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[1703] The remains of Æculanum are to be seen at Le Grotte, one mile
from Mirabella. The ruins are very extensive.

[1704] There were probably two places called Aquilonia in Italy; the
remains of the present one are those probably to be seen at La Cedogna.
That mentioned by Livy, B. x. c. 38-43, was probably a different place.

[1705] These are supposed by some to be the people of Abellinum
mentioned in the first region of Italy. Nothing however is known of
these or of the Abellinates Marsi, mentioned below.

[1706] Æcæ is supposed to have been situate about nineteen miles from
Herdonia, and to have been on the site of the modern city of Troja,
an episcopal see. The Compsani were the people of Compsa, the modern
Conza; and the Caudini were the inhabitants of Caudium, near which
were the Fauces Caudinæ or “Caudine Forks,” where the Roman army was
captured by the Samnites. The site of this city was probably between
the modern Arpaja and Monte Sarchio; and the defeat is thought to have
taken place in the narrow valley between Santa Agata and Moirano, on
the road from the former place to Benevento, and traversed by the
little river Iselero. The enumeration here beginning with the Æclani
is thought by Hardouin to be of nations belonging to Apulia, and not
to the Hirpini. The Æclani, here mentioned, were probably the people
of the place now called Ascoli di Satriano, not far from the river
Carapella. Of the Aletrini and Atrani nothing appears to be known.

[1707] Probably the people of Affilæ, still called Affile, and seven
miles from Subiaco. Inscriptions and fragments of columns are still
found there.

[1708] The people of Atinum, a town of Lucania, situate in the upper
valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. Its site is ascertained
by the ruins near the village of Atena, five miles north of La Sala.
Collatia was situate on the Anio, now called the Teverone.

[1709] The ruins of the town of Canuæ are still visible at a place
called Canne, about eight miles from Canosa. The Romans were defeated
by Hannibal, on the banks of the Aufidus in its vicinity, but there is
considerable question as to the exact locality. The ruins of the town
are still considerable.

[1710] Forentum was the site of the present Forenza in the Basilicate.
It is called by Horace and Diodorus Siculus, Ferentum. The ancient town
probably stood on a plain below the modern one. Some remains of it are
still to be seen.

[1711] On the site of Genusium stands the modern Ginosa. The ruins of
the ancient city of Herdonea are still to be seen in the vicinity of
the modern Ordona, on the high road from Naples to Otranto. This place
witnessed the defeat by Hannibal of the Romans twice in two years.

[1712] The mention of the Hyrini, or people of Hyrium or Hyria, is
probably an error, as he has already mentioned Uria, the same place,
among the Daunian Apulians, and as on the sea-shore. See p. 228. It is
not improbably a corrupted form of some other name.

[1713] From the Frento, on the banks of which they dwelt.

[1714] Viesta, on the promontory of Gargano, is said to occupy the site
of the ancient Merinum.

[1715] According to Mannert, the modern town of Noja stands on the site
of ancient Netium.

[1716] They inhabited Ruvo, in the territory of Bari, according to

[1717] Their town was Silvium; probably on the site of the modern

[1718] According to D’Anville their town was Strabellum, now called

[1719] Their town is supposed to have been on the site of the modern
Bovino, in the Capitanata.

[1720] The people of Apamestæ; probably on the site of the modern San
Vito, two miles west of Polignano.

[1721] The people of Butuntum, now Bitonto, an inland city of Apulia,
twelve miles from Barium, and five from the sea. No particulars of it
are known. All particulars too of most of the following tribes have

[1722] D’Anville places their city, Sturni, at the present Ostuni, not
far from the Adriatic, and fourteen leagues from Otranto.

[1723] The people of Aletium already mentioned.

[1724] Their town possibly stood on the site of the present village of
Veste, to the west of Castro. The Neretini were probably the people of
the present Nardo.

[1725] Probably the people of the town which stood on the site of the
present San Verato.

[1726] They occupied what is now called the Abruzzo Inferiore.

[1727] Now the Trigno.

[1728] On the site of the present Vasto d’Ammone, five miles south of
the Punta della Penna. There are numerous remains of the ancient city.

[1729] According to Strabo Buca bordered on the territory of Teanum,
which would place its site at Termoli, a seaport three miles from the
mouth of the Biferno or Tifernus. Other writers, however, following
Pliny, have placed it on the Punta della Penna, where considerable
remains were visible in the 17th century. Ortona still retains its
ancient name.

[1730] Now the Pescara.

