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inhabitants for that reason styled themselves “Veteres.” The ruins at
San Giovanni in Cerico, about three miles from Falvaterra, are supposed
to be those of this place, or at least of the new town or colony. In
such case Falvaterra may occupy the site of the original city.

[1363] The people of Ficulnea or Ficulia, a city of ancient Latium, on
the Via Nomentana. It is supposed to have decayed soon after the reign
of M. Aurelius. Its site was probably on the modern domain of Cesarini,
though some separate the ancient Latin city from the Roman town, and
fix the locality of the former on the hill called Monte Gentile, or
that of the Torre Lupara.

[1364] These are omitted in most editions, but if a correct reading,
the word must signify the “people of Fregellæ,” and the Freginates
must be the people of Fregenæ in Etruria; although they do not appear
properly to belong to this locality.

[1365] “The Market of Appius.” It was distant forty-three miles from
Rome, and we learn from Horace, that it was the usual resting-place
for travellers at the end of one day’s journey from Rome. It is also
mentioned in the account of the journey of St. Paul (Acts xxviii. 15)
as one of the usual resting-places on the Appian way. There are now no
inhabitants on the spot, but considerable ruins still exist, as well as
the forty-third milestone, which is still to be seen.

[1366] Probably the inhabitants of Ferentium or Ferentinum, now
Ferento, five miles from Viterbo, a city of Etruria, of which very
considerable remains exist.

[1367] The people of Gabii, formerly one of the most famous cities of
Latium. On its site the ruins of a mediæval fortress now stand, known
as Castiglione. Some remains of the walls still exist.

[1368] The people of Interamna Lirinas, a Roman colony on the banks
of the Liris; and as there were several cities of the same name, it
was generally distinguished by the epithet “Lirinas.” Pliny no doubt
calls it “Succasina,” from its vicinity to Casinum. Its site, though
uninhabited, is still called Terame, and there are numerous remains of

[1369] Probably the people of Lavinium were thus called from their
supposed Trojan descent. The town was said to have been founded by
Æneas in honour of his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. In the
times of the Antonines it was united with Laurentum; their ruins are to
be seen at Casale di Copocotta.

[1370] The people of Norba, a town of Latium. It is now called Norma,
and there are still some remains of the ancient walls.

[1371] Nomentum, now called La Mentana, was a Latin town, fourteen
miles from Rome.

[1372] The people of Præneste, one of the most ancient towns of Latium.
It was originally a Pelasgic city, but claimed a Greek origin, and was
said to have been built by Telegonus, the son of Ulysses. During summer
it was much frequented by the Romans for its delightful coolness. The
remains of its ancient walls are still to be seen at Palestrina.

[1373] The people of Privernum, now Piperno, an ancient city of Latium.

[1374] The people of Setia, now Sesse or Sezza, an ancient town of
Latium, to the east of the Pomptine marshes. It was famous for its wine.

[1375] The people of Signia, now Segni, a town of Latium founded by
Tarquinius Priscus. There are still some remains of its walls.

[1376] The people of Suessula, now Castel di Sessola.

[1377] The people of Telesia, a town of Samnium seven leagues from
Capua, now called Telese.

[1378] Trebula was distinguished probably by this surname from a town
of that name in Samnium. There seem to have been two places of the name
in the Sabine territory, but it is not known which is here meant. The
ruins of one of them are supposed to be those not far from Maddaloni.

[1379] The people of Treba, now Trevi, a town of Latium.

[1380] The people of Tusculum, an ancient town of Latium, the ruins of
which are to be seen on a hill about two miles distant from the modern
Frascati. Cicero’s favourite residence was his Tusculan villa, and Cato
the censor was a native of this place.

[1381] The people of Verulæ, a town of the Hernici, in Latium, now

[1382] The people of Velitræ, an ancient town of the Volsci, now
Velletri. It was the birth-place of the emperor Augustus.

[1383] The people of Ulubræ, a small town of Latium, near the Pomptine
Marshes; its site is unknown.

[1384] The people of Urbinum; there were two places of that name in
Umbria, now called Urbeno and Urbania.

[1385] The name probably by which the city was called in the mystical
language of the priesthood. It has been said that this mysterious name
of Rome was Valentia; if so, it appears to be only a translation of her
name Græcized—Ῥώμη, “strength.” This subject will be found again
mentioned in B. xxviii. c. 4.

[1386] Solinus says that he was put to death as a punishment for his
rashness. M. Sichel has suggested that this mysterious name was no
other than Angerona.

