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[1511] The present island of Ischia, off the coasts of Campania. The
name of Pithecusæ appears to have been given by the Greeks to the two
islands of Ænaria and Prochyta collectively.

[1512] Ovid, like many other writers, mentions Inarime as though a
different island from Pithecusæ. See Met. B. xiv. l. 89. As is here
mentioned by Pliny, many persons derived the name “Pithecusæ” from
πίθηκος “an ape,” and, according to Strabo, “Aremus” was the Etrurian
name for an ape. Ovid, in the Metamorphoses, _loc. cit._, confirms this
tradition by relating the change of the natives into apes. The solution
of its name given by Pliny appears however extremely probable, that it
gained its name from its manufacture of πιθηκὰ, or earthen vessels.
Virgil is supposed to have coined the name of “Inarime.”

[1513] Now Posilippo. It is said to have derived its name from the
Greek παυσίλυπον, as tending to drive away care by the beauty of its
situation. Virgil was buried in its vicinity.

[1514] The modern Castel del’ Ovo.

[1515] Now Capri. Here Tiberius established his den of lustfulness
and iniquity. He erected twelve villas in the island, the remains of
several of which are still to be seen.

[1516] The distance between is hardly five miles.

[1517] These rocks appear at the present day to be nameless. The old
name seems to mean, the “Rabbit Warrens.”

[1518] Phintonis, according to Hardouin, is the modern Isola di Figo,
according to Mannert, Caprera. Cluver makes Fossæ to be the present
Isola Rossa, while Mannert considers it to be the same with Santa

[1519] Ταφρὸς being the Greek for the Latin word “fossa,” the ordinary
meaning of which is an “excavation.”

[1520] Probably the Cape of Carbonara, from which however Africa is
distant only 121 miles, and the gulf of Gades or Cadiz 980.

[1521] Now Capo Falcone.

[1522] Now Asinara or Zavara, and Isola Piana.

[1523] Now called Santo Antiocho, off La Punta dell’ Ulga.

[1524] According to Cluver, the modern Coltelalzo.

[1525] The “Baths of Juno.” The identity of these islands does not
appear to have been ascertained.

[1526] Said by Pausanias to have been descended from persons who
escaped on the fall of Troy under the command of Iolaüs.

[1527] Of the town of Sulcis. Its ruins are probably those seen at the
village of Sulci, near the port Palma di Solo.

[1528] Their town was probably on the site of the present Iglesias.

[1529] Their town was probably either the present Napoli or Acqua di

[1530] Their town is probably indicated by the ruins on the river

[1531] Their town was Caralis, the present Cagliari.

[1532] Their town was probably Nora, the present Torre Forcadizo.

[1533] “At Libyso’s Tower.”

[1534] From the Greek ἴχνος, “a footstep.”

[1535] Now La Licosa, a small rocky island.

[1536] Now Torricella, Praca, and Brace, with other rocks.

[1537] Posidonius, quoted by Strabo, says 550.

[1538] Meaning that it comes from the Greek verb ῥηγνύμι, “to break.”
This is probably only a fanciful origin of the name.

[1539] The present Garofalo. At the present day small boats approach it
without danger.

[1540] In Chap. x. Pelorus is the modern Capo di Faro.

[1541] Now Capo di Passaro.

[1542] The present Capo di Boco Marsala.

[1543] Now Cape Bon. The real distance is but seventy-eight miles.

[1544] The following are more probably the correct distances: 150, 210,
and 230 miles.

[1545] Now Messina.

[1546] The modern Capo di Santo Alessio.

[1547] Now called Taormini; the remains of the ancient town are very

[1548] Probably the present Alcantara.

[1549] The present Madonia and Monte di Mele.

[1550] Now called I Fariglioni.

[1551] In modern times called “Lognina Statione,” according to Hardouin.

[1552] The modern city of Catania stands on its site.

