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[1235] The people of Arretium, one of the most powerful cities of
Etruria. The three tribes or peoples here mentioned probably did
not occupy distinct towns, but constituted separate communities or
municipal bodies, being distinct colonies or bodies of settlers. The
Julienses were the colonists settled there by Augustus. The Fidentes
had probably settled at an earlier period. The modern Arezzo has
risen on the remains of the Roman city, while the remains of the
Etruscan city are pointed out on an elevated spot called Poggio di
San Cornellio, two or three miles south-east of Arezzo. Many valuable
relics of antiquity have been discovered here. The family of Mæcenas
sprang from this place.

[1236] The people of Aquæ Tauri, a watering-place of Etruria, situate
about three miles north of the present Civita Vecchia, and now called
Bagni di Ferrata. The baths are described by Rutilius in his Itinerary,
who calls them Tauri Thermæ (the Bull’s Baths), and ascribes their name
to the fact of their having been accidentally discovered by a bull.

[1237] The people of Blera, on the site of the modern village of Bieda,
about twelve miles south of Viterbo. Numerous remains of Etruscan
antiquity have been found here.—See Dennis’s Etruria, vol. i. pp.

[1238] The people of Cortona, a powerful city of Etruria, which is
still known by the same name. It was probably in the number of the
cities of Etruria that were ravaged by Sylla, and then recolonized by
him. Numerous remains of Etruscan antiquity have been discovered there.

[1239] The people of Capena, an ancient and important city of Etruria,
which, after long opposing the inroads of the Romans, was reduced to
submission shortly after the fall of Veii, B.C. 393. It existed and
held municipal rank till the time of the Emperor Aurelian, after which
all traces of its name or existence were lost, till 1750, when Galetti
fixed its site with great accuracy at Civitucola or San Martino, about
24 miles from Rome. It was situate on the banks of a small river now
called the Grammiccia, and in its territory was the celebrated ‘Lucus
Feroniæ’ previously mentioned.

[1240] The new and old colonists of the city of Clusium, who probably
enjoyed distinct municipal rights. The modern Chiusi stands on its site.

[1241] The modern Fiorenze or Florence occupies the site of their city.

[1242] The village of Fiesole stands on its site. Extensive remains of
the ancient city are still to be found.

[1243] The site of Ferentinum is now uninhabited, but is still known
by the name of Ferento. The rivers of the ancient city are very
considerable; it was finally destroyed by the people of Viterbo in the
12th century.

[1244] An ancient town of Etruria near Falisci. Cluver thinks that
it was situate at Gallese, a village nine miles north of Civita
Castellana; but Dennis considers its site to have been between
Borghetto on the Tiber and Corchiano, where there are considerable
remains of an Etruscan city. The spot is named San Silvestro, from a
ruined church there.

[1245] Or Horta; the spot now called Orte, where numerous Etruscan
remains are found; it probably derived its name from the Etruscan
goddess Horta. Hortanum, the name given to it by Pliny, is perhaps an
adjective form of the name, “oppidum” being understood.

[1246] Possibly the same as ‘Urbs Vetus,’ on the side of which the
present Orvieto stands.

[1247] Now Nepi, near the river Pozzolo.

[1248] According to Hardouin the site of the Novem Pagi, or nine
Boroughs, is occupied by the modern Il Mignone, near Civita Vecchia.

[1249] Its site is generally supposed to have been at Oriuolo, about
five miles north of Bracciano; but Dennis informs us that there are no
ancient remains at that place. Being a præfecture it may have consisted
of only a number of little villages, united in one jurisdiction.

[1250] The modern Pistoia stands on its site.

[1251] Now Perugia.

[1252] Supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the site of the modern

[1253] Probably situate in the modern duchy of Castro.

[1254] The people of Tarquinii near Rome, the head of the Etruscan
confederation. It was here that Demaratus the Corinthian, the father
of Tarquinius Priscus, settled. It was deserted by its inhabitants in
the eighth or ninth century, who founded the town of Corneto on a hill
opposite to it. The ruins are known as Turchina, a corruption of the
ancient name.

[1255] The site of their town is probably marked by the modern

[1256] The ruins of their town still retain somewhat of their ancient
name in that of “Vetulia.”

[1257] The people of the powerful city of Veii, subdued by Camillus.
Its ruins have been discovered in the vicinity of the village of Isola

[1258] Their town stood on the site of the present Bisontia.