[1387] It is not known whether this mystical divinity was the goddess
of anguish and fear, or of silence, or whether she was the guardian
deity of Rome. Julius Modestus says that she relieved men and cattle
when visited by the disease called “angina,” or “quinsy,” whence her

[1388] The Carmental, the Roman, and the Pandanian or Saturnian gates,
according to Varro.

[1389] Titus was saluted Imperator after the siege of Jerusalem, and
was associated with his father Vespasian in the government. They also
acted together as Censors.

[1390] The Lares Compitales presided over the divisions of the city,
which were marked by the _compita_ or points where two or more streets
crossed each other, and where ‘ædiculæ’ or small chapels were erected
in their honour. Statues of these little divinities were erected at
the corner of every street. It was probably this custom which first
suggested the idea of setting up images of the Virgin and Saints at
the corners of the streets, which are still to be seen in many Roman
Catholic countries at the present day.

[1391] This was a gilded column erected by Augustus in the Forum, and
called “milliarium aureum;” on it were inscribed the distances of the
principal points to which the “viæ” or high-roads conducted.

[1392] Supposing the circuit of the city to have been as he says,
13-2/5 miles, he must either make a great miscalculation here, or the
text must be very corrupt. The average diameter of the city would be
in such case about 4-1/2 miles, the average length of each radius
drawn from the mile-column 2-1/4 miles, and the total amount 83-1/4
miles, whereas he makes it but 20-3/4 miles, or little better than an
average of half-a-mile for each radius. We may also remark that the
camp of the Prætorian cohorts here mentioned was established by the
emperor Tiberius, by the advice of Sejanus. Ajasson’s translation makes
the measurement to be made to _twelve_ gates only, but the text as it
stands will not admit of such a construction.

[1393] The Aventine, Cælian, and Quirinal hills.

[1394] Such as Ocriculum, Tibur, Aricia, &c.

[1395] Near Antium. Casale di Conca stands on its site.

[1396] Suæssa Pometia. It was destroyed by the consul Servilius, and
its site was said, with that of twenty-two other towns, to have been
covered by the Pomptine Marsh, to which it gave its name.

[1397] A town of Latium destroyed by Ancus Martius.

[1398] An ancient city of Latium, conquered by Romulus; on which
occasion he slew its king Acron and gained the _spolia opima_. Nibby
suggests that it stood on the Magugliano, two miles south-east of Monte
Gentile. Holstein says that it stood where the present Sant’ Angelo or
Monticelli stands.

[1399] Also destroyed by Ancus Martius. A farm called Dragonello,
eleven miles from Rome, is supposed to have stood upon its site.
Tellene was also destroyed by the same king. Tifata was a town of

[1400] A city of Latium, which was conquered by Tarquinius Priscus. It
has been suggested that its ruins are visible about a mile to the north
of Monte Sant’ Angelo.

[1401] A Sabine town, the people of which were incorporated by
Tarquinius Priscus with the Roman citizens. It is supposed to have
stood on the present Monte Sant’ Angelo.

[1402] An ancient city of Latium, subdued by Tarquinius Priscus, on
which occasion Ocrisia, the mother of Servius Tullius, fell into the
hands of the Romans as a captive. It was probably situate on one of the
isolated hills that rise from the plain of the Campagna.

[1403] Both Virgil and Ovid allude to this tradition.

[1404] Said to have been so called from being “opposite” to the ancient
city of Saturnia. The Janiculus or Janiculum was a fortress on the
opposite bank of the Tiber, and a suburb of Rome, connected with it by
the Sublician bridge.

[1405] A very ancient city situate three miles from Rome, and said
to have been so called from its position on the Tiber, _ante amnem_.
In the time of Strabo it had become a mere village. It stood at the
confluence of the Anio and the Tiber.

[1406] An ancient city of Latium reduced by Tarquinius Priscus. It
has been suggested that the town of Palombara, near the foot of Monte
Gennaro, stands on its site.

[1407] An ancient city of Latium. It probably gradually fell into
decay. Lucius Tarquinius, the husband of Lucretia, is represented as
dwelling here during the siege of Ardea. Its site is thought by some
to have been at Castellaccio or Castel dell’ Osa, and by others at
Lunghezza, which is perhaps the most probable conjecture.

[1408] An ancient city of the Sabines. Its ruins are visible at San
Vittorino, a village near Aquila.

[1409] An ancient town of the Volsci, five leagues from Velletri.
Sermonata now stands on its site. It must not be confounded with the
town of the Peligni, the birth-place of Ovid.