[1553] The Fiume di Santo Leonardo, according to Hardouin, but Mannert
says the river Lentini. Ansart suggests the Guarna Lunga.

[1554] Now Lentini. The ruins of Megaris are still to be seen,
according to Mannert.

[1555] Now the Porcaro.

[1556] The modern city of Siracosa.

[1557] See B. xxxi. c. 30, for particulars of this fountain.

[1558] According to Mirabella, these springs are in modern times called
Fonte di Canali, Cefalino, Fontana della Maddalena, Fonte Ciane, and

[1559] The modern Fonte Bianche. The Elorus, according to Hardouin, is
the modern Acellaro, according to Mannert, the Abisso.

[1560] The southern side.

[1561] Now the Maulo, or Fiume di Ragusa.

[1562] Still called Camarina. Scarcely any vestiges of the ancient city
now remain.

[1563] According to Hardouin the Fiume Salso; but according to
D’Anville and Mannert, the Fiume Ghiozzo.

[1564] Now Girgenti. Gigantic remains of the ancient city are still to
be seen.

[1565] See note [1572] in this page.

[1566] The Achates is the modern Belice, the Mazara retains its name,
and the Hypsa is now the Marsala.

[1567] So called by the Greeks from its abundant growth of parsley,
called by them σέλινον. Its remains are still to be seen at the spot
called Selenti.

[1568] Now Trapani. Some vestiges of its ancient mole are to be seen.

[1569] The present Monte San Juliano.

[1570] The great city of Palermo stands on its site. It was founded by
the Phœnicians.

[1571] The modern Solunto.

[1572] Himera was destroyed by the Carthaginians, B.C. 408, upon which
its inhabitants founded Thermæ, so called from its hot springs. This
was probably the colony of Thermæ mentioned above by Pliny, though
wrongly placed by him on the southern coast between Selinus and
Agrigentum. The modern town of Termini stands on the site of Thermæ;
remains of its baths and aqueduct are still to be seen. Himera stood
on a river of the same name, most probably the present Fiume Grande,
and Fazello is of opinion that the town was situate on the site now
occupied by the Torre di Bonfornello. Himera was the birth-place of the
poet Stesichorus.

[1573] Or Cæphalœdium. Some remains of it are to be seen at the spot
called Cefalu.

[1574] Probably on the site now occupied by the town of San Marco.
Fazello and Cluver however place Aluntium near San Filadelfo, where
some ruins were formerly visible, and regard San Marco as the site of
Agathyrna or Agathyrnum.

[1575] Probably situate near the church of Santa Maria at Tindari, now
the Capo di Mongioio.

[1576] Now called Melazzo.

[1577] Their city was Centuripa, on a hill S.W. of Ætna. The modern
Centorbi occupies its site, and some of its ruins may still be seen.

[1578] Netum probably stood on the spot now known as Noto Anticho.

[1579] The ruins of Segesta are supposed to be those near the river San
Bartolomeo, twelve miles south of Alcamo.

[1580] Asaro occupies its site.

[1581] A people dwelling at the foot of Mount Ætna, according to
D’Anville, at a place now called Nicolosi.

[1582] The people of Agyrium; the site of which is now called San
Filippo d’Argiro. Diodorus Siculus was a native of this place.

[1583] Acræ occupied a bleak hill in the vicinity of the modern
Pallazolo, where its ruins are still to be seen.

[1584] Their town was Bidis near Syracuse. The modern Bibino or San
Giovanni di Bidini is supposed to stand on its site.

[1585] The people of Cetaria, between Panormus and Drepanum. Its site
is unknown.

[1586] The people of Cacyrum, supposed to have stood on the site of
the modern Cassaro. The Drepanitani were so called from living on the
promontory of Drepanum.

[1587] The ruins near La Cittadella are probably those of Ergetium.

[1588] The people of Echetla. According to Faziello and Cluver its
ruins were those to be seen at the place called Occhiala or Occhula,
two miles from the town of Gran Michele.