[1731] The sites of their towns are unknown; but D’Anville supposes the
Higher or Upper Carentum to have occupied the site of the modern Civita
Burella, and the Lower one the Civita del Conte.

[1732] Teate is supposed to be the present Chieti.

[1733] The people of Corfinium, the chief city of the Peligni. It is
supposed to have remained in existence up to the tenth century. Its
ruins are seen near Pentima, about the church of San Pelino.

[1734] The site of Superæquum is occupied by the present Castel Vecchio

[1735] The people of Sulmo, a town ninety miles from Rome. It was the
birth-place of Ovid, and was famous for the coldness of its waters, a
circumstance mentioned by Ovid in his Tristia, B. iv. ch. x. l. 4. It
is now called Sulmona.

[1736] The people of Anxanum or Anxa, on the Sangro, now known as the
city of Lanciano; in the part of which, known as Lanciano Vecchio,
remains of the ancient town are to be seen.

[1737] The people probably of Atina in Samnium, which still retains the
same name.

[1738] They probably took their name from the Lake Fucinus, the modern
Lago Fucino, or Lago di Celano.

[1739] They dwelt in a town on the verge of Lake Fucinus, known as

[1740] The ruins of Marruvium may still be seen at Muria, on the
eastern side of Lake Fucinus.

[1741] It has been suggested, from the discovery of a sepulchral
inscription there, that Capradosso, about nine miles from Rieti in the
upper valley of the Salto, is the site of ancient Cliternia. The small
village of Alba retains the name and site of the former city of Alba
Fucensis, of which there are considerable remains.

[1742] The modern town of Carsoli is situate three miles from the site
of ancient Carseoli, the remains of which are still visible at Civita
near the Ostoria del Cavaliere. Ovid tells us that its climate was cold
and bleak, and that it would not grow olives, though fruitful in corn.
He also gives some other curious particulars of the place.—Fasti, B.
iv. l. 683 _et seq._

[1743] The modern Civita Sant Angelo retains nearly its ancient name as
that of its patron saint. It is situate on a hill, four miles from the
Adriatic, and south of the river Matrinus, which separated the Vestini
from the territories of Adria and Picenum.

[1744] The village of Ofena, twelve miles north of Popoli, is supposed
to retain the site of ancient Aufina. Numerous antiquities have been
found here.

[1745] Cato in his ‘Origines’ stated that they were so called from the
fact of their being descended from the Sabines.

[1746] The site of the town of Bovianum is occupied by the modern
city of Bojano; the remains of the walls are visible. Mommsen however
considers Bojano to be the site of only Bovianum Undecumanorum, or
“of the Eleventh Legion,” and considers that the site of the ancient
Samnite city of Bovianum Vetus is the place called Piettrabondante,
near Agnone, twenty miles to the north, where there appear to be the
remains of an ancient city.

[1747] The people of Aufidena, a city of northern Samnium, in the upper
valley of the Sagrus or Sagro. Its remains, which show it to have been
a place of very great strength, are to be seen near the modern village
of Alfidena, on a hill on the left bank of the modern Sangro.

[1748] The people of Esernia, now Isernia.

[1749] The people of Ficulia or Ficolea, a city of ancient Latium
on the Via Nomentana. It is supposed that it was situate within the
confines of the domain of Cesarini, and upon either the hill now called
Monte Gentile, or that marked by the Torre Lupara.

[1750] Sæpinum is supposed to be the same with the modern Supino or

[1751] The ruins of the ancient Sabine city of Amiternum are still
visible at San Vittorino, a village about five miles north of Aquila.
Considerable remains of antiquity are still to be seen there.

[1752] The people of Cures, an ancient city of the Sabines, to the left
of the Via Salaria, about three miles from the left bank of the Tiber,
and twenty-four from Rome. It was the birth-place of Numa Pompilius.
Its site is occupied by the present villages of Correse and Arci, and
considerable remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

[1753] Nothing is known of this place; but it has been suggested that
it stood in the neighbourhood of Forum Novum (or ‘New Market’), next
mentioned, the present Vescovio.

[1754] This Interamna must not be confounded with Interamna Lirinas,
mentioned in C. 9, nor Interamna Nartis, mentioned in C. 19. It was a
city of Picenum in the territory of the Prætutii. The city of Teramo
stands on its site; and extensive remains of the ancient city are still
in existence.

[1755] From their town, Norsia in the duchy of Spoleto is said to
derive its name.

[1756] The people of Nomentum, now La Mentana.

[1757] The people of Reate, now Rieti, below Mursia.

