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site of the towns of the peoples next mentioned is unknown.

[1826] Nothing is known of its position. There were cities in Campania
and Cisalpine Gaul also called Acerræ. The first has been mentioned
under the First Region. Of the other places and peoples mentioned in
this Chapter no particulars seem to have come down to us.

[1827] Now the Conca. It is called “rapax Crustumium” by Lucan, B. ii.
l. 406.

[1828] One of the most important cities of Umbria. It played a
conspicuous part in most of the internal wars of the Romans. The modern
city of Rimini which stands on its site, still retains two striking
monuments of its grandeur; the Roman bridge of marble, which crosses
the river Ariminus, erected by Augustus and Tiberius, and a triumphal
arch of marble, erected in honour of Augustus. The river Ariminus is
now called the Marocchia, and the Aprusa is the Ausa.

[1829] A papal decree, issued in 1756, declared the river Lusa to
have been the ancient Rubicon, but the more general opinion is that
the Pisatello, a little to the north of it, has better claims to that
honour. On the north bank of the Rubicon a pillar was placed by a
decree of the Senate, with an inscription giving notice that whoever
should pass in arms into the Roman territory would be deemed an enemy
to the state. It is especially celebrated in history by Cæsar’s passage
across it at the head of his army, by which act he declared war against
the republic. See Lucan, B. i. l. 200-230.

[1830] The Sapis is the modern Savio, or Rio di Cesena; the Vitis is
the Bevano, and the Anemo is the Roncone.

[1831] Strabo and Zosimus however state that it was first founded by
the Thessalians. Ravenna first came into notice on being made one of
the two chief stations of the Roman fleet. The harbour which was made
for it was called “Classes,” and between it and Ravenna sprang up
the town of Cæsarea. Though not deemed unhealthy, it lay in a swampy
district. Theodoric made it the capital of the kingdom of the Goths.
The modern city stands on the site of the ancient town. The river
Bedesis is now called the Montone.

[1832] No remains of it are extant; but it is supposed that it stood
near the entrance of the Lagunes of Comacchio.

[1833] The modern Bologna stands on its site, and there are but few
remains of antiquity to be seen.

[1834] He probably means only the Etruscan cities north of the

[1835] The modern town of Brescello occupies its site. Here the Emperor
Otho put an end to his life on learning the defeat of his troops by
Vitellius. It appears to have been a strong fortress in the time of the
Lombard kings.

[1836] The modern Modena stands on its site. It was famous in the
history of the civil wars after Cæsar’s death. Decimus Brutus was
besieged here by M. Antonius, in the years B.C. 44 and 43, and under
its walls the consuls Hirtius and Pansa were slain. Its vicinity, like
that of Parma, was famous for the excellence of its wool.

[1837] This was a Roman colony, which was enlarged by Augustus, and
from him received the name of Colonia Julia Augusta. It was called,
after the fall of the Western Empire, Chrysopolis or the “Golden City.”
The modern city of Parma occupies its site.

[1838] A Roman colony. The present city of Piacenza stands on its site.

[1839] It still retains the name of Cesena, and is a considerable
place. After the fall of the Western Empire it was used as a fortress
of great strength. We shall find Pliny again mentioning it in B. xiv.
c. 6, as famous for the goodness of its wines, a reputation which
it still maintains. The name of Claterna, once a municipal town of
importance, is still retained in part by a small stream which crosses
the road nine miles from Bologna, and is called the Quaderna. An old
church and a few houses, called Santa Maria di Quaderna, probably mark
the site of the vicinity of the town, which was situate on the high

[1840] This Forum Clodii is said by D’Anville to be the modern
Fornocchia. Forum Livii is supposed to have occupied the site of the
present city of Forli. Forum Popili or Forli Piccolo occupies the site
of Forum or Foro Popili.

[1841] This place is supposed to have stood on the spot where the
episcopal town of Bertinoro now stands. In inscriptions it is called
Forodruentinorum. Forum Cornelii, said to have been so called from the
Dictator Sylla, occupied the site of the modern town of Imola. The poet
Martial is said to have resided for some time in this town.

[1842] The people of Faventia, now Faenza. Pliny, B. xix. c. i., speaks
of the whiteness of its linen, for the manufacture of which it was
celebrated. At this place Carbo and Norbanus were defeated with great
loss by Metellus, the partisan of Sylla, in B.C. 82.

[1843] The people of Fidentia. The present Borga di San Donnino stands
on its site, which is between Parma and Placentia, fifteen miles from
the former city.

[1844] Cluver thinks that their town was on the site of the modern
Castel Bondino.