[1259] The people of Volaterræ, the present Volterra, one of the twelve
cities of the Etruscan Confederation. It was for a time the residence
of the kings of Lombardy. The modern town covers only a small portion
of the area of the ancient city, of which there are some interesting

[1260] The people of Volci or Vulci, of which the ruins bear the same
name. Its sepulchres have produced vast treasures of ancient art.

[1261] The people of Volsinii or Vulsinii, now called Bolsena. This
was one of the most ancient and powerful of the twelve cities of the
Etruscan confederation. On their subjugation by the Romans the Etruscan
city was destroyed, and its inhabitants were compelled to settle on a
less defensible site. The new city was the birth-place of Sejanus, the
worthless favourite of Tiberius. Of the ancient city there are scarcely
any remains.

[1262] Called also Crustumeria, Crustumium, and Crustuminium. It was a
city of Latium on the borders of the Sabine country, and was subdued
by Romulus, though it afterwards appears as independent in the time
of Tarquinius Priscus. The territory was noted for its fertility. The
exact site of the city is unknown; a place called Marcigliana Vecchia,
about nine miles from Rome, seems the most probable.

[1263] The site of Caletra is quite unknown. It was situate at some
point in the present valley of the Albegna.

[1264] The First Region extended from the Tiber to the Gulf of
Salernum, being bounded in the interior by the Apennines. It consisted
of ancient Latium and Campania, comprising the modern Campagna di Roma,
and the provinces of the kingdom of Naples.

[1265] Livy, B. i. c. 3, and Ovid, Fasti, B. iii. l. 389, inform us
that the name of Albula was changed into Tiberis in consequence of king
Tiberinus being accidentally drowned in it.

[1266] Still known by that name. The Glanis is called la Chiana.

[1267] According to D’Anville, now known as Citta di Castello.

[1268] A municipal town of Umbria, situate near the confluence of the
rivers Nar and Tiber, and on the Flaminian Way. There are the ruins of
an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and some temples, now the modern Otricoli.

[1269] The territory of Umbria extended from the left bank of the
Tiber, near its rise, to the Adriatic.

[1270] The Sabines occupied the left bank of the Tiber from the Umbri
to the Anio. The Crustumini and the Fidenates probably occupied the
southern part of the district about the river Alba.

[1271] The Nera and the Teverone. The exact situation of the district
of Vaticanum has not been ascertained with exactness.

[1272] As not so much causing mischief by its inundations, as giving
warning thereby of the wrath of the gods and of impending dangers;
which might be arrested by sacrifices and expiatory rites.—See Horace,
Odes, B. i. 2. 29.

[1273] The frontier of ancient Latium was at Circeii, but that of
modern Latium extended to Sinuessa.

[1274] A town of Latium, situate at the foot of the Mons Circeius, now
Monte Circello. It was used as a place of retirement, and Tiberius and
Domitian had villas there. The Triumvir Lepidus was banished thither
by Octavius after his deposition. It was also famous for its oysters,
which were of the finest quality. Considerable remains of it are still
to be seen on the hill called Monte di Citadella, about two miles from
the sea.

[1275] Now the Garigliano, the same river which he previously calls the
Glanis. It was the boundary between Latium and Campania.

[1276] Founded by Ancus Martius, as we learn from Livy. It was
abandoned under the Emperor Claudius, who built the Portus Romanus or
Portus Augusti in its vicinity; and it only continued famous for its
salt-works, which had been established there by Ancus Martius. Its
ruins, still called Ostia, are nearly three miles from the coast, in
consequence of the receding of the sea.

[1277] Now San Lorenzo. It was between Ostia and Antium.

[1278] By some, Æneas was supposed to have been worshiped by that name.

[1279] Now the river Numico.

[1280] The ruins of this once great city may still be seen near
the present village of the same name. Its situation was peculiarly
unhealthy. Another tradition, besides the one mentioned by Pliny, was,
that it was founded by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was twenty-four
miles distant from Rome.

[1281] A temple of Venus, of which the ruins are still to be seen.

[1282] Its few ruins are still known as Anzio Rovinato. It was famous
for its temple of Fortune, addressed by Horace, Odes, i. 35. Near the
site is the modern village of Porto d’Anzo.

[1283] This island was occupied by villas of the Roman nobility, and
was the resort of Cicero, Augustus and Tiberius. There is still a
fortified town called the Torre di Astura.

[1284] The modern Ninfa.

[1285] “The Roman Bulwarks.” They were thrown up to protect the
frontier of the ancient kingdom of Rome from the inroads of the

[1286] To our previous note we may add that this spot was supposed to
have been once inhabited by the enchantress Circe, the daughter of the
Sun, and from her to have taken its name.