[1758] The people of Trebulæ Mutuscæ, said to have stood on the site
of the present Monte Leone della Sabina, below Rieti. This place
is mentioned in the seventh Æneid of Virgil, as the “Olive-bearing

[1759] Their town was Trebula Suffena, on the site of the present
Montorio di Romagna. The Tiburtes were the people of Tibur, the modern
Tivoli; and the Tarinates were the inhabitants of Tarinum, now Tarano.

[1760] The people of Cominium, the site of which is uncertain. It
is supposed that there were three places of this name. One Cominium
is mentioned in the Samnite wars as being about twenty miles from
Aquilonia, while Cominium Ceritum, probably another place, is spoken
of by Livy in his account of the second Punic War. The latter, it is
suggested, was about sixteen miles north-west of Beneventum, and on the
site of the modern Cerreto. The Comini here mentioned by Pliny, it is
thought, dwelt in neither of the above places. The sites of the towns
of many of the peoples here mentioned are also equally unknown.

[1761] Solinus, B. ii., also states, that this place was founded by
Marsyas, king of the Lydians. Hardouin mentions that in his time the
remains of this town were said to be seen on the verge of the lake near

[1762] From the Greek σέβεσθαι “to worship.”

[1763] The river Velinus, now Velino, rising in the Apennines, in
the vicinity of Reate, overflowed its banks and formed several small
lakes, the largest of which was called Lake Velinus, now Pie di Lugo or
Lago, while a smaller one was called Lacus Reatinus, now Lago di Santa
Susanna. In order to carry off these waters, a channel was cut through
the rocks by Curius Dentatus, the conqueror of the Sabines, by means of
which the waters of the Velinus were carried through a narrow gorge to
a spot where they fall from a height of several hundred feet into the
river Nar. This fall is now known as the Fall of Terni or the Cascade
Delle Marmore.

[1764] Still called Monte Fiscello, near the town of Civita Reale.
Virgil calls the Nar (now the Nera), “Sulphureâ Nar albus aquâ,” “The
white Nar with its sulphureous waters.”—Æneid, vii. 517.

[1765] A Sabine divinity said to have been identical with Victory.
The Romans however made her the goddess of leisure and repose, and
represented her as being worshiped by the husbandmen at harvest home,
when they were “vacui,” or at leisure. She is mentioned by Ovid in
the Fasti, B. vi. l. 307. The grove here alluded to was one of her

[1766] The modern Teverone, which rises near Tervi or Trevi.

[1767] A town of the Æqui, now known as Subiaco. In its vicinity was
the celebrated villa of Claudius and Nero, called the Villa Sublacencis.

[1768] This was a town of the Sabines between Reate and Interocrea,
in the vicinity of a small lake of the same name. It was a mere pool,
according to Dionysius, being but 400 feet in diameter. It is supposed
that the floating island was formed from the incrustations of carbonate
of lime on the banks, which, becoming detached, probably collected
in the middle. The lake still exists, but the floating island has
disappeared. There are some fine ruins of Roman baths in the vicinity
of the lake.

[1769] It was a custom with the early Italian nations, especially the
Sabines, in times of danger and distress, to vow to the deity the
sacrifice of all the produce of the ensuing spring, that is, of the
period from the first day of March till the last day of April. It is
probable that in early times human sacrifices were the consequence;
but at a later period the following custom was adopted instead. The
children were allowed to grow up, and in the spring of their twentieth
or twenty-first year were with covered faces driven across the frontier
of their native country, to go whithersoever chance or the guidance of
the deity might lead them. The Mamertini in Sicily were said to have
had this origin.

[1770] Now the Aterno, which falls into the sea at Atri or Ortona.

[1771] A famous city of Etruscan origin, which still retains its name
of Adria or Atri. It had very considerable intercourse with Greece,
and there are extensive remains of antiquity in its vicinity, towards
Ravegnano. The river is still called the Vomano.

[1772] These places are again mentioned in B. xiv. c. 8.

[1773] Or “New Castle.” It probably occupied the site of the now
deserted town of Santo Flaviano, near the banks of the river Tordino,
the Batinus of Pliny, and below the modern town of Giulia Nova.

[1774] The river still has the name of Tronto; Porto di Martin Scuro
occupies the site of the town.

[1775] Who had crossed over as colonists from the opposite coast of

[1776] According to Mannert the river Tesino is the same as the Albula,
and Tervium is the modern town of Grotte a Mare; but D’Anville makes
the latter to be the town of Cupra next mentioned.