[1589] The inhabitants of the city of Eryx, on the mountain of that
name, now San Giuliano. The ancient city stood probably half-way down
the mountain.

[1590] The town of Entella survived till the thirteenth century, when
it was destroyed by the Emperor Frederic II. The ruins were formerly to
be seen near Poggio la Reale.

[1591] Perhaps the people of Enna, once a famous city. According to
the story as related by Ovid and Claudian, it was from this spot that
Proserpine was carried off by Pluto. It stood on the same site as the
town of Castro Giovanni. This note may however be more applicable to
the Hennenses, mentioned below.

[1592] The ruins of Enguinum are probably those in the vicinity of the
modern town of Gangi.

[1593] The people of Gela, one of the most important cities of Sicily.
Its site was probably the modern Terranova, near the river Fiume di

[1594] The people probably of Galata or Galaria; on the site of which
the modern village of Galata is supposed to stand.

[1595] The people probably of Halesa; its ruins are supposed to be
those near the village of Tysa, near the river Pettineo.

[1596] The people of Hybla. There were three cities of this name in
Sicily, the Greater, the Less, and Hybla Megara. The name was probably
derived from the local divinity mentioned by Pausanias as being so

[1597] The people of Herbita; the site of which was probably at
Nicosia, or else at Sperlinga, two miles south of it.

[1598] There were two places in Sicily known as Herbessus or
Erbessus—one near Agrigentum, the other about sixteen miles from
Syracuse, on the site, it is supposed, of the present Pantalica.

[1599] The people of Halicyæ, in the west of Sicily. The modern town of
Salemi is supposed to occupy its site.

[1600] The people of Adranum or Hadranum, a town famous for its temple
of the Sicilian deity Adranus. Its site is occupied by the modern town
of Aderno. The ruins are very considerable.

[1601] The people of Ietæ; the site of which town is said by Fazello to
be the modern Iato. The sites of the places previously mentioned cannot
be identified.

[1602] The site of their town is situate at the modern Mistretta, where
some ruins are still to be seen.

[1603] The site of their town was probably the present village of
Mandri Bianchi on the river Dittaino.

[1604] Probably the people of Motuca, mentioned by Ptolemy, now Modica.

[1605] Their town probably stood on the site of the present Mineo.

[1606] It has been suggested that these are the same as the people of
Tauromenium, said to have been a Naxian colony.

[1607] They are supposed to have dwelt on the site of the present Noara.

[1608] The ruins of the town of Petra are supposed to have been those
to be seen near Castro Novo, according to Mannert.

[1609] Fazello is of opinion that the present Colisano occupies the
site of the ancient Paropus.

[1610] The city of Phthinthias was peopled by the inhabitants of Gela,
by command of Phthinthias the despot of Agrigentum. Its ruins are
probably those seen in the vicinity of the modern Alicata.

[1611] The people of Selinus previously mentioned in p. 218.

[1612] Randazzo, at the foot of Ætna, is supposed to occupy the site of
the ancient Tissa.

[1613] The people of Triocala, now Troccoli, near Calata Bellota.

[1614] Zancle was the ancient Greek name of Messina, which was so
called from its similarity in shape to a sickle. The Messenian colony
of the Zanclæi probably dwelt in its vicinity.

[1615] Gaulos is the present Gozo, and Melita the important island of
Malta. The distance here mentioned is in reality only sixty-one miles
from Camerina.

[1616] Now Pantellaria.

[1617] The modern island of Maretimo.

[1618] Probably the present island of Limosa.

[1619] Galata still has the name of Calata, Lopadusa is the present
Lampedosa, and Æthusa, according to Mannert, is called Favignana.

[1620] Now Levanzo.

[1621] According to Mannert, this is the island Alicur, to the west of
the Æolian or Liparian islands. Ustica still retains its ancient name.

[1622] The least distance between these localities is forty-five miles.

[1623] There are now eleven, some of which are supposed to have risen
from the sea since the time of Pliny.

