this
combat of Hercules, and Mela relates that being engaged in a mortal
struggle with Albion and Geryon, the sons of Neptune, he invoked the
aid of Jupiter, on which a shower of stones fell from the heavens and
destroyed his antagonists. Those on this plain are said to be the
remains of the stony shower. It is supposed by the scientific that
many of these stones are aërolites, and that tradition has ingeniously
adapted this story to their real origin. The vicinity of Tunbridge
Wells presents a somewhat similar appearance.

[1092] The people probably of the site of the present isle of Camargue.

[1093] They probably inhabited the district south of the Durance,
between it and the Rhone.

[1094] They inhabited the country in which the present Avignon, Orange,
Cavaillon, and perhaps Carpentras are situate.

[1095] They are thought by Hardouin to have dwelt in the vicinity of
the present town of Talard in the department of the Hautes Alpes.

[1096] They inhabited the eastern part of the departments of the Drôme
and the Vaucluse.

[1097] Their territory comprehended the southern part of the department
of the Ain, the department of the Isère, the canton of Geneva, and part
of Savoy.

[1098] It was said to have been colonized from Phocæa, a town of Ionia
in Asia Minor. Lucan in his Third Book more than once falls into the
error of supposing that it was colonized from Phocis in Greece.

[1099] We learn from Justin, B. xliii., that this privilege, as well as
others, and a seat at the public shows, were granted to the Massilians
by the Roman Senate, in return for their sympathy and assistance after
the city had been taken and plundered by the Gauls.

[1100] According to D’Anville the present Cap de l’Aigre, though
Mannert takes it to be the Cap de la Croisette.

[1101] D’Anville takes this to be the same as the present Port de la

[1102] Probably occupying the south-east of the department of the Var.
It is supposed by Hardouin that the village of Ramatuelle, near the
coast, south of the Gulf of Grimaud, represents the ancient name; and
D’Anville and other writers are of the same opinion.

[1103] Probably the country around the modern Brignole and Draguignan
was inhabited by them.

[1104] They inhabited Verignon and Barjols in the southern part of the
department of the Var.

[1105] D’Anville takes this to be the place called Agaï, between Frejus
and La Napoule: but in so doing he disregards the order in which they
are given by Pliny.

[1106] “The Forum of Julius.” Now Frejus. As its name implies, it was
a colony of the Eighth Legion. It was probably called ‘Pacensis,’
on some occasion when peace had happily been made with the original
inhabitants, and ‘Classica’ from the fleet being stationed there by

[1107] Still known as the Argens, from the silvery appearance of the
water. It has choked up the harbour with sand, in which probably the
ships of Augustus rode at anchor.

[1108] They inhabited the coast, in the vicinity of the modern Cannes.

[1109] They are supposed to have inhabited the country of Grasse, in
the south-east of the department of the Var.

[1110] According to Ptolemy they had for their capital the town of
Salinæ; which some take to be the modern Saluces, others Castellane,
and others again Seillans, according to Holstein and D’Anville.

[1111] D’Anville thinks that they lived in the valley of Queyras, in
the department of the Hautes Alpes, having a town of the same name.

[1112] The Adunicates are supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the
department of the Basses Alpes, between the towns of Senez and Digne.

[1113] The modern Antibes. Mount Cema is the present Monte-Cemelione.

[1114] “Arelate of the Sixth Legion,” a military colony; now the city
of Arles. It is first mentioned by Cæsar, who had some ships built
there for the siege of Massilia or Marseilles. It was made a military
colony in the time of Augustus.

[1115] “Beterræ of the Seventh Legion.” The modern town of Beziers.

[1116] “Arausio of the Second Legion,” now Orange, a town in the
department of Vaucluse.

[1117] Now Valence, in the department of the Drôme.

[1118] Now Vienne, in the department of the Isère.

[1119] Aix, in the department of the Bouches du Rhône.

[1120] Avignon, in the Vaucluse.

[1121] Apt, in the department of Vaucluse.

[1122] Riez, in the department of the Basses Alpes.

[1123] The modern Alps, near Viviers, is probably built on the site of
this town. The text shows that it was different from Augusta, probably
the Alba Augusta mentioned by Ptolemy, though D’Anville supposes them
to have been the same place.

[1124] Some writers take this place to be the present
Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, in the department of the Drôme.

[1125] Probably so called from its lofty position, and supposed by
D’Anville to have been situate on the modern Mont Ventoux, or “Windy
Mountain.” Other writers place it at La Croix Haute, near the city of

[1126] There is a village in the department of the Var, six leagues
from Toulon, called Bormes, not improbably from these people.

[1127] The modern Cavaillon, in the department of the Vaucluse.

[1128] Now Carcassone, in the department of the Aude.