[1845] So named after Æmilius Lepidus. The people of Regium Lepidum,
the site of whose town is occupied by the modern Reggio.

[1846] Solonatium is supposed to have had the site of the modern Citta
di Sole or Torre di Sole.

[1847] Nothing certain is known of this people or their town, but it is
thought by Rezzonico that by this name were meant those who occupied
the wood-clad heights of the Apennines, above Modena and Parma. Cicero
mentions a Saltus Gallicanus as being a mountain of Campania, but that
is clearly not the spot meant here.

[1848] Their town is thought to have stood on the same site as the
modern Tenedo.

[1849] Their town was perhaps on the same site as the modern Villac, on
the river Nura.

[1850] The modern city of Ombria probably stands on the site of Urbana,
their town, of which considerable remains are still to be seen.

[1851] These and the Senones were nations of Cisalpine Gaul. The Boii
emigrated originally from Transalpine Gaul, by the Penine Alps, or
the Pass of Great St. Bernard. They were completely subdued by Scipio
Nasica in B.C. 191, when he destroyed half of their population, and
deprived them of nearly half of their lands. They were ultimately
driven from their settlements, and established themselves in the modern
Bohemia, which from them takes its name. The Senones, who had taken the
city of Rome in B.C. 390, were conquered and the greater part of them
destroyed by the Consul Dolabella in B.C. 283.

[1852] The Po, which rises in Monte Viso in Savoy.

[1853] Already mentioned in C. 7 of the present Book.

[1854] Ovid in his account of the adventure of Phaëton (Met. B. ii.)
states that he fell into the river Padus.

[1855] The Tanarus is still called the Tanaro. The Trebia, now the
Trebbia, is memorable for the defeat on its banks of the Romans by
Hannibal, B.C. 218. The Incia is the modern Enza or Lenza, the Tarus
the Taro, the Gabellus the Secchia, the Scultenna the Panaro, and the
Rhenus the Reno.

[1856] The Stura still has the same name; the Orgus is the modern
Orco. The streams called Duriæ are known as the Dora Baltea and the
Dora Riparia; the Sessites is the Sesia, the Ticinus the Tessino, the
Lambrus the Lambro, the Addua the Adda, the Ollius the Oglio, and the
Mincius the Menzo.

[1857] This seems to be the meaning of “gravis terræ,” unless it
signifies “pressing heavily upon the land,” and so cutting out channels
for its course. He has previously stated that, though rapid, it is not
in the habit of carrying away its banks. See a very able article on the
question whether the name Eridanus belonged originally to this river
or to some other in the north of Europe, in Dr. Smith’s Dictionary of
Ancient Geography under the word “Eridanus.”

[1858] That is to say, the canal made by Augustus was so called.

[1859] It was on this occasion that, after a stay of only a few days
in Britain, he quitted the island, returned to Rome, and celebrated
a splendid triumph. This outlet of the Po has now the name of Po di

[1860] Now the Santerno, noted for the sluggishness of its waters.

[1861] The Ostium Caprasiæ is now called the Porto Interito di Bell’
Ochio, the Ostium Sagis the Porto di Magnavacca; Volane, or Volana, is
the south main branch of the river. The Ostia Carbonaria, mentioned
below, was the north main branch, subdivided into several small
branches; and the Fossæ or Fossiones Philistinæ connected the river, by
means of the Tartarus, with the Athesis.

[1862] The reading is doubtful here, and even this, which is perhaps
the best, appears to be corrupt; for it is difficult to conceive how
all the mouths previously mentioned could have been upon one canal, and
besides it would seem that Olane was one of the natural mouths of the

[1863] More generally Adria, from which, as Pliny says, the Adriatic
takes its name. Either a Greek, or, what is more probable, as Pliny
states, an Etruscan colony, it became the principal emporium of trade
with the Adriatic, in consequence of which it was surrounded with
canals and other works to facilitate its communications with other
rivers. It is still called Adria, and in its vicinity to the south,
considerable remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

[1864] So called from the Philistæi, said to have been the ancient
inhabitants of the spot. They are now called the Bocca della Gnoca, the
Bocca della Scovetta, the Busa delle Tole, the Sbocco dell’ Asinino,
&c. The Ostia Carbonaria and the Fossæ Philistinæ were to the north of
the ones previously mentioned.

[1865] He seems to confound the Fosses of Philistina with the Tartarus
(now Tartaro). That river however connected the Fosses of Philistina
with the Athesis, now the Adige.

[1866] Now the Bacchiglione.

[1867] The modern Brondolo.