[1410] “Populi Albenses.” It does not appear to be exactly known what
is the force of this expression, but he probably means either colonies
from Alba, or else nations who joined in the confederacy of which Alba
was the principal. Niebuhr looks upon them as mere demi or boroughs of
the territory of Alba.

[1411] “Accipere carnem.” Literally, “to take the flesh.” It appears
that certain nations, of which Alba was the chief, were in early times
accustomed to meet on the Alban Mount for the purposes of sacrifice.
The subject is full of obscurity, but it has been suggested that this
minor confederacy co-existed with a larger one including all the Latin
cities, and there can be little doubt that the common sacrifice was
typical of a bond of union among the states that partook therein.
It does not necessarily appear from the context that more than the
thirty-one states _after_ mentioned took part therein, though the text
may be so construed as to imply that the Latin nations previously
mentioned also shared in the sacrifice; if so, it would seem to imply
that Alba was the chief city of the _whole_ Latin confederacy. See this
subject ably discussed in Dr. Smith’s Dictionary of Ancient Geography,
under the article _Latini_.

[1412] The people of Æsulæ. Of this Latin city nothing is known. The
territory is mentioned by Horace, and Gell places its site on the Monte

[1413] The people of Bubentum. Nothing is known of this Latin city or
of the preceding ones.

[1414] Bola was an ancient city of Latium, taken successively by
Coriolanus and M. Postumius. Its site is supposed to have been five
miles from the modern Palestrina, at the modern village of Lugnano.

[1415] The people of Corioli. It was probably a Latian town, but fell
into the possession of the Volsci, from whom it was taken by Cn.
Marcius, who thence obtained the name of “Coriolanus.” Monte Giove,
nineteen miles from Rome, has been suggested as its site.

[1416] Pliny is supposed to be in error in representing Fidenæ, the
early antagonist of Rome, as being extinct in his time, and he will be
found in the sequel reckoning it in the Fourth Region. This ancient
Latian town never lost its municipal rank, though it had no doubt in
his time become a mere country town. The present Castel Giubilco is
supposed to be situate on its site.

[1417] The people of Horta, a town of Etruria, now Horte. Many Etruscan
remains have been discovered there.

[1418] The people of Longula, a Volscian town. Buon Riposo now occupies
its site.

[1419] The people of Pedum; nothing is known of it. The rest of these
nations are either almost or entirely unknown.

[1420] This was an ancient town between Pompeii and Surrentum. After
its overthrow, as mentioned by Pliny, it was in some measure rebuilt,
possibly after this passage was penned. It was finally destroyed by the
great eruption of Vesuvius in the year A.D. 79, and it was here that
our author breathed his last.

[1421] A town three miles west of Capua. It was of much importance as a
military position, and played a considerable part in the second Punic
war. The period of its final destruction is unknown; but modern Capua
is built on its site.

[1422] This city took the lead in the war of the Latin cities against
Tarquinius Priscus. Gell and Nibby think that it was situate about
eleven miles from Rome, a mile to the south of the Appian way, where
there are some remains that indicate the site of an ancient city, near
the stream called the Fosso delle Fratocche. Livy tells us that with
the spoils thence derived, Tarquinius celebrated the _Ludi Magni_ for
the first time.

[1423] Opposite Capreæ, and situate on the Promontory of Minerva.
Sorrento now stands on its site.

[1424] The modern Silaro; it was the boundary between Lucania and
Campania, and rises in the Apennines.

[1425] A town in the south of Campania, at the head of the Gulf of
Pæstum. In consequence of the aid which they gave to Hannibal, the
inhabitants were forced to abandon their town and live in the adjoining
villages. The name of Picentini was given, as here stated, to the
inhabitants of all the territory between the Promontory of Minerva and
the river Silarus. They were a portion of the Sabine Picentes, who
were transplanted thither after the conquest of Picenum, B.C. 268. The
modern Vicenza stands on its site.

[1426] The Argonaut. Probably this was only a vague tradition.

[1427] By using the genitive ‘Salerni,’ he would seem to imply that
the Roman colony of Salernum then gave name to the district of which
Picentia was the chief town. Ajasson however has translated it merely
“Salernum and Picentia.” ‘Intus’ can hardly mean “inland,” as Picentia
was near the coast, and so was Salernum.

[1428] This was an ancient town of Campania, at the innermost corner of
the Gulf of Pæstum, situate near the coast, on a height at the foot of
which lay its harbour. It attained great prosperity, as Salerno, in the
middle ages, and was noted for its School of Health established there;
which issued periodically rules for the preservation of health in Latin
Leonine verse.