[1287] This has been also translated “dedicated to Nicodorus, the
Archon of Athens,” but nothing appears to be known of such a fact as
the dedication to Nicodorus of any of his works.

[1288] Now called the “Palude Pontine.” They are again mentioned in B.
xxvi. c. 9.

[1289] Now called Il Portatore.

[1290] It was situate fifty-eight miles from Rome; the modern town of
Terracina stands on its site. The remains of the ancient citadel are
visible on the slope of Montecchio.

[1291] The exact site of this place is unknown. Servius, in his
Commentary on B. x. of the Æneid, l. 564, tells the same story of the

[1292] This was near Amyclæ. A villa was situate there called
“Speluncæ,” from the cavities in the rock, in one of which the Emperor
Tiberius nearly lost his life by the falling in of the roof. The modern
village of Sperlonga, eight miles west of Gaëta, marks its site.

[1293] Now Lago di Fondi.

[1294] Now Gaëta, said to have received its name from being the
burial-place of Caieta, the nurse of Æneas. The shore was studded
with numerous villas of the Roman nobility. It is now a city of great
opulence; in its vicinity extensive ruins are to be seen.

[1295] On the spot now called Mola di Gaëta. Many of the wealthy
Romans, and among them Cicero, had villas here: and at this place he
was put to death. It was destroyed by the Saracens in the year 856. The
remains of antiquity to be seen on this spot are very extensive.

[1296] Homer places these Cannibals on the coast of Sicily, but the
Romans in general transplanted them to the vicinity of Circeii, and
suppose Formiæ to have been built by Lamus, one of their kings. It is
more probable however that it was founded by the Laconians, from whom
it may have received its name of Hormiæ (from the Greek ὅρμος), as
being a good roadstead for shipping.

[1297] Its site is occupied by the present Trajetta. In its marshes,
formed by the overflow of the Liris, Caius Marius was taken prisoner,
concealed in the sedge.

[1298] The town of Minturnæ stood on both banks of the river.

[1299] Its ruins are probably those to be seen in the vicinity of Rocca
di Mondragone. It was a place of considerable commercial importance. On
its site Livy says there formerly stood the Greek city of Sinope.

[1300] “Felix illa Campania.”

[1301] Now Sezza.

[1302] A marshy district of Latium, extending about eight miles along
the coast from Terracina to Speluncæ, famous in the time of Horace for
the first-rate qualities of its wines.

[1303] A district famous for its wines, extending from the Massican
Hills to the north bank of the Volturnus.

[1304] According to Hardouin, the town of Calenum was on the site of
the present Calvi near Capua.

[1305] Now called Monte Marsico, and as famous for its wine (called
Muscatella) as it was in the Roman times.

[1306] Now Monte Barbaro. The wines of most of these places will be
found fully described by Pliny in B. xiv.

[1307] More fully mentioned, B. xviii. c. 29, where the ‘alicæ’ or
fermenty made from the spelt grown here is again referred to.

[1308] Of Baiæ, Puteoli, and Stabiæ, for instance.

[1309] The modern Saove.

[1310] Now called the Volturno, with a small place on its banks called
Castel Volturno.

[1311] The present village of Torre di Patria is supposed to occupy its

[1312] Strabo describes Cumæ as a joint colony of the Chalcidians of
Eubœa and the Cymæans of Æolis. Its sea-shore was covered with villas
of the Roman aristocracy, and here Sylla spent the last years of
his life. Its site is now utterly desolate and its existing remains

[1313] Now Capo or Punta di Miseno; a town built on a promontory of
Campania, by Æneas, it was said, in honour of his trumpeter, Misenus,
who was drowned there. It was made by Augustus the principal station
of the Roman fleet. Here was the villa of Marius, which afterwards
belonged to Lucullus and the Emperor Tiberius, who died here.

[1314] Famous for its warm springs, and the luxurious resort of the
Roman patricians. Marius, Lucullus, Pompey, and Cæsar had villas
here. In later times it became the seat of every kind of pleasure and
dissipation. It is now rendered unwholesome by the Malaria, and the
modern Castello di Baja, with numerous ruins, alone marks its site.

[1315] The modern village of Baolo stands near its site. It was here
that Hortensius had his fish-ponds, mentioned by Pliny in B. ix. c.
55. It rivalled its neighbour Baiæ in ministering to the luxury of the
wealthy Romans, and was occupied by numerous villas so late as the
reign of Theodosius.