[1868] Now Chioggia, formed by the rivers Brenta and Brentella.
Hardouin thinks the Clodian Canal to be the same as the modern Fossa

[1869] Now Monteu di Po, below Chevasso, mentioned in the 7th Chapter.

[1870] This place is supposed to have been situate in the vicinity of
the modern Saluzzo, on the north bank of the Po. Segusio occupied the
site of the modern Susa.

[1871] Augusta of the Taurini. The present city of Turin stands on its
site. It was made a Roman colony by Augustus. With the exception of
some inscriptions, Turin retains no vestiges of antiquity.

[1872] The present city of Aosta occupies its site. This was also a
Roman colony founded by Augustus, after he had subdued the Salassi. It
was, as Pliny says in C. 5, the extreme point of Italy to the north.
The remains of the ancient city are of extreme magnificence.

[1873] The Grecian pass of the Alps was that now known as the
Little St. Bernard; while the Penine pass was the present Great St.
Bernard. Livy in his History, B. xxi. c. 38, points out the error of
taking these mountains to have derived their name from the Pœni or
Carthaginians. There is no doubt that they took their name from the
Celtic word signifying a mountain, which now forms the “Pen” of the
Welsh and the “Ben” of the Scotch.

[1874] Now called Ivrea or Lamporeggio, at the entrance of the valley
of the Salassi, the present Val d’Aosta. There are some remains of the
ancient town to be seen.

[1875] The present town of Vercelli stands on its site.

[1876] Now called Novara, in the Duchy of Milan.

[1877] It became a Roman municipal town, but owes its greatness to the
Lombard kings who made it their capital, and altered the name to Papia,
now Pavia.

[1878] “Pompey’s Praises.” The present Lodi Vecchio marks its site.

[1879] It was the capital of the Insubres, a Gallic nation, and was
taken by the Romans in B.C. 222, on which it became a municipium and
Roman colony. On the division of the empire by Diocletian, it became
the residence of his colleague Maximianus, and continued to be the
abode of the Emperors of the West till it was plundered by Attila, who
transferred the seat of government to Ravenna. It afterwards became the
capital of the kingdom of the Ostro-Goths, and was again sacked by the
Goths in A.D. 539, and its inhabitants put to the sword. The present
city, known to us as Milan, contains no remains of antiquity.

[1880] The modern Como and Bergamo stand on their sites.

[1881] From its name, signifying the “market of Licinius,” it would
appear to be of Roman origin. Its site is supposed to have been at a
place called Incino, near the town of Erba, between Como and Lecco,
where inscriptions and other antiquities have been found.

[1882] Deriving it from the Greek ὄρος, “a mountain,” and βίος, “life.”

[1883] “Etiamnum prodente se altius quam fortunatius situm.” Hardouin
seems to think that “se” refers to Cato, and that he informs us to that
effect; but to all appearance, it relates rather to the town, which
even yet, by its ruins, showed that it was perched too high among the
mountains to be a fertile spot.

[1884] The district of the Veneti. These people, taking refuge in the
adjoining islands in the fifth century to escape the Huns under Attila,
founded the modern city of Venice.

[1885] Now called the Sile, which flows past Trevigio or Treviso.

[1886] The mountainous district in the vicinity of Tarvisium, the
modern Treviso.

[1887] Situate in a marsh or lagune on the river Sile. It became a
Roman colony after Pliny’s time, under the Emperor Trajan. Its villas
are described by Martial as rivalling those of Baiæ. The Emperor Verus
died here A.D. 169. The modern village of Altino is a very impoverished
place. The Liquentia is now called the Livenza.

[1888] Now called Oderzo, on the river Montegano, which flows into the
Liquenza. The conduct of the people of this place, in the wars between
Pompey and Cæsar, is mentioned by Lucan, in his Pharsalia, B. iv. l.

[1889] From inscriptions we find that this place was called Colonia
Julia Concordia, from which it seems probable that it was one of the
colonies founded by Augustus to celebrate the restoration of peace. It
rapidly rose into importance, and is often mentioned during the later
ages of the Roman Empire, as one of the most important cities in this
part of Italy. It is now a poor village, with the same name, and no
remains of antiquity beyond a few inscriptions.

[1890] The Romatinum is the modern Lemene. Pliny seems to imply,
(though from the uncertainty of the punctuation it is not clear,)
that on the Romatinum there was a port of that name. If so, it would
probably occupy the site of the present Santa Margherita, at the mouth
of the Lemene.

[1891] The greater Tiliaventum is the modern Tagliamento; and Hardouin
suggests that the smaller river of that name is the Lugugnana.