[1624] From Vulcan the god of fire, the Greek Hephæstus.

[1625] Now called the Great Lipara.

[1626] According to Solinus, c. vi., Æolus succeeded him. Its name
Melogonis was by some ascribed to its great produce of honey.

[1627] The shortest distance between these localities is forty-six

[1628] Now called Volcano.

[1629] Now Strongoli and Stromboli. It is the only one of these
mountains that is continually burning. Notwithstanding the dangers of
their locality, this island is inhabited by about fifty families.

[1630] Strabo makes the same mistake; the distance is twenty miles.

[1631] According to Hardouin and D’Anville this is the modern Saline,
but Mannert says Panaria. The geographers differ in assigning their
ancient names to the other three, except that Euonymos, from its name,
the “left-hand” island, is clearly the modern Lisca Bianca.

[1632] These are the Gulf of Locri, the Gulf of Scyllacium, and the
Gulf of Tarentum.

[1633] Now called the Sagriano, though some make it to be the modern
Alaro. The site of the town of Caulon does not appear to be known: it
is by some placed at Castel Vetere on the Alaro.

[1634] Said by Hardouin to be the modern Monasteraci or Monte Araci.

[1635] Supposed to have been situate on a hill near the modern Padula.

[1636] The modern Punta di Stilo, or “Point of the Column.”

[1637] The modern Gulf of Squillace.

[1638] Now Squillace.

[1639] Now the Gulf of Saint Eufemia.

[1640] “Hannibal’s Camp.” This was the seaport of Scyllacium, and its
site was probably near the mouth of the river Corace.

[1641] According to Strabo, B. vi., he intended to erect a high wall
across, and so divide it from the rest of Italy; but if we may judge,
from the use by Pliny of the word “intercisam,” it would seem that it
was his design to cut a canal across this neck of land.

[1642] According to Hardouin, the Carcines is the present river Corace,
the Crotalus the Alli, the Semirus the Simari, the Arocas the Crocchio,
and the Targines the Tacina.

[1643] The present Strongolo, according to D’Anville and Mannert.

[1644] The present Monte Monacello and Monte Fuscaldo are supposed to
form part of the range called Clibanus.

[1645] Meaning that it was sacred to Castor and Pollux. Such are the
changes effected by lapse of time that these two islands are now only
bleak rocks. The present locality of the other islands does not appear
to be known.

[1646] Now Capo di Colonne.

[1647] The real distance from Acroceraunium, now Capo Linguetta, is 153
miles, according to Ansart.

[1648] Or Crotona, one of the most famous Greek cities in the south of
Italy. No ruins of the ancient city, said by Livy to have been twelve
miles in circumference, are now remaining. The modern Cotrone occupies
a part of its site. Pythagoras taught at this place.

[1649] The modern Neto.

[1650] Now called Turi, between the rivers Crati and Sibari or Roscile.

[1651] A Greek town, famous for the inordinate love of luxury displayed
by its inhabitants, whence a voluptuary obtained the name of a
“Sybarite.” It was destroyed by the people of Crotona, who turned the
waters of the Crathis upon the town. Its site is now occupied by a
pestilential swamp.

[1652] A famous Greek city founded on the territory of the former
Ionian colony of Siris. The foundations of it may still be seen, it is
supposed, near a spot called Policoro, three miles from the sea. The
rivers are now called the Sinno and the Agri.

[1653] The modern Salandra or Salandrella, and the Basiento.

[1654] So called from its lying between the two seas. It was once a
celebrated Greek city, but was in ruins in the time of Pausanias. The
place called Torre di Mare now occupies its site.