[1129] Probably Saint Tibéry, on the river Hérault.

[1130] Now Carpentras. Ptolemy also makes mention of the Memini.

[1131] Probably situate on the river Cœnus of Ptolemy, between the
eastern mouth of the Rhone and Massilia. Probably the name in Pliny
should be “Cœnienses.”

[1132] Walckenaer places this people in the vicinity of Cambo, in the
arrondissement of Bayonne, in the department of the Basses Pyrenees.

[1133] In names similar to this, as Festus remarks, “Forum” has the
meaning of “Market;” much as that word is used as a compound in our
names, such as Market Drayton, &c. Bouche thinks that by this place is
meant the modern Le Canet: but D’Anville takes it to be Gonfaron, a
corruption, he thinks, of Voconfaron from the Latin name.

[1134] The site of Glanum was about a mile to the south of the village
of Saint Remi, between Cavaillon and Arles. On the spot there are the
remains of a Roman mausoleum and a triumphal arch.

[1135] The people of Luteva, now Lodève, in the department of the

[1136] “The people of Forum Neronis,” which place has been supposed
by some to have been the same with Carpentoracte: D’Anville supposes
Forcalquier to have been Forum Neronis, while Walckenaer takes Momas
to have been that place. From the text it would appear to have been
identical with Luteva.

[1137] The modern Nismes, which in its ruins contains abundant marks
of its ancient splendour. The family of the Antonines came from this
place. The remains of its aqueduct still survive, containing three rows
of arches, one above the other, and 180 feet in height.

[1138] The people of the present Pézenas, in the department of the

[1139] Their chief town is supposed to have been Albiga, now Albi, in
the department of Tarn.

[1140] The inhabitants of the present Senez in the Basses Alpes.
De la Saussaye says that their coins read ‘Samnagenses,’ and not
‘Sanagenses,’ and that they inhabited Senas, a town in the vicinity of

[1141] Their chief town was Tolosa, now Toulouse, in the department of
the Haute-Garonne.

[1142] They probably lived in the vicinity of the present Montauban, in
the department of the Tarn et Garonne.

[1143] Probably the inhabitants of the site of the modern town of
Tarascon. There is, however, considerable doubt as to these two names.

[1144] Poinsinet thinks that they occupied Vabres, a place situate in
the south of the department of Aveyron.

[1145] Now Vaison, in the department of Vaucluse.

[1146] “The Grove of Augustus.” This town appears to have been
overflowed by the river Druma, which formed a lake on its site. Its
remains were still to be seen in the lake in modern times, and from it
the town on the margin of the lake takes its name of Le Luc.

[1147] Under the name “formula” Pliny perhaps alludes to the official
list of the Roman government, which he had consulted for the purposes
of accuracy.

[1148] Bouche places the site of this people at the village of Avançon,
between Chorges and Gap, in the department of the Hautes Alpes.

[1149] The present town of Digne, in the department of the Basses Alpes.

[1150] It is not known from what points these measurements of our
author are taken.

[1151] The modern names of these localities will form the subject of
consideration when we proceed, in c. 7, to a more minute description of

[1152] This passage is somewhat confused, and may possibly be in a
corrupt state. He here speaks of the Apennine Alps. By the “lunata
juga” he means the two promontories or capes, which extend east and
west respectively.

[1153] This seems to be the meaning of “alumna,” and not “nurse” or
“foster-mother,” as Ajasson’s translation has it. Pliny probably
implies by this antithesis that Rome has been “twice blessed,” in
receiving the bounties of all nations of the world, and in being able
to bestow a commensurate return. Compared with this idea, “at once the
nurse and mother of the world” would be tame indeed!

[1154] By adding its deified emperors to the number of its divinities.
After what Pliny has said in his Second Book, this looks very much like
pure adulation.

[1155] Or “Great Greece.” This is a poor and frivolous argument used
by Pliny in support of his laudations of Italy, seeing that in all
probability it was not the people of Greece who gave this name to
certain cities founded by Greek colonists on the Tarentine Gulf, in the
south of Italy; but either the Italian tribes, who in their simplicity
admired their splendour and magnificence, or else the colonists
themselves, who, in using the name, showed that they clung with
fondness to the remembrance of their mother-country; while at the same
time the epithet betrayed some vanity and ostentation in wishing thus
to show their superiority to the people of their mother-country.

[1156] The comparison of its shape to an oak leaf seems rather
fanciful; more common-place observers have compared it to a boot: by
the top (cacumen) he seems to mean the southern part of Calabria about
Brundisium and Tarentum; which, to a person facing the south, would
incline to the coast of Epirus on the left hand.