[1892] This river is supposed to be the same with the modern Stella,
and the Varamus the Revonchi, which joins the Stella.

[1893] Now called the Ansa. The Natiso is the modern Natisone, and the
Turrus the Torre; the former flowed past Aquileia on the west, the
latter on the east, in former times, but their course is probably now
changed, and they fall into the Isonzo, four miles from the city.

[1894] The capital of Venetia, and one of the most important cities of
Northern Italy. In the year A.D. 452 it was besieged by Attila, king
of the Huns, taken by storm, and plundered and burnt to the ground. On
its site, which is very unhealthy, is the modern village of Aquileia,
with about 1400 inhabitants. No ruins of any buildings are visible, but
the site abounds with coins, shafts of columns, inscriptions, and other
remains of antiquity.

[1895] Ptolemy states that Concordia and Aquileia were situate in the
district of the Carni.

[1896] Still called the Timavo.

[1897] Castel Duino stands on its site. It will be found again
mentioned in B. xiv. C. 8, for the excellence of its wines.

[1898] Now the Gulf of Trieste. Tergeste was previously an
insignificant place, but made a Roman colony by Vespasian. The modern
city of Trieste occupies its site.

[1899] Most probably the modern Risano. Cluver and D’Anville are of
that opinion, but Walckenaer thinks that it was a small stream near
Muja Yecchia; which seems however to be too near Trieste.

[1900] In the time of Augustus, and before Istria was added as a
province to Italy.

[1901] He alludes to an old tradition that the Argonauts sailed into
the Ister or Danube, and then into the Save, till they came to the spot
where the modern town of Upper Laybach stands, and that here they built
Nauportus, after which they carried their ship across the mountains on
men’s shoulders into the Adriatic. He intends to suggest therefore that
the place had its name from the Greek ναῦς “a ship” and πορθμὸς “a

[1902] The modern town of Laybach stands on its site. It is situate on
the Save, and on the road from Aquileia to Celeia. The Roman remains
prove that the ancient city exceeded the modern one in magnitude.
According to tradition it was founded by the Argonauts. It subsequently
became a Roman colony, with the title of Julia Augusta. It is again
mentioned in C. 28.

[1903] Now the Golfo di Quarnaro. Liburnia was separated from Istria on
the north-west by the river Arsia, and from Dalmatia on the south by
the river Titus or Kerka, corresponding to the western part of modern
Croatia, and the northern part of modern Dalmatia. Iapydia was situate
to the north of Dalmatia and east of Liburnia, or the present military
frontier of Croatia, between the rivers Kulpa and Korana to the north
and east, and the Velebich mountains to the south. Istria consisted of
the peninsula which still bears the same appellation.

[1904] This passage, “while others make it 225,” is omitted in many
of the MSS. and most of the editions. If it is retained, it is not
improbable that his meaning is, “and the circumference of Liburnia
which joins it, with the Flanatic Gulf, some make 225, while others
make the compass of Liburnia to be 180 miles.” It depends on the
punctuation and the force of “item,” and the question whether the
passage is not in a corrupt state; and it is not at all clear what his
meaning really is.

[1905] He alludes to C. Sempronius Tuditanus, Consul B.C. 129. He
gained his victory over the Iapydes chiefly through the skill of his
legatus, D. Junius Brutus. He was a distinguished orator and historian.
He was the maternal grandfather of the orator Hortensius.

[1906] This place is only mentioned by Pliny, but from an inscription
found, it appears that the emperor Justin II. conferred on it the title
of Justinopolis. It is thought that it occupied the site of the present
town of Capo d’Istria.—Parentium stood on the site of the present

[1907] It still retains its name.

[1908] Supposed to have occupied the site of the modern Castel Nuovo,
past which the Arsia, now the Arsa, flows.

[1909] Since Istria had been added to it by Augustus.

[1910] Livy seems to imply that Cremona was originally included in
the territory of the Insubres. A Roman colony being established there
it became a powerful city. It was destroyed by Antonius, the general
of Vespasian, and again by the Lombard king Agilulfus in A.D. 605. No
remains of antiquity, except a few inscriptions, are to be seen in the
modern city.

[1911] The modern city of Este stands on the site of Ateste. Beyond
inscriptions there are no remains of this Roman colony.

[1912] Asolo stands on its site.

[1913] It was said to have been founded by the Trojan Antenor. Under
the Romans it was the most important city in the north of Italy, and by
its commerce and manufactures attained great opulence. It was plundered
by Attila, and, by Agilulfus, king of the Lombards, was razed to the
ground. It was celebrated as being the birth-place of Livy. Modern
Padua stands on its site, but has no remains of antiquity.