[1655] The site of Aprustum is supposed to be marked by the village of
Argusto, near Chiaravalle, about five miles from the Gulf of Squillace.
Atina was situate in the valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano.
The ruins of Atina, which are very extensive, are to be seen near the
village of Atena. Livy and Acron speak of Bantia as in Apulia, and not
in Lucania. An ancient abbey, Santa Maria di Vanze, still marks its

[1656] The ruins of Eburi are supposed to be those between the modern
Eboli and the right bank of the Silarus. The remains of Grumentum, a
place of some importance, are still to be seen on the river Agri, half
a mile from the modern Saponara. Potenza occupies the site of ancient

[1657] The Sontini were probably situate on the river Sontia, now the
Sanza, near Policastro. The Sirini probably had their name from the
river Siris.

[1658] Volcentum was situate near the Silarus, probably on the spot now
called Bulcino or Bucino. The site of Numistro appears to be unknown.

[1659] In his work “De Originibus.”

[1660] Livy, B. viii., and Justin mention how that Alexander I. (in the
year B.C. 326) was obliged to engage under unfavourable circumstances
near Pandosia, on the Acheron, and fell as he was crossing the river;
thus accomplishing a prophecy of Dodona which had warned him to beware
of Pandosia and the Acheron. He was uncle to Alexander the Great, being
the brother of Olympias. The site of Pandosia is supposed to have been
the modern Castro Franco.

[1661] This word is understood in the text, and Ansart would have it to
mean that the “Gulf of Tarentum is distant,” &c., but, as he says, such
an assertion would be very indefinite, it not being stated what part of
the Gulf is meant. He therefore suggests that the most distant point
from Lacinium is meant; which however, according to him, would make but
117 miles straight across, and 160 by land. The city of Tarentum would
be the most distant point.

[1662] Messapus, a Bœotian, mentioned by Strabo, B. ix.

[1663] A son of Lycaon.

[1664] Of Lacinium and Acra Iapygia. About seventy miles seems to be
the real distance; certainly not, as Pliny says, 100.

[1665] The modern Taranto to Brindisi.

[1666] Probably situate at the further extremity of the bay on which
Tarentum stood.

[1667] According to D’Anville and Mannert, the modern Oria. Messapia is
the modern Mesagna.

[1668] The modern Santa Maria dell’ Alizza, according to D’Anville.

[1669] The modern Gallipoli, in the Terra di Otranto. The real distance
from Tarentum is between fifty and sixty miles.

[1670] The “Iapygian Point,” the present Capo di Santa Maria di Leuca.

[1671] Its site is occupied by the little village of Vaste near
Poggiordo, ten miles S.W. of Otranto. In the sixteenth century
considerable remains of Basta were still to be seen.

[1672] The modern Otranto stands on its site. In the fourth century it
became the usual place of passage from Italy to Greece, Apollonia, and
Dyrrhachium. Few vestiges of the ancient city are now to be seen.

[1673] Anciently Apollonia, in Illyria, now called Pallina or Pollona.

[1674] This was M. Terentius Varro, called “the most learned of the
Romans.” His design, here mentioned, seems however to have evinced
neither learning nor discretion.

[1675] Now called Soleto. The ruins of the ancient city, described by
Galateo as existing at Muro, are not improbably those of Fratuertium,
or, perhaps more rightly, Fratuentum.

[1676] The modern Lecce is supposed to occupy its site.

[1677] Called Valetium by Mela. Its ruins are still to be seen near San
Pietro Vernotico, on the road from Brindisi to Lecce. The site is still
called Baleso or Valesio.

[1678] Ansart takes this to be the modern village of Cavallo, on
the promontory of that name; but it is more probably the modern
Ceglie, situate on a hill about twelve miles from the Adriatic, and
twenty-seven miles west of Brindisi. Extensive ruins still exist there.
There was another town of the same name in the south of Apulia.

[1679] Now Brindisi. Virgil died here. The modern city, which is
an impoverished place, presents but few vestiges of antiquity. The
distance to Dyrrhachium is in reality only about 100 miles.

[1680] They occupied probably a portion of the modern Terra di Bari.

[1681] Said by Hardouin to be the modern Carouigna or Carovigni; but
Mannert asserts it to be the same as the modern Ruvo.