[1429] “Græciæ maxime populi.” This may also be rendered “a people who
mostly emigrated from Greece,” in reference to the Siculi or Sicilians,
but the other is probably the correct translation.

[1430] A town of Lucania, colonized by the Sybarites about B.C. 524. In
the time of Augustus it seems to have been principally famous for the
exquisite beauty of its roses. Its ruins are extremely magnificent.

[1431] Now the Golfo di Salerno.

[1432] A Greek town founded by the Phocæans. It was the birth-place
of the philosophers Parmenides and Zeno, who founded a school of
philosophy known as the Eleatic. Castell’ a Mare della Brucca stands on
its site.

[1433] Now Capo di Palinuro; said to have received its name from
Palinurus, the pilot of Æneas, who fell into the sea there and was
murdered by the natives. See Virgil, Æneid, B. vi. l. 381 _et seq._

[1434] Now the Golfo di Policastro.

[1435] This tower or column was erected in the vicinity of Rhegium on
the Straits of Sicily. It was 100 stadia, or about eight miles, from
the town, and at it passengers usually embarked for Sicily. The spot is
now called Torre di Carallo.

[1436] Now the Faraone.

[1437] A Greek colony. The present Policastro occupies very nearly its
site. It seems to have received its name from the cultivation of box
trees in its vicinity.

[1438] Or more properly Laos, originally a Greek colony. In the
vicinity is the modern town of Laino, and the river is called the Lao.

[1439] Ptolemy mentions it as an inland town, and Livy speaks of it
as a Lucanian city. It probably stood near the modern Maratea, twelve
miles south-east of Policastro.

[1440] The modern Bato.

[1441] The bay of Bivona, formerly Vibo, the Italian name for the Greek
city of Hippo or Hippona. On its site stands the modern Bivona.

[1442] “Locus Clampetiæ.” Clampetia or Lampetia stood in the vicinity
of the modern Amantia. From other authors we find that it was still
existing at this time. If such is the fact, the meaning will be “the
place where the former _municipal town_ of Clampetia stood,” it being
supposed to have lost in its latter years its municipal privileges.

[1443] One of the ancient Ausonian towns, and afterwards colonized by
the Ætolians. Like its namesake in Cyprus it was famous for its copper.
Its site is now occupied by Torre di Lupi.

[1444] A Greek city, almost totally destroyed by Hannibal; Santa
Eufemia occupies its site.

[1445] One of the cities of the Bruttii; now Cosenza.

[1446] The part which now constitutes the Farther Calabria.

[1447] Supposed to be the same as the Arconte, which falls into the
Crathis near Consentia. Nothing is known of the town here alluded to,
but it must not be confounded with Acherontia, the modern Acerenza, in
Apulia, which was a different place.

[1448] Supposed to have been the same as the modern port of Tropea.

[1449] The modern Marro.

[1450] Its ruins are supposed to be those seen near Palmi.

[1451] Probably the modern Melia stands on its site.

[1452] A town on the promontory of the same name, now called Scilla or
Sciglio, where the monster Scylla was fabled to have dwelt.

[1453] Homer says (Odyssey, xii. 124), that it had its name from the
nymph Cratæis, the mother of Scylla. It is probably the small stream
now called Fiume di Solano or dei Pesci.

[1454] The modern Capo di Cavallo, according to the older commentators;
but more recent geographers think that the Punta del Pezzo was the
point so called.

[1455] Now called Capo di Faro, from the lighthouse there erected.

[1456] Originally a Greek colony; a Roman colony was settled there by
Augustus. The modern city of Reggio occupies its site.

[1457] it extended south of Consentia to the Sicilian Straits, a
distance of 700 stadia. It produced the pitch for which Bruttium was so
celebrated. Its site still has the name of Sila.

[1458] Or White Rock, now Capo dell’ Armi. It forms the extremity of
the Apennine Chain.

[1459] The site of the city of Locri is supposed to have been that of
the present Motta di Burzano.

[1460] He says that they were called Epizephyrii, from the promontory
of Zephyrium, now the Capo di Burzano; but according to others, they
had this name only because their colony lay _to the west_ of their
native Greece. Strabo says that it was founded by the Locri Ozolæ, and
not the Opuntii, as most authors have stated.

[1461] This expression is explained by a reference to the end of the
First Chapter of the present Book.

[1462] Called by some the Canal de Baleares.

[1463] Or Southern Sea.

[1464] The modern Iviza and Formentera.

[1465] The Greek for which is πίτυς.

[1466] Less than two leagues in width.