[1777] This was called Cupra Maritima, to distinguish it from the town
of the Cuprenses Montani, afterwards mentioned. It is said by Strabo to
have had its name from the Tyrrhenian name of Juno. From the discovery
of an inscription belonging to her temple here, there is little doubt
that D’Anville is right in his suggestion that the site of Cupra is at
Grotte a Mare, eight miles from the mouth of the Truentus or Tronto.

[1778] “The Fortress of the Firmani,” five miles from Firmum, an
important city of Picenum. The Fortress was situate at the mouth of the
Leta, and was the port of the city. It is still called Porto di Fermo.

[1779] Often called “Asculum Picenum” to distinguish it from Asculum
in Apulia. It was a place of considerable strength, and played a great
part in the Social War. It is unknown at what period it became a Roman
colony. The modern city of Ascoli stands on its site.

[1780] Now called Monte Novano, according to D’Anville and Brotier.

[1781] Its site is supposed to have been that of the small town called
Santo Elpidio a Mare, four miles from the sea, and the same distance
north of Fermo. The remains of Potentia are supposed to be those in the
vicinity of the modern Porto di Recanati. Numana is supposed to be the
modern Umana, near the Cuscione, where, in the seventeenth century,
extensive ruins were to be seen.

[1782] It still retains its ancient name, which was derived from the
Greek ἀγκὼν “the elbow,” it being situate on a promontory which forms
a curve, and almost encloses the port. The promontory is still called
Monte Comero. A triumphal arch, erected in honour of Trajan, who
constructed a new mole for the port, is still in fine preservation, and
there are remains of an amphitheatre.

[1783] The modern city of Osimo stands on the site of Auximum, about
twelve miles south-west of Ancona. Numerous inscriptions, statues, and
other remains have been found there.

[1784] Cluver conjectures that Beregra stood at Civitella di Tronto,
ten miles north of Teramo; but nothing further relative to it is known.
Cingulum was situate on a lofty mountain; the modern town of Cingoli
occupies its site.

[1785] “The mountaineers.” They inhabited Cupra Montana, which is
supposed to have stood on the same site as the modern Ripa Transone.

[1786] The people of Falaria or Faleria. There are considerable remains
of this town about a mile from the village of Falerona, among which a
theatre and amphitheatre are most conspicuous. The remains of Pausula
are supposed to be those seen on the Monte dell’ Olmo. The town of
the Ricinenses is supposed to have been on the banks of the Potenza,
two miles from Macerata, where some remains were to be seen in the
seventeenth century.

[1787] Septempeda is supposed to have occupied the site of the modern
San Severino, on the river Potenza. Tollentinum or Tollentura was
probably on the site of the modern Tolentino. The town of the Treienses
is supposed to have occupied a site near the modern San Severino, in
the vicinity of Montecchio.

[1788] A colony of the people of Pollentia was established at Urbs
Salvia, occupying the site of the modern Urbisaglia on the bank of the

[1789] Cisalpine Gaul was so called because the inhabitants adopted the
use of the Roman toga.

[1790] This fanciful derivation would make their name to come from the
Greek ὄμβρος “a shower.”

[1791] Now the Esino.

[1792] So called from the Galli Senones. The modern city of Sinigaglia
occupies its site. The river Metaurus is still called the Metauro.

[1793] “The Temple of Fortune.” At this spot the Flaminian Way joined
the road from Ancona and Picenum to Ariminum. The modern city of Fano
occupies the site, but there are few remains of antiquity.

[1794] The modern Pesaro occupies the site of the town; the river is
called the Foglia.

[1795] This was a flourishing town of Umbria. Augustus showed it
especial favour and bestowed on it the Grove and Temple of Clitumnus,
though at twelve miles’ distance from the town. The modern town of
Spello occupies its site, and very extensive remains of antiquity
are still to be seen. It probably received two Roman colonies, as
inscriptions mention the “Colonia Julia Hispelli” and the “Colonia
Urbana Flavia.” It is considered probable that Hispellum, rather than
Mevania, was the birth-place of the poet Propertius. Tuder is supposed
to have occupied the site of the modern Todi, on the Tiber.

[1796] The people of Ameria, an important and flourishing city of
Umbria. There are still remains of the ancient walls; the modern town
of Amelia occupies its site.

[1797] The site of Attidium is marked by the modern village of Attigio,
two miles south of the city of Fabriano, to which the inhabitants of
Attidium are supposed to have migrated in the middle ages.

[1798] The people of Asisium. The modern city of Assisi (the
birth-place of St. Francis) occupies its site. There are considerable
remains of the ancient town.