[1682] Or Gnatia, called by Strabo and Ptolemy a city of Apulia. It
was probably the last town of the Peucetians towards the frontiers of
Calabria. Horace, in the account of his journey to Brundusium (I. Sat.
i. 97-100), makes it his last halting-place, and ridicules a pretended
miracle shown by the inhabitants, who asserted that incense placed
on a certain altar was consumed without fire being applied. The same
story is referred to by Pliny, B. ii. c. 111, where he incorrectly
makes Egnatia a town of the Salentini. Its ruins are visible on the
sea-coast, about six miles S.E. of Monopali, and an old town still
bears the name of Torre d’Agnazzo.

[1683] Now Bari, a considerable city. In the time of Horace it was only
a fishing town. It probably had a considerable intercourse with Greece,
if we may judge from the remains of art found here.

[1684] It is difficult to identify these rivers, from the number of
small torrents between Brindisi and the Ofanto or Aufidus. According to
Mannert, the Pactius is the present Canale di Terzo.

[1685] An important city of Apulia, said to have been founded by
Diomedes. Horace alludes to its deficiency of water. The modern Canosa
is built on probably the site of the citadel of the ancient city, the
ruins of which are very extensive.

[1686] The ruins of this place are still to be seen at some little
distance from the coast, near the village of Salpi. The story about
Hannibal was very probably of Roman invention, for Justin and Frontinus
speak in praise of his continence and temperance. Appian however gives
some further particulars of this alleged amour.

[1687] The present Manfredonia has arisen from the decay of this town,
in consequence of the unhealthiness of the locality. Ancient Uria is
supposed to have occupied the site of Manfredonia, and the village of
Santa Maria di Siponto stands where Siponti stood.

[1688] Probably the Cervaro. Hardouin says the Candelaro.

[1689] The present Porto Greco occupies its site.

[1690] Still known as Gargano.

[1691] Probably the present Varano.

[1692] Now Lago di Lesina. The Frento is now called the Fortore.

[1693] To distinguish it from Teanum of the Sidicini, previously

[1694] Between the Tifernus and the Frento. Its remains are said to be
still visible at Licchiano, five miles from San Martino. The Tifernus
is now called the Biferno.

[1695] A people of Central Italy, occupying the tract on the east coast
of the peninsula, from the Apennines to the Adriatic, and from the
frontiers of Apulia to those of the Marrucini.

[1696] Strabo (B. vi.) refers to this tradition, where he mentions the
oracle of Calchas, the soothsayer, in Daunia in Southern Italy. Here
answers were given in dreams, for those who consulted the oracle had to
sacrifice a black ram, and slept a night in the temple, lying on the
skin of the victim.

[1697] The modern Lucera in the Capitanata.

[1698] The birth-place of Horace; now Venosa in the Basilicata.

[1699] The modern Canosa stands on the site of the citadel of ancient
Canusium, an Apulian city of great importance. The remains of the
ancient city are very considerable.

[1700] So called, it was said, in remembrance of Argos, the native city
of Diomedes. It was an Apulian city of considerable importance. Some
slight traces of it are still to be seen at a spot which retains the
name of Arpa, five miles from the city of Foggia.

[1701] The names of these two defunct cities were used by the Romans
to signify anything frivolous and unsubstantial; just as we speak of
“castles in the air,” which the French call “châteaux en Espagne.”

[1702] Livy and Ptolemy assign this place to Samnium Proper, as
distinguished from the Hirpini. It was a very ancient city of the
Samnites, but in the year B.C. 268, a Roman colony was settled there,
on which occasion, prompted by superstitious feelings, the Romans
changed its name Maleventum, which in their language would mean “badly
come,” to Beneventum or “well come.” The modern city of Benevento
still retains numerous traces of its ancient grandeur, among others a
triumphal arch, erected A.D. 114 in honour of the emperor Trajan.

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