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[1943] The “mountaineers.” Some editions read here “Appuani,” so called
from the town of Appua, now Pontremoli.

[1944] The Vagienni, and the Capillati Ligures, or “Long-haired
Ligurians,” have been previously mentioned in Chap. 7.

[1945] The trophy or triumphal arch which bore this inscription is that
which was still to be seen at Torbia near Nicæa in Illyria, in the time
of Gruter, who has given that portion of the inscription which remained
unobliterated, down to “gentes Alpinæ,” “the Alpine nations.” Hardouin
speaks of another triumphal arch in honour of Augustus at Segusio or
Susa in Piedmont, which appears to have commenced in a somewhat similar
manner, but only the first twelve words were remaining in 1671.

[1946] Adopted son of his great uncle Julius Cæsar.

[1947] Most of the MSS. omit the figures XVII here, but it is evidently
an accident; if indeed they were omitted in the original.

[1948] They are supposed to have occupied the Val Venosco, at the
sources of the Adige. The Isarci dwelt in the Val de Sarra or Sarcha,
near Val Camonica; and the Breuni in the Val Brounia or Bregna, at the
source of the Tessino.

[1949] D’Anville thinks that they inhabited the Val d’Agno, near
Trento, between Lake Como and the Adige. He also detects the name of
the Focunates in the village of Vogogna.

[1950] They inhabited the banks of the river Lech, their town being,
according to Strabo, Damasia, afterwards Augusta Vindelicorum, now

[1951] Probably the Sarunetes, already mentioned. The Brixentes
inhabited the modern Brixen in the Tyrol. The Lepontii have been
previously mentioned. The Seduni occupied the present Sion, the capital
of the Valais. The Salassi have been already mentioned. According to
Bouche, the Medulli occupied the modern Maurienne in Savoy. The Varagri
dwelt in Le Chablais.

[1952] The Uceni, according to Hardouin, occupied Le Bourg d’Oysans in
the modern Graisivaudan; the Caturiges, the modern Chorges according to
Ansart; the Brigiani, probably Briançon, and the Nemaloni, as Hardouin
thinks, the place called Miolans.

[1953] They probably dwelt in the Ville de Seyne, in Embrun; the
Esubiani near the river Hubaye, in the Vallée de Barcelone in Savoy;
the Veamini in Senez, the Triulatti at the village of Alloz, the Ecdini
near the river Tinea, and the Vergunni in the vicinity of the district
of Vergons.

[1954] The Eguituri probably dwelt near the modern town of Guillaumes,
the Oratelli at the place now called Le Puget de Théniers, and the
Velauni near the modern Bueil.

[1955] Or subjects of Cottius, previously mentioned.

[1956] A mistake for L. Æmilius Papus. He and C. Regulus were Consuls
in B.C. 225. They successfully opposed the Cisalpine Gauls, who invaded
Italy; but Regulus was slain in the engagement.

[1957] It is difficult to say what is the exact force of “parci” here;
whether in fact it means that Italy shall be wholly exempted from such
treatment, as an indignity offered to her soil, or whether her minerals
were to be strictly kept in reserve as a last resource. Ajasson, in his
Translation, seems to take the former view, Littré the latter.

[1958] From the river now called the Arsa to that called the Kerka.

[1959] Hardouin thinks that “Ismeni” is the proper reading here; but
all the MSS. seem to be against him.

[1960] Mentioned in the next Chapter.

[1961] Their town was Aluus or Aloüs.

[1962] Their town was Flanona, which gave name to the Sinus Flanaticus
or Golfo di Quarnero. The chief town of the Lopsi was Lopsica, and of
the Varvarini, Varvaria.

[1963] The island of Fertina is supposed to have been the modern
Berwitch or Parvich. Curicta is now called Karek or Veglia. The
Illyrian snails mentioned by our author, B. ix. c. 56, are very
numerous here. Caius Antonius, the brother of Marcus, acting under
Julius Cæsar, was besieged here by Libo. See the interesting account in
Lucan’s Pharsalia, B. iv. l. 402-464.