[1799] The people of Arna, the site of which is now occupied by the
town of Civitella d’Arno, five miles east of Perugia. Some inscriptions
and other objects of antiquity have been found here.

[1800] The people of Æsis, situate on the river of the same name. It is
still called Iesi. Pliny, in B. xi. c. 97, mentions it as famous for
the excellence of its cheeses.

[1801] The people of Camerinum, a city of Umbria. The present Camerino
occupies its site. Its people were among the most considerable of
Umbria. The site of the Casuentillani does not appear to be known.

[1802] The people of Carsulæ, an Umbrian town of some importance. Its
ruins are still visible about half way between San Germino and Acqua
Sparta, ten miles north of Narni. Holsten states that the site was
still called Carsoli in his time, and there existed remains of an
amphitheatre and a triumphal arch in honour of Trajan. Nothing seems to
be known of the Dolates.

[1803] The people of Fulginium. From Cicero we learn that it was a
municipal town. The modern city of Foligno has risen on its site.
An inscription discovered here has preserved the name of Fulginia,
probably a local divinity.

[1804] The people of Forum Flaminii, situated on the Flaminian Way,
where it first entered the Apennines, three miles from Fulginium. It
was here that the Emperors Gallus and Volusianus were defeated and
slain by Æmilianus, A.D. 256. The ruins at the spot called Giovanni pro
Fiamma mark its site. The site of Forum Julii appears to be unknown, as
also that of Forum Brentani.

[1805] The people of Forum Sempronii, the only town in the valley of
the Metaurus. The modern city of Fossombrone, two miles distant, has
thence taken its name. Considerable vestiges of the ancient town are
still to be seen. The battle in which Hasdrubal was defeated by the
Roman consuls Livius and Nero, B.C. 207, was probably fought in its

[1806] The people of Iguvium, an ancient and important town of Umbria.
Its site is occupied by the modern city of Gubbio. Interamna on the Nar
has been previously mentioned.

[1807] The people of the town of Mevania, now called Bevagna, in the
duchy of Spoleto. The Mevanionenses were the people of Mevanio, or
Mevaniolæ, in the vicinity of Mevania, and thought by Cluver to be the
modern Galeata.

[1808] Their town was Matilica, which still retains that name. It is
situate in the Marches of Ancona.

[1809] Their town still retains the name of Narni.

[1810] Their town was surnamed Favonia and Camellaria, to distinguish
it from several others of the same name. The present Nocera stands on
its site.

[1811] The people of Ocriculum, now Otricoli, previously mentioned.

[1812] According to Hardouin, the ruins of Ostra are those near Monte
Nuovo, now Sinigaglia, but D’Anville thinks that the modern Corinaldo
marks its site.

[1813] Nothing is known of the Plestini, nor yet of the Pitulani, who
seem to have been a different people to those mentioned in the First

[1814] The town of Sentis, according to D’Anville and Mannert, was in
the vicinity of the modern town of Sasso Ferrato.

[1815] The people of Sarsina, an important town of Umbria, famous as
being the birth-place of the comic poet Plautus. It is now called
Sassina, on the Savio.

[1816] The people of Spoletum, now Spoleto. It was a city of Umbria on
the Via Flaminia, colonized by the Romans B.C. 242. In the later days
of the Empire it was taken by Totilas, and its walls destroyed. They
were however restored by Narses.

[1817] The people of Suasa; the remains of which, according to
D’Anville and Mannert, are those seen to the east of the town of San
Lorenzo, at a place called Castel Leone.

[1818] The monastery of Sestino is supposed to stand on the site of
Sestinum, their town, at the source of the river Pesaro.

[1819] The site of their town is denoted by the modern Sigello in the
Marches of Ancona.

[1820] Their town is supposed to have been also situate within the
present Marches of Ancona, where they join the Duchy of Spoleto.

[1821] Their town was Trebia. The modern Trevi stands on its site.

[1822] The people of Tuficum, which Holsten thinks was situate between
Matelica and Fabrianum, on the river called the Cesena.

[1823] The site of Tifernum Tiberinum is occupied by the present Citta
di Castello, and that of Tifernum Metaurense, or “on the Metaurus,” by
Sant Angelo in Vado in the Duchy of Urbino. The first-named place was
in the vicinity of the estates of the Younger Pliny.

[1824] D’Anville and Mannert are of opinion that Urbania on the
Metaurus, two leagues south-east of Urbino, marks the site of their
town. The Hortenses probably dwelt on the site of the present Urbino.

[1825] The site of their town was probably the present Bettona. The

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