[1316] Probably the inner part of the Gulf of Cumæ or Puteoli, but
separated from the remainder by an embankment eight stadia in length.
It was famous for its oyster-beds. Behind it was the Lake Avernus,
occupying the crater of an extinct volcano, and supposed by the
Greeks to be the entrance to the Infernal Regions. Agrippa opened a
communication with the Lucrine Lake to render Lake Avernus accessible
to ships. The Lucrine Lake was filled up by a volcanic eruption in
1538, and a mountain rose in its place. The Lake Avernus is still
called the Lago di Averno.

[1317] Or “the town Cimmerium.” Nothing is known of it.

[1318] Now Pozzuolo. The Romans called it Puteoli, from the strong
smell of its mineral springs. There are still many ruins of the ancient
town, which was destroyed by Alaric, Genseric, and Totila, and as many
times rebuilt.

[1319] Now called Salpatara. This was the name given to the volcanic
plain extending from Cumæ to Capua, and supposed to have been once
covered with fire; whence the name, from φλέγω, “to burn.”

[1320] Now the Lago di Fusaro. It seems to have had its name from its
vicinity to Avernus, the supposed entrance to the infernal regions. Its
banks were, in the later times of the Roman republic, adorned with the
villas of the wealthy.

[1321] Neapolis, or the “New City,” was founded by the Chalcidians of
Cumæ on the site of Parthenope, the supposed burial-place of the Siren
of that name. It was so called as being only a ‘new quarter’ of the
neighbouring city of Cumæ. The modern city of Naples stands nearly on
its site.

[1322] Said to have been founded by Hercules. It was on the occasion of
its destruction by an eruption of Vesuvius, A.D. 79, that our author
unfortunately met his death, a martyr to his thirst for knowledge.
Its closer proximity to Vesuvius caused it to be buried under a more
solid body of materials ejected from the mountain than was the case
with Pompeii; which seems to have been suffocated with ashes, while
Herculaneum was covered with volcanic tufa most probably hardened by
the agency of water. A few scattered inhabitants are supposed to have
afterwards settled upon the site where it was buried, which for many
centuries was utterly forgotten, till brought to light in 1738. Part of
the site over the buried town is occupied by the villages of Resina and
Portici. The works of art found here far exceed in value and interest
those discovered at Pompeii.

[1323] This seems to have been a town of Oscan origin. The first traces
of it were found in 1689, but excavations were not commenced till 1721.
It perished in the same eruption of Vesuvius as Herculaneum.

[1324] Now the Sarno. Its course was changed by the great eruption of
Vesuvius previously mentioned.

[1325] The modern Nocera stands on its site. Pompeii was used as its

[1326] Now Sorrento.

[1327] Now also called Capo della Minerva.

[1328] It probably had its name from Campania, of which it was the
capital, and which was so called from its extensive _campi_ or plains.
The site of this luxurious and magnificent city is now occupied by the
village of Santa Maria di Capoua, the modern city of Capua being on the
site of ancient Casilinum. Of ancient Capua there are but few remains.
It was made a Roman colony by Julius Cæsar.

[1329] Originally a city of the Volscians: Cicero had a villa there,
and Juvenal and the emperor Pescennius Niger were natives of it. The
present Aquino stands on its site, and there are considerable remains
of it to be seen.

[1330] Or Suessa Aurunca, to distinguish it from the Volscian city of
Suessa Pometia. The poet Lucilius was a native of it. The modern Sessa
stands in its vicinity.

[1331] The modern Venafri stands near its site. It was famous for the
excellence of its olives.

[1332] On the banks of the Suris, and the most northerly town of the
Volsci. The modern Sora is in its vicinity, and the remains of its
walls are still to be seen.

[1333] The modern Teano occupies its site. It was famous for the
medicinal springs in its vicinity. There was another Teanum, in Apulia.

[1334] The town on its site still preserves the name. Bells were made
here, whence in the later writers they are called “Nolæ.” There is also
an ecclesiastical tradition that church bells were first used by Saint
Paulinus, bishop of this place, whence they were called ‘Campanæ.’ The
emperor Augustus died here.

[1335] The remains of the ancient town, of which the ruins are
very extensive, are called Avella Vecchia. It was famous for its
fruit, especially its filberts, to which it gives name in the French
“Avelines.” It was first a Greek colony, and then a town of the Oscans.

[1336] A city of Latium, sixteen miles from Rome, and said to have been
of Sicilian origin. The modern town of La Riccia occupies the site of
its citadel. It was celebrated for the temple and grove of Diana, whose
high priest was always a fugitive slave who had killed his predecessor,
and was called “Rex nemorensis,” or “king of the grove.” See Ovid,
Fasti, B. vi. l. 59; Art of Love, B. i. l. 260; and Lucan, B. vi. l. 74.