[1964] The places on their sites are now called Albona, Fianona,
Tersact or Tersat near Fiume, Segna, Lopsico, Ortopia, and Veza.

[1965] Now Carin. Ænona is now called Nona, and the Tedanius is the
modern Zermagna.

[1966] The whole of this group of islands were sometimes called the
Absyrtides, from Absyrtus, the brother of Medea, who according to
tradition was slain there. See the last Chapter, p. 266. Ovid, however,
in his “Tristia,” states that, this took place at Tomi, on the Pontus
Euxinus or Black Sea, the place of his banishment.

[1967] Said by D’Anville to be now called Arbe, and Crexa to be the
modern Cherso. Gissa is thought to have been the modern Pago.

[1968] It was the capital of Liburnia. The city of Zara or Zara Vecchia
stands on its site. There are but little remains of the ancient city.

[1969] Supposed to be the present Mortero.

[1970] The Titus or Kerka. Scardona still retains its name.

[1971] Now called the Cabo di San Nicolo.

[1972] This measurement would make it appear that the present
Sabioncello is meant, but that it ought to come below, after Narona. He
probably means the quasi peninsula upon which the town of Tragurium,
now Trau Vecchio, was situate; but its circumference is hardly fifty
miles. So, if Sicum is the same as the modern Sebenico, it ought to
have been mentioned previously to Tragurium.

[1973] Spalatro, the retreat of Diocletian, was in the vicinity of
Salona. Its ancient name was Spolatum, and at the village of Dioclea
near it, that emperor was born. On the ruins of the once important city
of Salona, rose the modern Spalato or Spalatro.

[1974] Its site is unknown, though D’Anville thinks that it was
probably that of the modern Tain.

[1975] Clissa is supposed to occupy its site. Tribulium is probably the
modern Ugliane.

[1976] The people of the island of Issa, now Lissa, off the coast of
Liburnia. It was originally peopled by a Parian or a Syracusan colony.
It was famous for its wine, and the beaked ships “Lembi Issaici,”
rendered the Romans good service in the war with Philip of Macedon.

[1977] The modern Almissa stands on its site; and on that of Rataneum,

[1978] Now called Narenta; the river having the same name.

[1979] The localities of all these peoples are unknown.

[1980] Or Epidaurus. It is not noticed in history till the civil war
between Pompey and Cæsar, when, having declared in favour of the
latter, it was besieged by M. Octavius. The site of it is known as
Ragusa Vecchia, or Old Ragusa, but in the Illyric language it is called
Zaptal. Upon its destruction, its inhabitants moved to Rausium, the
present Ragusa. There are no remains extant of the old town.

[1981] It still retains the name of Risine, upon the Golfo di Cattaro,
the ancient Sinus Rhizonicus.

[1982] In the former editions called “Ascrivium.” The modern Cattaro is
supposed to occupy its site. Butua is the modern Budua, and Olcinium,
Dulcigno. It is probable that the derivation of the name of this last
place, as suggested by Pliny, is only fanciful.

[1983] Now called Drin and Drino.

[1984] Now called Scutari or Scodar, the capital of the province called
by the Turks Sangiac de Scodar.

[1985] According to Hardouin, the modern Endero stands on the site of
their capital.

[1986] Grabia, mentioned by Pouqueville, in his “Voyage de la Grèce,”
seems to retain the name of this tribe.

[1987] Pouqueville is of opinion that they occupied the district now
known as Musaché.

[1988] Dalechamp thinks that the two words “Retinet nomen” do not
belong to the text, but have crept in from being the gloss of some more
recent commentator. They certainly appear to be out of place. This
promontory is now called Cabo Rodoni.

[1989] The modern Albania.

[1990] Pouqueville is of opinion that they inhabited the district about
the present village of Presa, seven leagues N.E. of Durazzo.