[1914] Now called Belluno. Vicetia has been succeeded by the modern

[1915] Mantua was not a place of importance, but was famous as being
the birth-place of Virgil; at least, the poet, who was born at the
village of Andes, in its vicinity, regarded it as such. It was said to
have had its name from Manto, the daughter of Tiresias. Virgil, in the
Æneid, B. x., alludes to its supposed Tuscan origin.

[1916] Led by Antenor, as Livy says, B. i.

[1917] The Cenomanni, a tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, seem to have
occupied the country north of the Padus, between the Insubres on the
west and the Veneti on the east. From Polybius and Livy we learn that
they had crossed the Alps within historical memory, and had expelled
the Etruscans and occupied their territory. They were signalized for
their amicable feelings towards the Roman state.

[1918] Their town was Fertria or Feltria, the modern Feltre.

[1919] The modern city of Trento or Trent occupies the site of
Tridentum, their town. It is situate on the Athesis or Adige. It became
famous in the middle ages, and the great ecclesiastical council met
here in 1545.

[1920] It was a Roman colony under the name of Colonia Augusta, having
originally been the capital of the Euganei, and then of the Cenomanni.
It was the birth-place of Catullus, and according to some accounts, of
our author, Pliny. Modern Verona exhibits many remains of antiquity.

[1921] D’Anville says that the ruins of this town are to be seen at the
modern Zuglio.

[1922] Hardouin thinks that their town, Flamonia, stood on the site of
the modern Flagogna.

[1923] Their town, Forum Julii, a Roman colony, stood on the site of
the modern Friuli. Paulus Diaconus ascribes its foundation to Julius

[1924] Supposed by Miller to have inhabited the town now called Nadin
or Susied.

[1925] Their town was probably on the site of the modern Quero, on the
river Piave, below Feltre.

[1926] Probably the same as the Tarvisani, whose town was Tarvisium,
now Treviso.

[1927] The conqueror of Syracuse. The fact here related probably took
place in the Gallic war.

[1928] This must be the meaning; and we must not, as Holland does,
employ the number as signifying that of the lakes and rivers; for the
Ticinus is in the eleventh region.

[1929] Now the Adda, running through Lago di Como, the Tesino through
Lago Maggiore, the Mincio through Lago di Garda, the Seo through Lago
di Seo, and the Lambro now communicating with the two small lakes
called Lago di Pusiano and Lago d’Alserio, which in Pliny’s time
probably formed one large lake.

[1930] Now Vado in Liguria, the harbour of Sabbata or Savo. Using the
modern names, the line thus drawn runs past Vado, Turin, Como, Brescia,
Verona, Vicenza, Oderzo, Aquileia, Trieste, Pola, and the Arsa.

[1931] It is from this people that the group of volcanic hills between
Padua and Verona derive their present name of Colli Euganei or the
“Euganean Hills.” From the Triumpilini and the Camuni, the present Val
Camonica and Val Trompia derive their names.

[1932] Probably meaning, that for a sum of money they originally
acknowledged their subjection to the Roman power.

[1933] The Lepontii probably dwelt in the modern Val Leventina and the
Val d’Osula, near Lago Maggiore; the Salassi in the Val d’Aosta.

[1934] Making it to come from the Greek verb λείπω, “to leave behind.”

[1935] As though being εὐγένειοι or εὐγενεῖς, “of honourable descent,”
or “parentage.”

[1936] Strabo mentions the Stoni or Stœni among the minor Alpine
tribes. Mannert thinks that they dwelt near the sources of the river
Chiese, about the site of the modern village of Storo.

[1937] It has been suggested that from them the modern Valtelline takes
its name.

[1938] Hardouin suggests that the Suanetes, who are again mentioned,
are the people here meant.

[1939] They are supposed to have dwelt in the present canton of
Martignac in the Valais, and the Vaudois.

[1940] They dwelt in the Tarantaise, in the duchy of Savoy. The village
called Centron still retains their name.

[1941] The states subject to Cottius, an Alpine chief, who having
gained the favour of Augustus, was left by him in possession of this
portion of the Alps, with the title of Præfect. These states, in
the vicinity of the modern Mount Cenis, seem to have extended from
Ebrodunum or Embrun in Gaul, to Segusio, the modern Susa, in Italy,
including the Pass of Mont Genèvre. The territory of Cottius was united
by Nero to the Roman empire, as a separate province called the “Alpes

[1942] They dwelt in the vicinity of Ebrodunum or Embrun already

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