[1337] The ancient city was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, king of
Rome. The Roman colony here was probably but small. The Roman patrician
families, the Julii, Servilii, Tullii, and Quintii, are said to have
migrated from Alba Longa, which, according to tradition, had given to
Rome her first king.

[1338] The people of Acerra, still called by the same name; it was
plundered and burnt by Hannibal, B.C. 216, but was rebuilt by order of
the Roman senate.

[1339] The people of Allifæ, a former city of Samnium, on the borders
of Campania. The modern city of Alife, a decayed place, stands on its
site. There are considerable remains.

[1340] The people of Atina, an ancient city of the Volscians. The
modern city of Atina, noted for the bleakness of its situation, stands
on its site. There are extensive ruins of the ancient city.

[1341] The people of Aletrium or Alatrium, an ancient city of the
Hernici. The modern Alatri stands on its site; there are but few
ancient remains.

[1342] The people of Anagnia in Latium, still called Anagni. There are
scarcely any remains of the ancient place, which was of considerable

[1343] The people of Atella, an ancient city of Campania. Some remains
of its ruins are to be seen two miles east of the town of Aversa, near
the villages of San Arpino and San Elpidio.

[1344] The people of Affilæ, an ancient Hernican town. It is still
called Affile, and has many ancient remains.

[1345] The people of Arpinum, once a famous city of the Volscians. The
present Arpino occupies its site; there are few Roman remains, but
its ancient walls, of Cyclopean construction, still exist. It was the
birth-place of Marius and Cicero. The villa of the latter was on the
banks of the adjoining river Fibrenus. It was, and is still, famous for
its woollen manufactures.

[1346] The people of Auximum, a city of Picenum. Its site is occupied
by the modern Osimo; there are numerous remains of antiquity to be seen.

[1347] Or perhaps “Abellini,” people of Abelliacum; which, if meant,
ought not to be included in this division, being a city of the Hirpini.
This city was finally destroyed in the wars of the Greeks and Lombards,
and the modern Avellino rose on its site. There are considerable
ruins in the vicinity. According to Hardouin, this place also claimed
the honour of giving name to filberts, which grew abundantly in
its vicinity. If such is the case, it seems probable that both it
and Abella took their names from that fruit as called by the early
inhabitants. See Note [1335] p. 198.

[1348] An ancient city of Latium. Its ruins are to be seen in the
vicinity of the Via Appia. See a curious story connected with it in
Ovid’s Fasti, B. iii. l. 667 _et seq._

[1349] There were two cities of this name on the confines of Samnium
and Campania, one in the valley of the Volturnum, the modern Caiazzo,
the other in Campania, between Capua and Beneventum, whose ruins are
probably those to be seen at Le Galazzi, between Caserta and Maddaloni.

[1350] Once a considerable city of Latium. The modern city of San
Germano has risen on its ruins, while the name of Monte Casino has been
retained by the monastery founded near it by St. Bernard A.D. 529.

[1351] The present Calvi probably occupies its site.

[1352] It is not named in history. Its site was probably between
Palestrina and Il Piglio.

[1353] The people of Cereatæ, a town of Latium. It is supposed that the
ancient monastery of Casamari occupied its site.

[1354] The people of Cora, an ancient city of Latium. The present Cori
stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of the ancient
walls and other buildings.

[1355] The people of Castrimœnium, a colony of Sylla. It has been
suggested that these were the same people whom Pliny speaks of at a
subsequent place in this chapter as the Munienses, an extinct people
of Latium. If so, the name was perhaps changed on the establishment
here by Sylla of his colony. It probably stood near the modern city of

[1356] The people of Cingulum, a city of Picenum, the site of which is
occupied by the modern Cingoli.

[1357] It is conjectured that Fabia was on the same site as the present
village of Rocca di Papa.

[1358] The inhabitants of Forum Popilii in Campania; its site is

[1359] The people of Frusino, originally a Volscian city. The modern
Frosinone occupies its site.

[1360] The people of Ferentinum, a city of the Hernici: the present
city of Ferentino stands on its site. The ruins are very extensive.

[1361] Probably the people of Fregellæ, an ancient city of the
Volscians. Its site is now unknown, but it was probably on the banks of
the Liris, opposite to the modern Ceprano.

[1362] The people of Fabrateria or Frabateria, a Volscian city. A Roman
colony was placed there B.C. 124, by C. Gracchus, and probably the old

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