[1991] From Ptolemy we learn that Lychnidus was their town; the site
of which, according to Pouqueville, is still pointed out at a spot
about four leagues south of Ochrida, on the eastern bank of the Lake of

[1992] Now called El Bassan; though Pouqueville says Tomoros or
De Caulonias. Commencing in Epirus, they separated Illyricum from
Macedonia. See Lucan’s Pharsalia, B. vi. l. 331.

[1993] The Romans are said to have changed its Greek name Epidamnum,
from an idea that it was inauspicious, as implying “damnum” or “ruin.”
It has been asserted that they gave it the name of Durrhachium or
Dyrrhachium, from “durum,” rugged, on account of the ruggedness of
its locality. This however cannot be the case, as the word, like its
predecessor, is of Greek origin. Its unfortunate name, “Epidamnus,” is
the subject of several puns and witticisms in that most amusing perhaps
of all the plays of Plautus, the Menæchmi. It was of Corcyræan origin,
and after playing a distinguished part in the civil wars between Pompey
and Cæsar, was granted by Augustus to his veteran troops. The modern
Durazzo stands on its site.

[1994] Now called the Voioussa.

[1995] The monastery of Pollina stands on its site. It was founded by
the Corinthians and Corcyræans. There are scarcely any vestiges of it

[1996] See further mention of this spot in B. ii. c. 110.

[1997] Pouqueville states that the ruins of Amantia are to be seen near
the village of Nivitza, on the right bank of the river Suchista. The
remains of Bullis, the chief town of the Buliones, according to the
same traveller, are to be seen at a place called Gradista, four miles
from the sea.

[1998] The same writer states that Oricum was situate on the present
Gulf De la Vallona or d’Avlona, and that its port was the place now
called by the Greeks Porto Raguseo, and by the Turks Liman Padisha.

[1999] The “Heights of Thunder.” They were so called from the frequent
thunderstorms with which they were visited. The range however was more
properly called the “Ceraunii Montes,” and the promontory terminating
it “Acroceraunii” or “Acroceraunia,” meaning “the end of the Ceraunii.”
The range is now called the Mountains of Khimara, and the promontory,
Glossa, or in Italian, Linguetta, meaning “the Tongue.”

[2000] In C. 15 of the present Book.

[2001] About 70 English miles is the distance.

[2002] The Donau or Danube.

[2003] Noricum corresponded to the greater part of the present Styria
and Carinthia, and a part of Austria, Bavaria, and Salzburg.

[2004] According to D’Anville the modern Wolk-Markt, on the river Drau
or Drave. Celeia is the modern Cilley in Carniola. Teurnia, according
to Mannert, is the Lurnfelde, near the small town of Spital.

[2005] According to Mannert it was situate near the modern town of
Innichen, near the sources of the Drave.

[2006] Supposed to be the same as the Vindobona or Vindomona of other
authors, standing on the site of the modern city of Vienna.

[2007] According to Cluver, it stood on the site of the modern Clausen
in Bavaria.

[2008] Mannert says that this place was the same with the modern
Solfeld, near Klagenfurt.

[2009] D’Anville and other writers think that this is the Neusiedler
See, not far from Vienna. Mannert, however, is of opinion that the name
ought to be written Pelso, and that the modern Balaton or Platten See
is meant.

[2010] The mountainous and woody tract in the vicinity of the Lake
Balaton, on the confines of ancient Noricum and Pannonia.

[2011] Now Sarvar on the river Raab, on the confines of Austria and

[2012] According to Hardouin, the modern Sopron or Œdenburg.

[2013] This province corresponded to the eastern part of Austria,
Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the whole of Hungary between the Danube
and Saave, Slavonia, and part of Croatia and Bosnia. It was reduced by
Tiberius, acting under the orders of Augustus.

[2014] Now Laybach, previously mentioned in c. 22. Sissia has been
succeeded by the modern Sissek on the Saave.

[2015] The modern Draave or Drau.

[2016] Now the Sau or Saave.

[2017] According to Hardouin the Serretes and the Serrapilli inhabited
the modern Carinthia on both sides of the Draave. The sites of the
other nations here mentioned are unknown.