[1467] The real distance is 34 miles from the northern point of
Iviza, called Punta de Serra, to the southern point of Formentera,
namely—across Iviza 22 miles, across the sea 5, and across Formentera 7.

[1468] Now Denia.

[1469] This is not correct: the distance is but 45 miles.

[1470] This is incorrect: taken at the very greatest, the distance is
only 522 stadia, eight to the mile.

[1471] The Xucar in Spain.

[1472] We more generally find it stated that the isle of Formentera,
one of the Pityussæ, was called Colubraria. He probably refers to the
islands of the group about twenty leagues from the coast of Spain, now
known by the name of Columbrete; but they are not near the Xucar, from
which, as well as from the Pityussæ, they are distant about seventy
miles. The latter islands are now generally considered as part of the
group of the Baleares.

[1473] Now Majorca and Minorca, with the ancient Pityussæ.

[1474] They served as mercenaries, first under the Carthaginians and
afterwards under the Romans. The ancient writers generally derive the
name of the people from their skill as archers—βαλεαρεῖς, from βάλλω,
“to throw”; but Strabo assigns to the name a Phœnician origin, as
being equivalent to the Greek γυμνῆται, “light-armed soldiers.” It is
probably from their light equipment that the Greeks gave to the islands
the name of Γυμνησίαι. Livy says that they used to go naked during the

[1475] Seventy miles is the real length of Majorca, and the
circumference is barely 250 miles.

[1476] Still called Palma. This and Pollentia were Roman colonies
settled by Metellus.

[1477] Now Pollenza.

[1478] Now Sineu on the Borga.

[1479] The circumference is about 110 miles, the length 32.

[1480] Now Ciudadela.

[1481] Now Port Mahon. The site of Sanisera, which was probably more
inland, is unknown.

[1482] Now Cabrera. The distance is not twelve, but nine miles.

[1483] Now called the Malgrates.

[1484] Now Dragonera.

[1485] Now El Torre.

[1486] As already mentioned he seems to confound Formentera, which was
called Ophiusa, with the present group of Columbrete, which islands
were probably called Colubraria.

[1487] The former editions mostly omit “nec”; and so make it that
Ebusus _does_ produce the rabbits. Certainly, it does seem more likely
that he would mention that fact than the absence of it, which even to
Pliny could not appear very remarkable.

[1488] D’Anville thinks that this is Metapina, but D’Astruc thinks that
the flat islands, called Les Tignes, are meant.

[1489] Now called Brescon, near Agde, according to D’Anville.

[1490] Who were of Greek origin, and so called them, because they stood
in a row, στοῖχος.

[1491] Now called Porqueroles. Prote signifies the first, Mese the
middle one, and Hypæa the one below the others.

[1492] Now Port Croz. D’Anville considers that Pliny is mistaken
in identifying this island with Pomponiana or Pompeiana, which he
considers to be the same with the peninsula now called Calle de Giens,
which lies opposite to Porqueroles.

[1493] Now called the Ile du Levant or du Titan. The group is called
the Islands of Hières or Calypso.

[1494] These are probably the little islands now known as Ratoneau,
Pomègue, and If. It has however been suggested that these names belong
to the islands of Hières already mentioned in the text, and that
Sturium is the present Porquerolles, Phœnice Port-Croz, and Phila,
Levant or Titan.

[1495] Now Antibes, or Antiboul in the Provençal idiom.

[1496] Now Saint Honorat de Lérins. The island of Lero is the present
Sainte Marguerite de Lérins, and is nearer to Antibes than Lerina.
The Lerinian monastery was much resorted to in the early ages of

[1497] In ancient Etruria, now Torre di Vada. The distance is, in
reality, about ninety miles.

[1498] Mariana was situate in the northern part of the island, and
the ruins of Aleria are still to be seen on the banks of the river
Tavignano, near the coast.

[1499] Probably near the present Monte Cristo.

[1500] He probably means the _group_ of islands called Formicole, which
are situate only thirty-three miles from Corsica, and not near sixty.

[1501] Now La Gorgona.

[1502] Both of these names meaning “Goat island.” It is now called

[1503] The modern Giglio.

[1504] Now Gianuto, opposite Monte Argentaro on the main-land.

[1505] These are probably the small islands now called Formiete or
Formicole di Grossetto, Troja, Palmajola, and Cervoli.

[1506] The modern Elba.

[1507] Now Pianosa.

[1508] Astura still retains its ancient name, Palmaria is the present
Palmarola, Sinonia is now Senone, and Pontiæ is the modern Isola di

[1509] Now Ventotiene.

[1510] Deriving its name from the Greek word προχυτὸς, meaning “poured

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