[1157] The ‘Parma’ or shield here alluded to, would be one shaped like
a crescent, with the exception that the inner or concave side would be
formed of two crescents, the extremities of which join at the central
projection. He says that Cocinthos (now Capo di Stilo) would in such
case form the central projection, while Lacinium (now Capo delle
Colonne) would form the horn at the extreme right, and Leucopetra (now
Capo dell’ Armi) the horn on the extreme left.

[1158] The Tuscan or Etrurian sea, and the Adriatic.

[1159] The Varus, as already mentioned, was in Gallia Narbonensis,
while the Arsia, now the Arsa, is a small river of Istria, which became
the boundary between Italy and Illyricum, when Istria was annexed by
order of Augustus to the former country. It flows into the Flanaticus
Sinus, now Golfo di Quarnero, on the eastern coast of Istria, beyond
the town of Castel Nuovo, formerly Nesactium.

[1160] Now the Pescara.

[1161] Now Palo, a city on the coast of Etruria, eighteen miles from
Portus Augusti, at the mouth of the Tiber.

[1162] This distance is overstated: the circuit is in reality about
2500 miles.

[1163] For instance, from Pola to Ravenna, and from Iadera to Ancona.

[1164] Sardinia is in no part nearer to Italy than 140 miles.

[1165] Issa, now Lissa, is an island of the Adriatic, off the coast of
Liburnia; it is not less than eighty miles distant from the nearest
part of the coast of Italy.

[1166] That is to say, the south, which was so called by the Romans:
the meaning being that Italy extends in a south-easterly direction.

[1167] Italy was divided by Augustus into eleven districts; the ninth
of which nearly corresponded to the former republic of Genoa.

[1168] The modern Nizza of the Italians, or Nice of the French.

[1169] Now the Paglione.

[1170] Livy mentions four of these tribes, the Celelates, the
Cerdiciates, the Apuani, and the Friniates.

[1171] Or “Long-haired.” Lucan, B. i. l. 442, 3, refers to this
characteristic of the Alpine Ligurians:

Et nunc tonse Ligur, quondam per colla decora
Crinibus effusis toti prælate Comatæ.

[1172] It is probably the ruins of this place that are to be seen at
the present day at Cimiez in the vicinity of Nice.

[1173] The modern Monaco.

[1174] These tribes have been already mentioned in c. 5, as belonging
to the province of Gallia Narbonensis.

[1175] It is supposed that they dwelt near the present Vinadio in

[1176] It is supposed that they inhabited the vicinity of the present
town of Chorges, between Embrun and Gap.

[1177] They probably dwelt near the modern town of Montserrat.

[1178] They probably dwelt near the modern Biela, eight leagues from
Verceil in Piedmont.

[1179] Some writers place them near the modern city of Casale.

[1180] Their locality is supposed by some writers to be near the
present Cortemiglia, five leagues from the town of Alba.

[1181] Now the Roya, flowing between very high banks.—Lucan, B. ii. l.
422, speaks of the Rutuba as “Cavus,” “flowing in deep cavities.”

[1182] Probably the present Vintimiglia.

[1183] The modern Arozia.

[1184] The present town of Albenga.—Livy, B. xxix. c. 5, calls the
inhabitants Albingauni.

[1185] Now called Vaï or Ve, and Savona.

[1186] The modern Bisagna, which waters Genua, the modern Genoa.

[1187] Now the Lavagna, which also washes Genoa.

[1188] “The Port of the Dolphin;” now Porto Fino.

[1189] Probably the ruins called those of Tregesa or Trigoso are those
of Tigullia.

[1190] Now Sestri di Levante.

[1191] The modern Magra.

[1192] Of which they were considered as a chain, and called the
Apennine Alps.

[1193] Now the Po.

[1194] According to D’Anville, now Castel Arqua.

[1195] Now Tortona. It was a city of importance, and there are
considerable ruins still in existence.

[1196] The modern Voghera, upon the river Staffora.

[1197] Probably the present Verrua.

[1198] Called by the Ligurians Bodincomagus, by the Romans Industria.
Its remains are to be found at Monteù di Po, a few miles below
Chevasso, on the right bank of the river.

[1199] The modern Pollenza, a small town on the river Tenaro near Alba.

[1200] Its site has been placed at Chieri near Turin, and at Carrù
on the Tanaro, a few miles south of Bene, which is perhaps the most

[1201] The modern Valenza.

[1202] Placed by D’Anville at Vico near Mondovi, and by other writers
at Carmagnole and Saluzzo: but Durandi has shown that the ruins still
to be seen near Bene in Piedmont are those of Augusta Vagiennorum. Bene
is supposed to be a corruption of Bagienna, the name of the town in the
middle ages. The name of the Vagienni also probably survives in that of
Viozenna, an obscure place in that vicinity.