[2018] So called from the river Colapis. The other tribes are unknown.

[2019] Probably the same as the mountain range near Warasdin on the
Draave. The nations mentioned here dwelt on the western and eastern
slopes of this range.

[2020] Now known as Zagrabia.

[2021] Now the Culpa.

[2022] Dion Cassius, B. xix., says that the river Colapis or Colops
flowed past the walls of the town of Siscia, but that Tiberius Cæsar
caused a trench to be dug round the town, and so drew the river round
it, leading it back on the other side into its channel. He calls the
island Segetica.

[2023] Now the Bossut. Sirmium occupied the site of the present Sirmich.

[2024] The modern Tzeruinka, according to D’Anville and Brotier.

[2025] Now the Walpo and the Sarroiez, according to Hardouin; or the
Bosna and the Verbas, according to Brotier and Mannert.

[2026] Corresponding to the present Servia and Bulgaria.

[2027] Of the Danube with the Saave or Savus just mentioned.

[2028] Now the Morava, which runs through Servia into the Danube. The
Pingus is probably the Bek, which joins the Danube near Gradistic. The
Timachus is the modern Timoch, and the Œscus is the Iscar in Bulgaria.

[2029] Now called the Vid, the Osma, and the Jantra, rising in the
Balkan chain.

[2030] Ajasson remarks here that the name of Illyricum was very
vaguely used by the ancients, and that at different periods, different
countries were so designated. In Pliny’s time that region comprised
the country between the Arsia and the mouth of the Drilo, bounding it
on the side of Macedonia. It would thus comprehend a part of modern
Carniola, with part of Croatia, Bosnia, Dalmatia, and Upper Albania. In
later times this name was extended to Noricum, Pannonia, Mœsia, Dacia,
Macedonia, Thessalia, Achaia, Epirus, and even the Isle of Crete.

[2031] Here meaning that part of the Mediterranean which lies between
Italy and Greece south of the Adriatic. In more ancient times the
Adriatic was included in the Ionian Sea, which was probably so called
from the Ionian colonies which settled in Cephallenia and the other
islands on the western coast of Greece.

[2032] More properly “Diomedeæ,” being a group of small islands off
the coast of Apulia now called Isole di Tremiti, about eighteen miles
from the mouth of the Fortore. They were so called from the fable that
here the companions of Diomedes were changed into birds. A species of
sea-fowl (which Pliny mentions in B. x. c. 44) were said to be the
descendants of these Greek sailors, and to show a great partiality for
such persons as were of kindred extraction. See Ovid’s Metamorphoses,
B. xiv. l. 500. The real number of these islands was a matter of
dispute with the ancients, but it seems that there are but three,
and some mere rocks. The largest of the group is the island of San
Domenico, and the others are San Nicola and Caprara. The small island
of Pianosa, eleven miles N.E., is not considered one of the group, but
is not improbably the Teutria of Pliny. San Domenico was the place of
banishment of Julia, the licentious daughter of Augustus.

[2033] Now called the Bagni di Monte Falcone. See B. ii. c. 106.

[2034] Now called Cherso and Osero, off the Illyrian coast. Ptolemy
mentions only one, Apsorrus, on which he places a town of that name and
another called Crepsa. The Pullaria are now called Li Brioni, in the
Sinus Flanaticus, opposite the city of Pola.

[2035] See p. 258.

[2036] In B. xxxvii. c. 11, he again mentions this circumstance, and
states that some writers have placed them in the Adriatic opposite
the mouths of the Padus. Scymnus of Chios makes mention of them in
conjunction with the Absyrtides. This confusion probably arose from
the fact previously noted that the more ancient writers had a confused
idea that the Ister communicated with the Adriatic, at the same time
mistaking it probably for the Vistula, which flows into the Baltic.
At the mouth of this last-mentioned river, there were Electrides or
“amber-bearing” islands.

[2037] “Vanitatis.”

[2038] Crexa, Grissa, and Colentum, in c. 25.

[2039] According to Brotier, these are situate between the islands of
Zuri and Sebenico, and are now called Kasvan, Capri, Smolan, Tihat,
Sestre, Parvich, Zlarin, &c. Some writers however suggest that there
were no islands called Celadussæ, and that the name in Pliny is a
corruption of Dyscelados in Pomponius Mela; which in its turn is
supposed to have been invented from what was really an epithet of Issa,
in a line of Apollonius Rhodius, B. iv. l. 565. Ἰσσά τε δυσκέλαδος,
“and inauspicious Issa.” See Brunck’s remarks on the passage.

[2040] Now Brazza. According to Brotier the island is still celebrated
for the delicate flavour of the flesh of its goats and lambs. Issa is
now called Lissa, and Pharia is the modern Lesina. Baro, now Bua, lies
off the coast of Dalmatia, and was used as a place of banishment under
the emperors.

[2041] Now Curzola, or, in the Sclavonic, Karkar. It obtained its name
of Nigra or Melæna, “black,” from the dark colour of its pine woods.
Sir G. Wilkinson describes it in his “Dalmatia and Montenegro,” vol. i.

[2042] Now called Meleda or Zapuntello. It is more generally to the
other island of Melita or Malta that the origin of the “Melitæi” or
Maltese dogs is ascribed. Some writers are of opinion that it was upon
this island that St. Paul was shipwrecked, and not the larger Melita.

[2043] So called from their resemblance to a stag, ἔλαφος, of which the
modern Giupan formed the head, Ruda the neck, Mezzo the body, Calamotta
the haunches, and the rock of Grebini or Pettini the tail. They produce
excellent wine and oil, and are looked upon as the most valuable part
of the Ragusan territory.

[2044] Still known as Sasino. It is ten miles from Ragusa, the port of
Oricum, according to Pouqueville.

[2045] The original numbers are lost.

[2046] He was a Spaniard by birth, a native of Mellaria in Hispania
Bætica. He is mentioned by Cicero as a man of great learning, and
is probably the same person that is mentioned by Ovid in his Pontic
Epistles, B. iv. ep. xvi. l. 29, as a distinguished tragic writer.

[2047] See end of B. ii.

[2048] See end of B. ii.

[2049] M. Porcius Cato, or Cato the Elder; famous as a statesman, a
patriot, and a philosopher. He wrote “De Re Rustica,” a work which
still survives, and “Letters of Instruction to his Son,” of which
only some fragments remain. He also wrote a historical work called
“Origines,” of which Pliny makes considerable use. Of this also only a
few fragments are left. His life has been written by Cornelius Nepos,
Plutarch, and Aurelius Victor.

[2050] M. Vipsanius Agrippa, the distinguished partisan of Augustus,
to whose niece Marcella he was married, but he afterwards divorced her
for Julia, the daughter of Augustus by Scribonia, and the widow of
Marcellus. He distinguished himself in Gaul, at Actium, and in Illyria.
He constructed many public works at Rome, and among them the Pantheon;
he also built the splendid aqueduct at Nismes. He died suddenly in
his 51st year. His body was buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus, who
pronounced his funeral oration. He wrote memoirs of his own life. Pliny
often refers to the “Commentarii” of Agrippa, by which are meant, it is
supposed, certain official lists drawn up by him in the measurement of
the Roman world under Augustus. His map of the world is also mentioned
by Pliny in c. 3 of the present Book.

[2051] See end of B. ii.

[2052] From Servius, Suetonius and Plutarch we learn that Augustus
wrote Memoirs of his Life, in thirteen books; from Suetonius, that he
composed a Summary of the Empire (which was probably that referred to
in the above note on Agrippa); and from Quintilian, Aulus Gellius,
and Pliny, B. xviii. c. 38, that he published Letters written to his
grandson Caius.

[2053] P. Terentius Varro, surnamed Atacinus, from the Atax, a river
of Gallia Narbonensis, in which province he was born, B.C. 82. Of his
“Argonautica,” his “Cosmographia” (probably the same with his “Iter”),
his “Navales Libri,” and his Heroic and Amatory Poems, only a few
fragments now exist. Of his life nothing whatever is known.