[1203] Still called Alba; a town near the northern foot of the
Apennines. It probably had its appellation from Cn. Pompeius Strabo,
the father of Pompey the Great, who conferred many privileges on the
Cisalpine Gauls. It was the birth-place of the Emperor Helvius Pertinax.

[1204] The modern Aste.

[1205] The modern Acqui, so called from its mineral springs. It is
again mentioned by Pliny in B. XXXI. Numerous remains of the ancient
town have been discovered.

[1206] Ansart observes that this measurement is nearly correct.

[1207] For an account of this see Herodotus, B. i. c. 94, Tacitus, Ann.
B. iv. c. 55, and Velleius Paterculus, B. i. c. 1. These writers all
agree as to the fact of the migration of a colony of Lydians under the
conduct of Tyrrhenus to the part of Italy afterwards called Etruria.
This subject however, as well as the migrations of the Pelasgi, is
involved in the greatest obscurity.

[1208] From the Greek verb θύειν “to sacrifice,” he implies:—from
their custom of frequently sacrificing, says Servius, on the Xth Book
of the Æneid. Dionysius of Halicarnassus says that they were from
their frequent sacrifices called θυόσκοοι. These are probably fanciful
derivations; but there is no doubt that the people of Etruria were
for several centuries the instructors of the Romans in the arts of
sacrifice, augury, and divination.

[1209] The ruins of Luna, which was destroyed by the Normans in the
middle ages, are still visible on the banks of the Magra. The modern
name of the port is Golfo della Spezzia.

[1210] The modern city of Lucca has its site and name.—Livy, B. xli.
c. 13, informs us that this colony was founded in the year of the city
576, during the Consulship of Claudius Pulcher and Sempronius Gracchus.

[1211] The modern city of Pisa. See Virgil, B. x. l. 179, as to the
origin of this place.

[1212] The modern Serchio.

[1213] Now the Arno.

[1214] The people of Pisa or Pisæ, a city of Elis in the Peloponnesus.

[1215] Now Vadi, a small village on the sea-shore.

[1216] Still called the Cecina. It entered the Tyrrhenian sea, near the
port of Vada Volaterrana just mentioned.

[1217] The present Piombino is supposed to have arisen from the ruins
of this place.

[1218] Now the Bruno.

[1219] The modern Ombrone.

[1220] Now known as Telamone Vecchio.

[1221] There are ruins near lake Orbitello, which bear the name of
Cosa; Ansedonia was said to have risen from its ruins, and in its turn
fallen to decay.

[1222] Two localities have been mentioned as the site of Graviscæ, at
both of which there are ancient remains: one on the right bank of the
Marta, about a mile from its mouth, and the other on the sea-coast at
a spot called Santo Clementino or Le Saline, a mile south of the mouth
of the Marta. Probably the latter are the remains of Graviscæ, although
Dennis (Etruria, i. pp. 387-395) inclines to be in favour of the former.

[1223] The modern Torre Chiaruccia, five miles south of Civita Vecchia.

[1224] The modern Torre di Santa Severa.

[1225] Now the Vaccina.

[1226] The remains of this once powerful city are marked by the village
of Cervetri or Old Cære. According to Strabo it received its name from
the Greek word χαῖρε “hail!” with which the inhabitants saluted the
Tyrrhenian or Lydian invaders. It was to this place that the Romans
sent their most precious sacred relics when their city was taken by the
Gauls. Its most interesting remains are the sepulchres, of which an
account is given in Dennis’s Etruria.

[1227] Its remains are to be seen in the vicinity of the modern village
of Palo.

[1228] Its site is supposed to have been at the spot now called the
Torre di Maccarese, midway between Palo and Porto, and at the mouth of
the river Arone. Its situation was marshy and unhealthy.

[1229] This exceeds the real distance, which is about 230 miles.

[1230] The site of the Etruscan Falerii or Falisci is probably occupied
by the present Civita Castellana; while that of the Roman city of the
same name, at a distance of four miles, is marked by a single house and
the ruins of a church, called Santa Maria di Falleri. The ancient city
was captured by the Romans under Camillus.

[1231] In his book of “Origines,” which is now lost.

[1232] “The Grove of Feronia.” The town was so called from the grove
of that Sabine goddess there situate. In the early times of Rome there
was a great resort to this spot not only for religious purposes, but
for those of trade as well. Its traces are still to be seen at the
village of Saint Orestes, near the south-east extremity of the hill
there, which is still called Felonica. This is in southern Etruria,
but Ptolemy mentions another place of the same name in the north-west
extremity of Etruria, between the Arnus and the Macra.

[1233] The people of the spot now called Siena, in Tuscany.

[1234] Now Sutri, on the river Pozollo.

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