[2054] Valerias Antias. See end of B. ii.

[2055] C. Julius Hyginus, a native of Spain, and freedman of Augustus,
by whom he was placed at the Palatine Library. He lived upon terms of
intimacy with Ovid. He wrote works on the sites of the cities of Italy,
the Nature of the Gods, an account of the Penates, an account of Virgil
(probably the same as the work called “Commentaries on Virgil”), on the
Families of Trojan descent, on Agriculture, the “Propempticon Cinnæ,”
the Lives of Illustrious Men (quoted by John of Salisbury in his
“Polycraticon”), a book of Examples, and a work on the Art of War, also
mentioned by John of Salisbury. A book of Fables, and an Astronomical
Poem, in four books, are ascribed to him, but they are probably
productions of a later age.

[2056] L. Antistius Vetus, Consul with Nero, A.D. 55. While commanding
in Germany he formed the project of connecting the Moselle and the
Saone by a canal, thus establishing a communication between the
Mediterranean and the Northern Ocean. Nero having resolved on his
death, he anticipated his sentence by opening his veins in a warm bath.
His mother-in-law Sextia, and his daughter Pollentia, in a similar
manner perished with him.

[2057] He was born, it is supposed, at Tingentera, or Cingentera, on
the bay of Algesiras, and probably flourished in the reign of Claudius.
He was the first Roman author who wrote a treatise on Geography. It is
still extant, and bears marks of great care, while it is written in
pure and unaffected language.

[2058] C. Scribonius Curio, the third known of that name. He was the
first Roman general who advanced as far as the Danube. Like his son
of the same name, he was a violent opponent of Julius Cæsar. He was
eloquent as an orator, but ignorant and uncultivated. His orations were
published, as also an invective against Cæsar, in form of a dialogue,
in which his son was introduced as one of the interlocutors. He died
B.C. 53.

[2059] L. Cælius Antipater. See end of B. ii.

[2060] L. Arruntius, Consul, A.D. 6. Augustus declared in his last
illness that he was worthy of the empire. This, with his riches and
talents, rendered him an object of suspicion to Tiberius. Being charged
as an accomplice in the crimes of Albucilla, he put himself to death
by opening his veins. It appears not to be certain whether it was this
person or his father who wrote a history of the first Punic war, in
which he imitated the style of Sallust.

[2061] Statius Sebosus. See end of B. ii.

[2062] Licinius Crassus Mucianus. See end of B. ii.

[2063] Of this writer no particulars whatever are known.

[2064] In most editions this name appears as L. Ateius Capito, but
Sillig separates them, and with propriety it would appear, as the name
of Capito the great legist was not Lucius. Ateius here mentioned was
probably the person surnamed Prætextatus, and Philologus, a freedman
of the jurist Ateius Capito. For Sallust the historian he composed an
Abstract of Roman History, and for Asinius Pollio he compiled precepts
on the Art of Writing. His Commentaries were numerous, but a few only
were surviving in the time of Suetonius.

[2065] C. Ateius Capito, one of the most famous of the Roman legists,
and a zealous partisan of Augustus, who had him elevated to the
Consulship A.D. 5. He was the rival of Labeo, the republican jurist.
His legal works were very voluminous, and extracts from them are to be
found in the Digest. He also wrote a work on the Pontifical Rights and
the Law of Sacrifices.

[2066] A distinguished grammarian of the latter part of the first
century B.C. He was entrusted by Augustus with the education of his
grandsons Caius and Lucius Cæsar. He died at an advanced age in the
reign of Tiberius. He wrote upon antiquities, history, and philosophy:
among his numerous works a History of the Etruscans is mentioned, also
a treatise on Orthography. Pliny quotes him very frequently.

[2067] See end of B. ii.

[2068] He is mentioned in c. 17, but nothing more is known of him.

[2069] Nothing is known of him. The younger Pliny addressed three

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